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Microgrid PV-CHP-Battery: literature review

2,798 bytes added, 20:37, 21 September 2015
* The use of hybrid system is used to minimize the operating cost, overall system efficiency and low GHG emission compared to conventional energy source.
 
===[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0196890415000801 A study on the energy management in domestic micro-grids based on Model Predictive Control strategies]===
G. Bruni, S. Cordiner, V. Mulone, , V. Rocco, F. Spagnolo
 
The paper mainly focuses on the Model Predictive Control (MPC) logic, based on weather forecasts, has been applied to the analysis of power management in a domestic off-grid system. The system is the integration of renewable energy conversion devices (Photovoltaic, PV), a high efficiency energy conversion programmable system (a Fuel Cell, FC) and an electrochemical energy storage (batteries). The control strategy has the objective of minimizing energy costs, while maintaining the optimal environmental comfort in the house, thus optimizing the use of renewable sources.
 
===='''NOTES:'''====
 
* In order to reduce energy consumption, the concept of distributed generation based on domestic microgrids, represents a valid solution in terms of efficiency.
 
* The key overall microgrid objective consists of reducing the energy consumption and maximizing the use of renewable sources while continuously providing power to meet the load request and comply with quality targets (e.g. maintaining thermal comfort in buildings).
 
====='''Model predictive control'''=====
 
* The MPC is based on the knowledge of the system and on the prediction of its behavior
 
* An operating schedule of HVAC power control is done all over the horizon control. Control actions are then decided depending on future conditions, for example by using weather forecast information.
 
=====''' Microgrid efficiency'''=====
 
* The microgrid efficiency was evaluated according to
 
Efficiency= Eload/(Eres+Efes)
where RES=Renewable sources.
FES=Fossil fuel Sources.
 
The efficiency of the microgrid can be defined by the ratio between the load energy and the sum of the primary energy required from both fossil and renewable energy sources.
 
====='''System costs'''=====
 
* The total cost of the microgrid is made of capital, operating and maintenance costs. For batteries, HVAC and PV panels, only purchase capital costs were considered.
 
====='''Simulation and results'''=====
 
* The MPC strategy guarantees the required comfort conditions by also saving the use of fossil energy.
�* Fossil energy reduction is almost 6% in winter conditions (where the renewable energy available is limited) and 23% in summer conditions, when more renewable energy is available; as a consequence, the overall system efficiency parameters show an improvement, according to the saved fossil energy.
* The MPC operation also leads to a smoother plant operation, giving a reduction of the FC and HVAC sizes and an improvement of battery operation during charge and discharge phases.
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