Get our free book (in Spanish or English) on rainwater now - To Catch the Rain.

Changes

Jump to: navigation, search
m
no edit summary
{{MY5490MOST}}{{lit}}This literature review supported: Shan Zhong, Pratiksha Rakhe and Joshua M. Pearce. [[Energy Payback Time of a Solar Photovoltaic Powered Waste Plastic Recyclebot System]]. ''Recycling'' 2017, 2(2), 10; doi: 10.3390/recycling2020010 [https://www.academia.edu/33479368/Energy_Payback_Time_of_a_Solar_Photovoltaic_Powered_Waste_Plastic_Recyclebot_System open access] ==MOST group articles on waste plastic extrusion==* Dennis J. Byard, Aubrey L. Woern, Robert B. Oakley, Matthew J. Fiedler, Samantha L. Snabes, and Joshua M. Pearce. [https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S221486041830695X Green Fab Lab Applications of Large-Area Waste Polymer-based Additive Manufacturing]. ''Additive Manufacturing'' 27, (2019), pp. 515-525. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2019.03.006 [https://www.academia.edu/38728877/Fab_Lab_Applications_of_Large-Area_Waste_Polymer-based_Additive_Manufacturing open access]* David Shonnard, Emily Tipaldo, Vicki Thompson, Joshua Pearce, Gerard Caneba, Robert Handler. Systems Analysis for PET and Olefin Polymers in a Circular Economy. 26th CIRP Life Cycle Engineering Conference. ''Procedia CIRP'' 80, (2019), 602-606. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2019.01.072 [https://www.academia.edu/39017985/Systems_Analysis_for_PET_and_Olefin_Polymers_in_a_Circular_Economy open access]* Aubrey L. Woern, Joseph R. McCaslin, Adam M. Pringle, and Joshua M. Pearce. RepRapable Recyclebot: Open Source 3-D Printable Extruder for Converting Plastic to 3-D Printing Filament. HardwareX 4C (2018) e00026 doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ohx.2018.e00026 [https://www.academia.edu/36721604/RepRapable_Recyclebot_Open_source_3-D_printable_extruder_for_converting_plastic_to_3-D_printing_filament open access]* Aubrey L. Woern and Joshua M. Pearce. 3-D Printable Polymer Pelletizer Chopper for Fused Granular Fabrication-Based Additive Manufacturing. ''Inventions'' 2018, 3(4), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions3040078 [https://www.academia.edu/37860682/3-D_Printable_Polymer_Pelletizer_Chopper_for_Fused_Granular_Fabrication-Based_Additive_Manufacturing open access]* Woern, A.L.; Byard, D.J.; Oakley, R.B.; Fiedler, M.J.; Snabes, S.L.; Pearce, J.M. Fused Particle Fabrication 3-D Printing: Recycled Materials’ Optimization and Mechanical Properties. ''Materials'' '''2018''', 11, 1413. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081413 [https://www.academia.edu/37223823/Fused_Particle_Fabrication_3-D_Printing_Recycled_Materials_Optimization_and_Mechanical_Properties open access]* Adam M. Pringle, Mark Rudnicki, and Joshua Pearce (2017) Wood Furniture Waste-Based Recycled 3-D Printing Filament. ''Forest Products Journal'' 2018, Vol. 68, No. 1, pp. 86-95. https://doi.org/10.13073/FPJ-D-17-00042 [https://www.academia.edu/37662455/Wood_Furniture_Waste-Based_Recycled_3-D_Printing_Filament open access]* Debbie L. King, Adegboyega Babasola, Joseph Rozario, and Joshua M. Pearce, “[http://www.librelloph.com/challengesinsustainability/article/view/cis-2-1-18 Mobile Open-Source Solar-Powered 3-D Printers for Distributed Manufacturing in Off-Grid Communities],” ''Challenges in Sustainability'' '''2'''(1), 18-27 (2014). [https://www.academia.edu/8603622/Mobile_Open-Source_Solar-Powered_3-D_Printers_for_Distributed_Manufacturing_in_Off-Grid_Communities open access]* Shan Zhong & Joshua M. Pearce. [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2017.09.023 Tightening the loop on the circular economy: Coupled distributed recycling and manufacturing with recyclebot and RepRap 3-D printing],''Resources, Conservation and Recycling'' 128, (2018), pp. 48–58. doi: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2017.09.023 [https://www.academia.edu/34738483/Tightening_the_Loop_on_the_Circular_Economy_Coupled_Distributed_Recycling_and_Manufacturing_with_Recyclebot_and_RepRap_3-D_Printing open access]*M.A. Kreiger, M.L. Mulder, A.G. Glover, [[J. M. Pearce]], [http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.02.009 Life Cycle Analysis of Distributed Recycling of Post-consumer High Density Polyethylene for 3-D Printing Filament], ''Journal of Cleaner Production'', 70, pp. 90–96 (2014). DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.02.009. [https://www.academia.edu/6188555/Life_cycle_analysis_of_distributed_recycling_of_post-consumer_high_density_polyethylene_for_3-D_printing_filament open access]* Shan Zhong, Pratiksha Rakhe and Joshua M. Pearce. [http://www.mdpi.com/2313-4321/2/2/10/htm Energy Payback Time of a Solar Photovoltaic Powered Waste Plastic Recyclebot System]. ''Recycling'' 2017, 2(2), 10; doi: 10.3390/recycling2020010 [https://www.academia.edu/33479368/Energy_Payback_Time_of_a_Solar_Photovoltaic_Powered_Waste_Plastic_Recyclebot_System open access]* Feeley, S. R., Wijnen, B., & Pearce, J. M. (2014). [http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jsd/article/view/32187 Evaluation of Potential Fair Trade Standards for an Ethical 3-D Printing Filament]. ''Journal of Sustainable Development'', '''7'''(5), 1-12. DOI: 10.5539/jsd.v7n5p1 [https://www.academia.edu/8406439/Evaluation_of_Potential_Fair_Trade_Standards_for_an_Ethical_3-D_Printing_Filament open access]* M. Kreiger, G. C. Anzalone, M. L. Mulder, A. Glover and J. M Pearce (2013). Distributed Recycling of Post-Consumer Plastic Waste in Rural Areas. MRS Online Proceedings Library, 1492, [https://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8851128 mrsf12-1492-g04-06] doi:10.1557/opl.2013.258. [http://www.academia.edu/2921972/Distributed_Recycling_of_Post-Consumer_Plastic_Waste_in_Rural_Areas open access]* Christian Baechler, Matthew DeVuono, and Joshua M. Pearce, “[http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13552541311302978 Distributed Recycling of Waste Polymer into RepRap Feedstock]” ''Rapid Prototyping Journal,'' '''19'''(2), pp. 118-125 (2013). [http://www.academia.edu/2643418/Distributed_Recycling_of_Waste_Polymer_into_RepRap_Feedstock open access]  
==Literature Review==
===[http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=172378&tag=1 Novel technique for improved power conversion efficiency in PV systems with battery back-up] <ref> Snyman, Danie B., and Johan HR Enslin. "Novel technique for improved power conversion efficiency in PV systems with battery back-up." In Telecommunications Energy Conference, 1991. INTELEC'91., 13th International, pp. 86-91. IEEE, 1991. </ref>===
'''Abstract'''
A novel technique for the improvement of power conversion efficiencies in photovoltaic (PV) systems with battery back-up is presented and analyzed, and applications for this parallel power conversion technique (PPCT) are suggested. The PPCT may increase the available energy in an existing PV system, using a polarity changing maximum power point tracker (MPPT), or a split battery system, without adding anything to the PV system. This is accomplished by rewiring the PV system, utilizing the PPCT. The PPCT may also be used to reduce the power rating of the PV array in new PV systems with battery back-up. This PPCT is also illustrated in a compound converter and a new topology for a MPPT is described. Experimental results using this PPCT are presented.
 
===[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032197000026 Photovoltaics: A review of cell and module technologies] <ref> Kazmerski, Lawrence L. "Photovoltaics: a review of cell and module technologies." Renewable and sustainable energy reviews 1, no. 1 (1997): 71-170. </ref>===
'''Abstract'''
'''Abstract'''
In this study, single-crystalline silicon (c-Si) photovoltaic (PV) cells and residential PV systems using off-grade silicon supplied from semiconductor industries were evaluated from a life cycle point of view. Energy payback time (EPT) of the residential PV system with the c-Si PV cells made of the off-grade silicon was estimated at 15.5 years and indirect CO2 emission per unit electrical output was calculated at 91 g-C/kWh even in the worst case. These figures were more than those of the polycrystalline-Si and the amorphous-Si PV cells to be used in the near future, but the EPT was shorter than its lifetime and the indirect CO2 emissions were less than the recent average CO2 emissions per kWh from the utilities in Japan. The recycling of the c-Si PV cells should be discussed for the reason of the effective use of energy and silicon material.
::*evaluate the residential PV system with the c-Si PV cells made of the off-grade silicon from EPBT and carbon dioxide emission.
===[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0927024897002213 Materials for solar energy conversion: An overview] <ref> Granqvist, Claes G., and Volker Wittwer. "Materials for solar energy conversion: An overview." Solar Energy Materials and solar cells 54, no. 1 (1998): 39-48. </ref>===
'''Abstract'''
We introduce the radiative properties of our natural surroundings and demonstrate how the characteristic features of thermal emission, solar irradiation, atmospheric absorption, and sensitivity of the human eye and of plant photosynthesis lead naturally to a set of solar energy materials with well-defined wavelength- and angular-dependent absorptance, emittance, reflectance, and transmittance. Specific discussions are given of antireflection through microstructuring and of overheating protection through thermotropism. The paper ends with a look in the crystal ball at some possible solar materials research in the future.
::*solar energy conversion: photovoltaic energy, photothermal energy, photochemical energy, photoelectric energy.
===[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421500000872 Energy viability of photovoltaic systems] <ref> Alsema, Erik A., and E. Nieuwlaar. "Energy viability of photovoltaic systems." Energy policy 28, no. 14 (2000): 999-1010. </ref>===
'''Abstract'''
The energy balance of photovoltaic (PV) energy systems is analysed in order to evaluate the energy pay-back time and the CO2 emissions of grid-connected PV systems. After an short introduction of energy analysis methodology we discuss the energy requirements for production of solar cell modules based on crystalline silicon and on thin-film technology, as well as for the manufacturing of other system components. Assuming a medium–high irradiation of 1700 kWh/m2 yr the energy pay-back time was found to be 2.5–3 yr for present-day roof-top installations and almost 4 yr for multi-megawatt, ground-mounted systems. Prospects for improvement of the energy balance of PV systems are discussed and it is found that for future PV technology (in 2020) the energy pay-back time may be less than 1.5 yr for roof-top systems and less than 2 yr for ground-mounted systems (under the same irradiation). The specific CO2 emission of the roof-top systems was calculated as 50–60 g/kWh now and possibly around 20 g/kWh in the future. This leads to the conclusion that CO2 emissions of present PV systems are considerably lower than emissions from fossil-fuel power plants, but somewhat higher than for wind and biomass energy. No significant contribution to CO2 mitigation should be expected from PV technology in the year 2010. In the longer term, however, grid-connected PV systems do have a significant potential for CO2 mitigation.
::*investigate energy requirement of PV systems and evaluate the EPBT and carbon dioxide emission of grid-connected PV system.
::*evaluate EPBT of mc-Si and a-Si PV systems on roof and ground under different radiation of 2200 kWh/m2/yr, 1700 kWh/m2/yr, 1100 kWh/m2/yr.
::*compare carbon dioxide emission for grid-connected roof-top PV system with emission for other energy systems, and nuclear, biomass, wind energy system have less emission.
===[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421500000860 Photovoltaics: technology overview] <ref> Green, Martin A. "Photovoltaics: technology overview." Energy Policy 28, no. 14 (2000): 989-998. </ref>===
'''Abstract'''
This paper summarises the contributions to a special issue of Energy Policy aiming to assess the viability of solar photovoltaics (PVs) as a mainstream electricity supply technology for the 21st Century. It highlights the complex nature of such an assessment in which technical, economic, environmental, social, institutional and policy questions all play a part. The authors summarise briefly the individual contributions to the special issue and draw out a number of common themes which emerge from them, for example: the vast physical potential of PVs, the environmental and resource advantages of some PV technologies, and the fluidity of the market. Most of the authors accept that the current high costs will fall substantially in the coming decade as a result of improved technologies, increased integration into building structures and economies of scale in production. In spite of such reassurances, energy policy-makers still respond to the dilemma of PVs with some hesitancy and prefer to leave its evolution mainly in the hands of the market. This paper highlights two clear dangers inherent in this approach: firstly, that short-term cost convergence may not serve long-term sustainability goals; and secondly, that laggards in the race to develop new energy systems may find themselves faced with long-term penalties.
::*assess the viability of PV in terms of technical, economic, environmental, social, institutional and policy questions, and most of researchers accept that the current high costs of PV will fall substantially in the future.
===[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0038092X01000330 Empirical investigation of the energy payback time for photovoltaic modules] <ref> Knapp, K., and T. Jester. "Empirical investigation of the energy payback time for photovoltaic modules." Solar Energy 71, no. 3 (2001): 165-172. </ref>===
'''Abstract'''
Energy payback time is the energy analog to financial payback, defined as the time necessary for a photovoltaic panel to generate the energy equivalent to that used to produce it. This research contributes to the growing literature on net benefits of renewable energy systems by conducting an empirical investigation of as-manufactured photovoltaic modules, evaluating both established and emerging products. Crystalline silicon modules achieve an energy break-even in 3 to 4 years. At the current R&D pilot production rate (8% of capacity) the energy payback time for thin film copper indium diselenide modules is between 9 and 12 years, and in full production is ∼2 years. Over their lifetime, these solar panels generate 7 to 14 times the energy required to produce them. Energy content findings for the major materials and process steps are presented, and important implications for current research efforts and future prospects are discussed.
 
===[http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=1190936 Development of high efficiency hybrid PV-thermal modules] <ref> Staebler, David L., Natko B. Urli, and Zoltan J. Kiss. "Development of high efficiency hybrid PV-thermal modules." In Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 2002. Conference Record of the Twenty-Ninth IEEE, pp. 1660-1663. IEEE, 2002. </ref>===
'''Abstract'''
A hybrid system is described that combines the features of two solar technologies-photovoltaic conversion to electricity (PV), and thermal conversion to heat (T)-into a single high efficiency PV/T module for integrated building solar energy systems. The technical approach uses TerraSolar's low cost a-Si thin film solar cell modules, based on EPV technology, integrating them into hybrid flat plate PV/T modules. Initial measurements are described that demonstrates the concept of a hybrid system that uses a transparent PV module to replace the cover glass in a glazed thermal collector.
::*photovoltaic conversion and thermal conversion use different parts of the solar spectrum.
:::***'''SPARK''': PV conversion + thermal conversion power 3-D printing.
 
===[https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Stathis_Tselepis/publication/242323472_ECOMOMIC_ANALYSIS_OF_HYBRID_PHOTOVOLTAICTHERMAL_SOLAR_SYSTEMS_AND_COMPARISON_WITH_STANDARD_PV_MODULES/links/0046352c04e46425c6000000.pdf Economic analysis of hybrid photovoltaic/thermal solar systems and comparison with standard PV modules] <ref> Tselepis, S., and Y. Tripanagnostopoulos. "Economic analysis of hybrid photovoltaic/thermal solar systems and comparison with standard PV modules." In Proceedings of the international conference PV in Europe, pp. 7-11. 2002. </ref>===
'''Abstract'''
Most of the absorbed solar radiation by solar cells is not converted into electricity it increases their temperature, reducing their electrical efficiency. The PV temperature can be lowered by heat extraction with a proper natural or forced fluid circulation. An interesting alternative to plain PV modules is to use Hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) systems, which consist of PV modules coupled to heat extraction devices, providing electricity and heat simultaneously. Hybrid PV/T systems are of higher cost than standard PV modules because of the addition of the thermal unit and therefore a cost/benefit analysis is needed to find out the limits of practical use of these. A couple of typical applications are selected in order to assess the benefits for the users of hybrid PV/T systems comparing the payback time with PV systems and Solar thermal ones, under the current support schemes and conditions in Greece. A spreadsheet was developed that calculates on an hourly basis the annual energy output of the different systems. Furthermore, the energy output and the estimated system costs per surface area are introduced in an economic analysis spreadsheet, where the payback time for each system is calculated.
===[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0038092X03000653 Recent developments in photovoltaics] <ref> Green, M. A. "Recent developments in photovoltaics." Solar energy 76, no. 1 (2004): 3-8. </ref>===
'''Abstract'''
The photovoltaic market is booming with over 30% per annum compounded growth over the last five years. The government-subsidised urban–residential use of photovoltaics, particularly in Germany and Japan, is driving this sustained growth. Most of the solar cells being supplied to this market are ‘first generation’ devices based on crystalline or multi-crystalline silicon wafers. ‘Second generation’ thin-film solar cells based on amorphous silicon/hydrogen alloys or polycrystalline compound semiconductors are starting to appear on the market in increasing volume. Australian contributions in this area are the thin-film polycrystalline silicon-on-glass technology developed by Pacific Solar and the dye sensitised nanocrystalline titanium cells developed by Sustainable Technologies International. In these thin-film approaches, the major material cost component is usually the glass sheet onto which the film is deposited. After reviewing the present state of development of both cell and application technologies, the likely future development of photovoltaics is outlined.
::*"first generation": cells are based on crystalline or multi-crystalline silicon wafers.
::*"second generation": thin film solar cells are based on amorphous silicon/hydrogen alloys or poly-crystalline compound semiconductors.
 
===[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960148114000123 Temperature and wind speed impact on the efficiency of PV installations. Experience obtained from outdoor measurements in Greece] <ref> Kaldellis, John K., Marina Kapsali, and Kosmas A. Kavadias. "Temperature and wind speed impact on the efficiency of PV installations. Experience obtained from outdoor measurements in Greece." Renewable Energy 66 (2014): 612-624. </ref>===
'''Abstract'''
Although efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) modules is usually specified under standard test conditions (STC), their operation under real field conditions is of great importance for obtaining accurate prediction of their efficiency and power output. The PV conversion process, on top of the instantaneous solar radiation, depends also on the modules' temperature. Module temperature is in turn influenced by climate conditions as well as by the technical characteristics of the PV panels. Taking into consideration the extended theoretical background in the field so far, the current study is focused on the investigation of the temperature variation effect on the operation of commercial PV applications based on in-situ measurements at varying weather conditions. Particularly, one year outdoor data for two existing commercial (m-Si) PV systems operated in South Greece, i.e. an unventilated building-integrated (81 kWp) one and an open rack mounted (150 kWp) one, were collected and evaluated. The examined PV systems were equipped with back surface temperature sensors in order to determine module and ambient temperatures, while real wind speed measurements were also obtained for assessing the dominant effect of local wind speed on the PVs' thermal loss mechanisms. According to the results obtained, the efficiency (or power) temperature coefficient has been found negative, taking absolute values between 0.30%/°C and 0.45%/°C, with the lower values corresponding to the ventilated free-standing frames.
===[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0927024804003939 Theoretical analysis of the optimum energy band gap of semiconductors for fabrication of solar cells for applications in higher latitudes locations] <ref> Zdanowicz, T., T. Rodziewicz, and M. Zabkowska-Waclawek. "Theoretical analysis of the optimum energy band gap of semiconductors for fabrication of solar cells for applications in higher latitudes locations." Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 87, no. 1 (2005): 757-769. </ref>===
===[http://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/7943 Energy pay-back time of photovoltaic energy systems: present status and prospects] <ref> Alsema, E. A., P. Frankl, and K. Kato. "Energy pay-back time of photovoltaic energy systems: present status and prospects." (2006). </ref>===
'''Abstract'''
In this paper we investigate the energy requirements of PV modules and systems and calculate the Energy Pay-Back Time for three major PV applications. Based on a review of past energy analysis studies we explain the main sources of differences and establish a "best estimate" for key system components. For present-day c-Si modules the main source of uncertainty is the preparation of silicon feedstock from semiconductor industry scrap. Therefore a low and a high estimate are presented for energy requirement of c-Si. The low estimates of 4200 respectively 6000 MJ (primary energy) per m2 module area are probably most representative for near-future, frameless mc-Si and sc-Si modules. For a-Si thin film modules we estimate energy requirements at 1200 MJ/m2 for present technology. Present-day and future energy requirements have also been estimated for the BOS in array field systems, rooftop systems and Solar Home Systems. The Energy Pay-Back Time of present-day array field and rooftop systems is estimated at 4-8 years (under 1700 kWh/m2 irradiation) and 1.2-2.4 for future systems. In Solar Home Systems the battery is the cause for a relatively high EPBT of more than 7 years, with little prospects for future improvements.::*investigate the energy requirements of mc-Si, sc-Si and s-Si thin film modules and their systems, and calculate the energy payback time for them.::*energy consuming process of mc-Si and sc-Si = silicon production + silicon purification + crystallization + wafering + cell process + module assembly.::*energy consuming process of a-Si thin film = cell material + substrate material + cell processing + overhead operations + equipment manufacture. ===[http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=4060155 Performance Results and Analysis of Large Scale PV System] <ref> So, Jung Hun, Young Seok Jung, Byung Gyu Yu, Hye Mi Hwang, Gwon Jong Yu, and Ju Yeop Choi. "Performance results and analysis of large scale PV system." In Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Conference Record of the 2006 IEEE 4th World Conference on, vol. 2, pp. 2375-2378. IEEE, 2006. </ref>==='''Abstract'''This paper presents performance result and analysis of large scale photovoltaic system (PV) supported by general dissemination & regional energy program in government polices for renewable energy sources in Korea. The total nominal capacity of PV systems installed at sincheon sewage disposal plant (SSDP) in Daegu City is 479 kW. The one of those, to evaluate and analyze performance of early installed 80 kW PV system, PV monitoring system is constructed and monitored performance results of PV system to observe the overall effect of environmental conditions on their operation characteristics. The PV system performance has been evaluated and analyzed for component perspective (PV array and power conditioning unit) and global perspective (system efficiency, capacity factor, and electrical power energy and power quality etc.) for six month monitoring periods.
===[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360544206002799 Life cycle assessment and energy pay-back time of advanced photovoltaic modules: CdTe and CIS compared to poly-Si] <ref> Raugei, Marco, Silvia Bargigli, and Sergio Ulgiati. "Life cycle assessment and energy pay-back time of advanced photovoltaic modules: CdTe and CIS compared to poly-Si." Energy 32, no. 8 (2007): 1310-1318. </ref>===
In this paper we review the most important options to reduce environmental impacts of crystalline silicon modules. We investigate which are the main barriers for implementation of the measure. Finally we review which measures to reduce environmental impacts could also lead to a cost reduction. Reduction of silicon consumption is a measure which will significantly reduce environmental impacts and at the same time has a cost reduction potential. Silicon feedstock processes with lower energy consumption such as Fluidized Bed Reactor technology, also have a large impact reduction potential. Together these two options can reduce the Energy Pay-Back Time of a PV installation (in South-Europe) to values well below 1 year. Other improvement options are identified in crystal growing and cell and module manufacturing. A number of options is likely to be implemented as soon as technological barriers are overcome because they lead to cost advantages next to environmental impact reductions. In addition there are also several environmental improvement options that are not or less clearly linked to a cost reduction. In these cases it will depend on the policy of companies or on government ruling, whether such “best available technologies” will be implemented or not.
===[http://wwwonlinelibrary.sciencedirectwiley.com/sciencedoi/article10.1002/piipip.717/S096014810700242X Industrial symbiosis full Effective efficiency of very large-scale photovoltaic manufacturingPV modules under field conditions] <ref> PearceTopi, Joshua MMarko, Kristijan Brecl, and James Sites. "Industrial symbiosis Effective efficiency of very large-scale photovoltaic manufacturingPV modules under field conditions." Renewable Energy 33Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications 15, no. 5 1 (20082007): 110119-110826. </ref>===
'''Abstract'''
In order to stabilize the global climateThe conversion efficiency of photovoltaic modules varies with irradiance and temperature in a predictable fashion, and hence the world's governments must make significant commitments to drastically reduce global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissionseffective efficiency averaged over a year under field conditions can be reliably assessed. One of the most promising methods of curbing GHG emissions The suggested procedure is a world transition from fossil fuels to renewable sources of energy. Solar photovoltaic (PV) cells offer a technically sustainable solution to define the projected enormous future energy demands. This article explores utilizing industrial symbiosis to obtain economies of scale efficiency versus irradiance and increased manufacturing efficiencies temperature for solar PV cells in order for solar electricity to compete economically with fossil fuel-fired electricity. The state of PV manufacturinga specific module, collect the market local irradiance and temperature data, and combine the effects of scale on both are reviewedtwo mathematically, resulting in effective efficiency. Government policies necessary to construct a multi-gigaWatt PV factory and complementary policies to protect existing solar companies are outlined and Reasonable approximations simplify the technical requirements for a symbiotic industrial system are explored process. The module performance ratio is defined to increase be the manufacturing ratio of effective efficiency while improving to that under standard test conditions. Variations of the environmental impact order of PV. The results 10% in this factor among manufacturers, primarily the result of the analysis show that an eight-factory industrial symbiotic system can be viewed as a medium-term investment by any governmentdifferences in effective series resistance and leakage conductance, which will are not only obtain direct financial return, but also an improved global environmentunusual. The technical concepts and policy limitations to this approach were analyzed and it was found A focus on these parameters that symbiotic growth will help to mitigate many of control the limitations of PV and is likely effective efficiency should provide a path to catalyze mass manufacturing of PV by transparently demonstrating that large-scale PV manufacturing is technically feasible and reaches an enormous untapped market for PV modules with low costsimproved field performance.
===[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360544207002137 Life cycle assessment of photovoltaic electricity generation] <ref> Stoppato, A. "Life cycle assessment of photovoltaic electricity generation." Energy 33, no. 2 (2008): 224-232. </ref>===
'''Abstract'''
In order to stabilize the global climate, the world's governments must make significant commitments to drastically reduce global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. One of the most promising methods of curbing GHG emissions is a world transition from fossil fuels to renewable sources of energy. Solar photovoltaic (PV) cells offer a technically sustainable solution to the projected enormous future energy demands. This article explores utilizing industrial symbiosis to obtain economies of scale and increased manufacturing efficiencies for solar PV cells in order for solar electricity to compete economically with fossil fuel-fired electricity. The state of PV manufacturing, the market and the effects of scale on both are reviewed. Government policies necessary to construct a multi-gigaWatt PV factory and complementary policies to protect existing solar companies are outlined and the technical requirements for a symbiotic industrial system are explored to increase the manufacturing efficiency while improving the environmental impact of PV. The results of the analysis show that an eight-factory industrial symbiotic system can be viewed as a medium-term investment by any government, which will not only obtain direct financial return, but also an improved global environment. The technical concepts and policy limitations to this approach were analyzed and it was found that symbiotic growth will help to mitigate many of the limitations of PV and is likely to catalyze mass manufacturing of PV by transparently demonstrating that large-scale PV manufacturing is technically feasible and reaches an enormous untapped market for PV with low costs.
::*large scale mass manufacturing of PV can drive down production costs and reduce environmental compact when it is with government support.
===[http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es071763q Emissions from Photovoltaic Life Cycles] <ref> Fthenakis, Vasilis M., Hyung Chul Kim, and Erik Alsema. "Emissions from photovoltaic life cycles." Environmental science & technology 42, no. 6 (2008): 2168-2174. </ref>===
Sustainable development requires methods and tools to measure and compare the environmental impacts of human activities for various products (goods and services). Providing society with goods and services contributes to a wide range of environmental impacts. Environmental impacts include emissions into the environment and the consumption of resources as well as other interventions such as land use, etc. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a technique for assessing environmental loads of a product or a system. The aim of this paper is to review existing energy and CO2 life cycle analyses of renewable sources based electricity generation systems.
The paper points out that carbon emission from renewable energy (RE) systems are not nil, as is generally assumed while evaluating carbon credits. Further the range of carbon emissions from RE systems have been found out from existing literature and compared with those from fossil fuel based systems, so as to assist in a rational choice of energy supply systems.
::*investigate some renewable electricity generation systems, such as wind, solar PV, biomass, solar thermal, hydro, and find out that hydro has the least carbon dioxide emission while the emission of solar PV is significant.
===[http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es1026695 Dynamic Hybrid Life Cycle Assessment of Energy and Carbon of Multicrystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Systems] <ref> Zhai, Pei, and Eric D. Williams. "Dynamic hybrid life cycle assessment of energy and carbon of multicrystalline silicon photovoltaic systems." Environmental science & technology 44, no. 20 (2010): 7950-7955. </ref>===
'''Abstract'''
The technological evolution of the 3-D printer, widespread internet access and inexpensive computing has made a new means of open design capable of accelerating self-directed sustainable development. This study critically examines how open source 3-D printers, such as the RepRap and Fab@home, enable the use of designs in the public domain to fabricate open source appropriate technology (OSAT), which are easily and economically made from readily available resources by local communities to meet their needs. The current capabilities of open source 3-D printers is reviewed and a new classification scheme is proposed for OSATs that are technically feasible and economically viable for production. Then, a methodology for quantifying the properties of printed parts and a research trajectory is outlined to extend the existing technology to provide complete village-level fabrication of OSATs. Finally, conclusions are drawn on the potential for open source 3-D printers to assist in driving sustainable development.
::*review the present capabilities of the RepRap and the Rab@home with focus on their applicability on sustainable development.
::*key barriers need to be overcome:
:::#development of locally available materials for printing.
:::#the size of printed object and print speed need to be increased.
:::#an increased and improved material selection for 3-D printing is necessary.
:::#the development of a solar powered 3-D printer/computer for deployment in rural developing communities.
===[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032109001907 Life cycle assessment of solar PV based electricity generation systems: A review] <ref> Sherwani, A. F., and J. A. Usmani. "Life cycle assessment of solar PV based electricity generation systems: A review." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 14, no. 1 (2010): 540-544. </ref>===
'''Abstract'''
Sustainable development requires methods and tools to measure and compare the environmental impacts of human activities for various products viz. goods, services, etc. This paper presents a review of life cycle assessment (LCA) of solar PV based electricity generation systems. Mass and energy flow over the complete production process starting from silica extraction to the final panel assembling has been considered. Life cycle assessment of amorphous, mono-crystalline, poly-crystalline and most advanced and consolidate technologies for the solar panel production has been studied.
::*steps for fabrication of PV module = purification of silicon + growing silicon + silicon wafer to silicon solar cells + assembling module.
::*year, location, efficiency, power rating, life time, EPBT, GHG emission should be considered.
===[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032110004016 A review of solar photovoltaic technologies] <ref> Parida, Bhubaneswari, S_ Iniyan, and Ranko Goic. "A review of solar photovoltaic technologies." Renewable and sustainable energy reviews 15, no. 3 (2011): 1625-1636. </ref>===
'''Abstract'''
Global environmental concerns and the escalating demand for energy, coupled with steady progress in renewable energy technologies, are opening up new opportunities for utilization of renewable energy resources. Solar energy is the most abundant, inexhaustible and clean of all the renewable energy resources till date. The power from sun intercepted by the earth is about 1.8 × 1011 MW, which is many times larger than the present rate of all the energy consumption. Photovoltaic technology is one of the finest ways to harness the solar power. This paper reviews the photovoltaic technology, its power generating capability, the different existing light absorbing materials used, its environmental aspect coupled with a variety of its applications. The different existing performance and reliability evaluation models, sizing and control, grid connection and distribution have also been discussed.
::*light absorbing material: silicon(a-Si & c-Si), CdTe & CdS, organic and polymer cells, hybrid photovoltaic cells, thin film cells, others.
::*application: building integrated system, desalination plant, space, solar home system, pumps, PVT collector, others.
===[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032111000256 A review of the factors affecting operation and efficiency of photovoltaic based electricity generation systems] <ref> Meral, Mehmet Emin, and Furkan Dinçer. "A review of the factors affecting operation and efficiency of photovoltaic based electricity generation systems." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15, no. 5 (2011): 2176-2184. </ref>===
'''Abstract'''
One of the most popular techniques of renewable energy generation is the installation of photovoltaic (PV) systems using sunlight to generate electrical power. There are many factors that affecting the operation and efficiency of the PV based electricity generation systems, such as PV cell technology, ambient conditions and selection of required equipment. There is no much study that presents all factors affecting efficiency and operation of the entire PV system, in the literature. This paper provides a detailed review of these factors and also includes suggestions for the design of more efficient systems. The presented detailed overview will be useful to people working on theory, design and/or application of photovoltaic based electricity generation systems.
::*summary all factors affecting the efficiency and operation of the entire PV system.
::*factors: PV technology types, ambient conditions, system equipment(battery and charge control, inverters), power quality.
===[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0038092X1000366X Solar photovoltaic electricity: Current status and future prospects] <ref> Razykov, T. M., C. S. Ferekides, D. Morel, E. Stefanakos, H. S. Ullal, and H. M. Upadhyaya. "Solar photovoltaic electricity: current status and future prospects." Solar Energy 85, no. 8 (2011): 1580-1608. </ref>===
*Open source 3-D printing can solve problems above by using appropriate materials and designing product by customer themselves.
*advantages: reduce costs and environmental impact and design by themselves.
 
===[http://www.librelloph.com/organicfarming/article/view/of-1.1.19/html Applications of Open Source 3-D Printing on Small Farms] <ref> Pearce, Joshua M. "Applications of open source 3-D printing on small farms." Organic Farming 1, no. 1 (2015): 19-35. </ref>===
'''Abstract'''
There is growing evidence that low-cost open-source 3-D printers can reduce costs by enablingdistributed manufacturing of substitutes for both specialty equipment and conventional mass-manufacturedproducts. The rate of 3-D printable designs under open licenses is growing exponentially and there arealready hundreds of designs applicable to small-scale organic farming. It has also been hypothesized thatthis technology could assist sustainable development in rural communities that rely on small-scale organicagriculture. To gauge the present utility of open-source 3-D printers in this organic farm context both inthe developed and developing world, this paper reviews the current open-source designs available andevaluates the ability of low-cost 3-D printers to be effective at reducing the economic costs of farming.This study limits the evaluation of open-source 3-D printers to only the most-developed fused filament fab-rication of the bioplastic polylactic acid (PLA). PLA is a strong biodegradable and recyclable thermoplasticappropriate for a range of representative products, which are grouped into five categories of prints: handtools, food processing, animal management, water management and hydroponics. The advantages andshortcomings of applying 3-D printing to each technology are evaluated. The results show a generalizabletechnical viability and economic benefit to adopting open-source 3-D printing for any of the technologies,although the individual economic impact is highly dependent on needs and frequency of use on a specificfarm. Capital costs of a 3-D printer may be saved from on-farm printing of a single advanced analyticalinstrument in a day or replacing hundreds of inexpensive products over a year. In order for the full potentialof open-source 3-D printing to be realized to assist organic farm economic resiliency and self-sufficiency,future work is outlined in five core areas: designs of 3-D printable objects, 3-D printing materials, 3-Dprinters, software and 3-D printable repositories.
::*test several printable tools for farm using: hand tools, food processing, animal management, water management, hydroponic.
::*application of 3-D printing on small farm is viable because of technical viability and economic benefit.
::*future work: designs of 3-D printable objects, 3-D printing materials, 3-D printers, software and 3-D printable repositories.
 
===[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921344915000269 Polymer recycling codes for distributed manufacturing with 3-D printers] <ref> Hunt, Emily J., Chenlong Zhang, Nick Anzalone, and Joshua M. Pearce. "Polymer recycling codes for distributed manufacturing with 3-D printers." Resources, Conservation and Recycling 97 (2015): 24-30. </ref>===
*'''Levelized cost of electricity''' (LCOE) represents the per-kilowatt hour cost (in real dollars) of building and operating a power plant over an assumed financial life and duty cycle.
*'''Grid parity''' refers to the lifetime generation cost of the electricity from PV being comparable with the electricity prices for conventional sources on the grid.
*'''grid-connected PV system''' is an electricity generating solar PV system that is connected to the utility grid. A grid-connected PV system consists of solar panels, one or several inverters, a power conditioning unit and grid connection equipment. They range from small residential and commercial rooftop systems to large utility-scale solar power stations.
*'''Sustainable development''' (SD) is a process for meeting human development goals while maintaining the ability of natural systems to continue to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services upon which the economy and society depend.
*'''charge controller''', limits the rate at which electric current is added to or drawn from electric batteries. It prevents overcharging and may protect against overvoltage, which can reduce battery performance or lifespan, and may pose a safety risk. It may also prevent completely draining ("deep discharging") a battery, or perform controlled discharges, depending on the battery technology, to protect battery life.
*'''solid-state relay''' (SSR) is an electronic switching device that switches on or off when a small external voltage is applied across its control terminals. SSRs consist of a sensor which responds to an appropriate input (control signal), a solid-state electronic switching device which switches power to the load circuitry, and a coupling mechanism to enable the control signal to activate this switch without mechanical parts.
==Reference==
{{MY5490}}
[[category:MOST literature reviews]]
[[Category:5490-16]]

Navigation menu