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CEO Utility Pay Literature Review

5,668 bytes added, 15:10, 18 February 2016
Industry Sector Emissions
===Running Notes and Ideas===
This is a collection of ideas I develop while conducting the literature review. Comments and edits, as well as new ideas are appreciated here.  [http://www.appropedia.org/File:Starting_Notes.pdf Starting Notes] [http://www.appropedia.org/File:ContinuingNotes.pdf Continuing Notes]
*Why do CEOs in utilities make less? should they be making more?
*Gather data on many firms from both electric utilities and non-regulated industries.
*compare how solar effects CEO pay
*Based on other paper I know what factors affect CEO pay. I can compare current utility company conditions to past conditions and to non-utility conditions. If utility companies have grown closer to non-utility companies recently, the CEOs should be paid closer to the industry standard. if the opposite, they should be paid less or equal.
*can compare companies with a high amount of solar, and if that increases CEO pay.
=Literature Review of CEO Utility Pay=
*Looks at many industries, but has lots of data on electric utilties
*Sample of 2,000 CEOs from 1970 to 1990
*CEOs of regulated firms earn more less than those in unregulated firms
*CEOs of electric utilities earn 30-50 percent of the compensation of CEOs in unregulated industries, with all other factors being the same
:*CEOs in electric utilities earn 40-50 percent of normal CEOs for Salary and Bonus
*CEO total compensation is given as the total of salaries, bonuses, grant date value of restricted stock awards, and grand date Black-Scholes value of granted options, and other pay (premiums for insurance policies and medical expenses).
*Results support the view "that concentrated ownership structure substitutes for CEO performance-based compensation contracts."
==CO2 Emissions==
===Trends '93: A Compendium of Data on Global Change===
[https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=FXdNAQAAIAAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA552&dq=emissions+CO2+united+states&ots=EQmIP2jhcd&sig=0MNkh4m8uWiDtdP2g1bV06xnLCE#v=onepage&q=emissions%20CO2%20united%20states&f=false G. Marland, R. J. Andres, and T. A. Boden, Trends ’93: A Compendium of Data on Global Change, vol. Global, Regional, and National CO2 Emissions. Tenn., USA: Oak Ridge National Laboratories, 1994.]
*total CO2 emissions in the US have been on a generally increasing trend since the 1950s (until 1993 in the study)
*
===CO2 emissions===
[http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC?order=wbapi_data_value_2011+wbapi_data_value+wbapi_data_value-first&sort=desc&cid=GPD_27 “CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita),” Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tenessee, United States.]
*CO2 emissions per person increased until the 1990s.
*They have remained relatively stable until 2007 and even dropped 2 metric tons per capita since 2007.
*The united states is the 11th highest producer of CO2 per capita
===Database of State Incentives for Renewables & Efficiency===
[http://programs.dsireusa.org/system/program?state=US “Database of State Incentives for Renewables & Efficiency.” Online. Available: http://programs.dsireusa.org/system/program?state=US. Accessed: 15-Feb-2016.]
*28 National incentives
*2633 total incentives
*Mix of personal, business, etc.
 
===Emerging carbon constraints for corporate risk management===
[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800906003521 T. Busch and V. H. Hoffmann, “Emerging carbon constraints for corporate risk management,” Ecological Economics, vol. 62, no. 3–4, pp. 518–528, May 2007.]
*
 
===Energy consumption, income, and carbon emissions in the United States===
[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800906003430 U. Soytas, R. Sari, and B. T. Ewing, “Energy consumption, income, and carbon emissions in the United States,” Ecological Economics, vol. 62, no. 3–4, pp. 482–489, May 2007.]
*the statistically main cause of CO2 emissions in the US is energy use
*Suggests that policies that promote alternatives can help
*reducing growth of energy use is the most effective immediate solution to the problem.
 
===Future CO2 Emissions and Climate Change from Existing Energy Infrastructure===
[http://science.sciencemag.org/content/329/5997/1330 S. J. Davis, K. Caldeira, and H. D. Matthews, “Future CO2 Emissions and Climate Change from Existing Energy Infrastructure,” Science, vol. 329, no. 5997, pp. 1330–1333, Sep. 2010.]
*CO2 emitting infrastructure will keep being built unless developing alternatives becomes priority
*The US produces one of the highest (>30) Gt Co2/year in the world as well as a significant amount of (~225) t CO2/person/year in the world.
*When normalized to GDP is is moderately low
*If no new CO2 emitting infrastructure is built, warming levels will peak at 0.7degreesC.
*30TW of alternative energy sources are needed by 2050 to not produce CO2 emissions
 
===A Review of Hybrid Renewable/Alternative Energy Systems for Electric Power Generation: Configurations, Control, and Applications===
[http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=5773511 M. H. Nehrir, C. Wang, K. Strunz, H. Aki, R. Ramakumar, J. Bing, Z. Miao, and Z. Salameh, “A Review of Hybrid Renewable/Alternative Energy Systems for Electric Power Generation: Configurations, Control, and Applications,” IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 392–403, Oct. 2011.]
*Renewable energy production is predicted to more than double by 2035.
*renewable percentage of total power production is predicted to increase as well
 
===Analysis of renewable energy development to power generation in the United States===
[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960148113004631 A. Aslani and K.-F. V. Wong, “Analysis of renewable energy development to power generation in the United States,” Renewable Energy, vol. 63, pp. 153–161, Mar. 2014.]
*11% of electricity generated was from renewable in 2009
*diversification of energy sources is important
*development of renewables is very dependent on utilization costs and government policy
*has graphs of predicted costs of all different renewables over time
*has maps of the utiliation available for the us for each renewable
*has a prediction for total electrictiy generated by renewables
 
===Industry Sector Emissions===
[http://www3.epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/sources/industry.html C. C. D. US EPA, “Industry Sector Emissions.” (Online). Available: http://www3.epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/sources/industry.html. (Accessed: 15-Feb-2016).]
*in 2013, electricity generation accounted for 31% of all greenhouse gas emissions in the US
*
===Power Generation===
[http://costing.irena.org/technology-costs/power-generation.aspx “Power Generation.” (Online). Available: http://costing.irena.org/technology-costs/power-generation.aspx. (Accessed: 18-Feb-2016).]
*The cost of many renewables has dropped significantly from 2010 to 2014, moving them into the cost range of fossil fuel generation.
===US EPA===
[http://www3.epa.gov/statelocalclimate/state/topics/renewable.html “US EPA,” United States Environmental Protection Agency. Online. Available: http://www3.epa.gov/statelocalclimate/state/topics/renewable.html. Accessed: 15-Feb-2016.]
*lists renewable policies
*discusses importance of renewable energy
:*reduction in pollution
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