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WetLand bogs

2,321 bytes added, 03:26, 18 May 2014
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==Abstract==
<center>''The project is an initiative by New York artist and sculptor [http://www.marymattingly.com/ Mary Mattingly], who designs sustainable installations and alternative living models. The WetLand bog can provide sustenance, promote increased water quality, provide habitat and will serve as a working educational platform. WetLand bog is designed to inspire environmentally friendly means to meet the challenges of coming generations. WetLand bogs seeks to serve as a model for potential sustainable resource expansion and development. ''</center>
==Background==
 [http://www.knightfoundation.org/grants/20122297/ WetLand ] is a floating island that illustrates a partially-submerged house surrounded by a human-made bog. The interior of the house is functional and contains a live, work, and enclosed performance space with: a dry compost toilet, kitchen with sink and shower that utilize purified rainwater. A 40x20x3’ flat deck barge and two access gangways composes the primary infrastructure. A greenhouse in a structure adjacent to the submerged house contains vegetables grown hydroponically, a natural grey water filtration system, and soil-based produce. WetLand’s railings around the perimeter are also made into planters, and floating planters around the perimeter include bulrush, cattail, and vining veining plants that all naturally clean the water.
'''What:''' As environmental instability continues to transform our cities, what happens when the land we use is only temporary? WetLand is a mobile, sculptural habitat and public space atop a barge made to explore solutions for sea-level rise, housing, resource interdependence, and a decrease in useable land.
Events will be programmed with [http://www.fringearts.com/visual-arts/wetland.cfm FringeArts]. Residents will live on board and host events, from workshops to skill shares. High school and college students in Philadelphia will help steward the space, collect data about energy use and production, and test and maintain onboard water systems.
'''Where:''' WetLand will be constructed at Pier 9, across from FringeArts in Old Town, Philadelphia. It will be tugged to Penn’s Landing adjacent to the Seaport Museum and open to the public on August 15, 2014.
==Problem statement==
[[File:Bog1.jpg||thumb|left|Bog at Fern Lake]]
 
The objective of this project is to design a floating bog to provide inspirational awareness to alternative sustainable environmental design. The floating bog is to be placed in the Delaware River alongside the WetLand barge which will be moored in a prominent part of downtown Philadelphia. The floating bog will be used throughout the duration of the WetLand project and serve as an educational platform of alternative water treatment techniques. The crew aboard the WetLand barge may choose to plant the bog with edible plants for added sustenance. The ability to manually monitor the quality of the bog water will play an essential role in the educational component and promote community engagement.
[[Category:Engr305 Appropriate Technology]][[Category:WetLand]][[Category:Projects]]
 
 
 
 
==Literature Review==
This is a review of the available literature pertinent to the prototype WetLand bog to be constructed for the WetLand barge in Philadelphia , PA.
'''Wetlands'''
Wetlands are described as areas that are saturated with water for extended periods of time and support vegetation specifically adapted thrive in saturated soil. Wetlands are generally transitional areas between open water and dry land. <ref>U.S Army Core of Engineers[http://www.lrb.usace.army.mil/Portals/45/docs/regulatory/Wetlands/rw_bro.pdf]</ref>Historically wetlands were regarded as economically useless land. Wetlands support a variety of plants species including bulrushes, mangroves, sedges and cordgrass. Many of the plants that inhabit wetland areas have proven to be sufficient at filtering and removing pollutants from water. <ref>[Kulser, Jon A; Kentula, Mary E. 1990. Wetland Creation and Restoration. The Status of the Science]</ref> Wetlands provide a variety of ecological services including water filtration, habitat for waterfowl and other wildlife and serve as a buffer zones against erosion and rising water. <ref>[Mitsch, Willam J; Gosselink, James G. 2007. Wetlands 4th Edition.
]</ref>
Wetlands are described as areas that are saturated with water for extended periods This biome occupies roughly 6 percent of time the world's surface and support vegetation specifically adapted thrive in saturated soilenhances the global cycling of water. Wetlands These natural lands have been use and abused by society and are generally transitional areas between open water one of the most threatened ecosystems. Rapid industrial and dry land. <ref>U.S Army Core social changes that effect the environment are undermining the conservation efforts of Engineers[http://www.lrb.usace.army.mil/Portals/45/docs/regulatory/Wetlands/rw_bro.pdf]</ref>Historically wetlands were regarded , development efforts such as economically useless landthe WetLand bog can help alleviate this unique natural commodity. Wetlands support a variety of plants species including bulrushes, mangroves, sedges and cordgrass. Many comprised of the plants very diverse habitats that inhabit wetland areas have proven are vital to be sufficient at filtering multiple dimensions of global resources and removing pollutants from waterecological substance. <ref>[KulserMoore, Jon A; Kentula, Mary EPeter D. 1990. Wetland Creation and Restoration(2001). The Status of the Science]</ref> ''Wetlands provide a variety of ecological services including water filtration, habitat for waterfowl and other wildlife and serve as a buffer zones against erosion and rising water''. <ref>[Mitsch, Willam J; Gosselink, James G. 2007. Wetlands 4th EditionNew York: Facts on File.]</ref>
'''Floating Wetlands'''
 With the transformation of waterfronts in coastal areas to industrial centers the water quality and loss of valuable habitat have come into question. Many coastal cities have begun to explore the validity of small scale floating wetland projects to restore ecological services to their shorelines and waterways. Constructed ecosystems in urban areas may prove to improve conditions. Floating wetlands may prove to provide invaluable ecosystem services to these once natural areas through functions such as pollutant uptake, habitat creation and increased aesthetic appeal. One promising case is in the city of Baltimore, Maryland. Beginning in 2010 two separate floating wetland installations tripled the coverage of wetlands and by 2012 the coverage area increase to 2,000 square feet. The productivity and ultimate success of floating wetlands is yet to be determined, but the practice has been going on for over two decades in some regions. Many cultural obstacles stand in the way of floating wetland installations such as regional policy and funding. But the future of floating wetland systems appear promising. <ref>[Building Floating Wetlands to Restore Urban Waterfronts and Community Partnership]</ref>
'''Invasive Plants'''
Invasive plants are characterized as any plant species that is non-native to an area that after introduction have the ability to out-compete the native flora. <ref>[http://www.plants.usda.gov/java/threat?stateSelect=US42&statelist=states USDA legal status plants]</ref> Many plant species, either native or non-native, have the potential to become invasive. Plants that fall under this heading have the potential to invade or degrade areas. Invasive plants evolved in areas other than the area where they are classified as invasive. Their evolutionary traits allow them once introduced to new areas to surpass the native flora in nutrient uptake, space and in some cases introduce new pests and diseases that can have devastating effects to local flora. Invasive plants have the ability to crowd out native species, and are generally better at some facets of a plant species life cycle then the native species. Invasive's are often hard to control and can become prolific given enough time. <ref>City of Philadelphia. Invasive Plant List
[[http://www.phila.gov/ParksandRecreation/environment/forestry/Pages/Invasives.aspx#page=1]]</ref> Plants native to one area are not necessarily invasive in another. The distinction between invasive and newly introduced plants lies in a species ability to overtake native flora in an area other then were they evolved.
Invasive plants are characterized as any plant species that '''Vegetation'''Wetland vegetation is non-native to an area that after introduction have the ability to out-compete the native flora. <ref>[http://www.plants.usda.gov/java/threat?stateSelect=US42&statelist=states USDA legal status plants]</ref> Many plant species either native or non-native to areas have to potential to become invasive. Plants primarily component that fall under this heading have the potential to invade or degrade areas. Invasive plants evolved in areas other than the area where they are classified as invasive. Their evolutionary traits allow them once introduced to new areas to surpass will thrive and prolong the native flora in nutrient uptakenature, space mechanics and in some cases introduce new pests and diseases beauty that can have devastating effects to local floraa wetland conveys.Invasive plants have the ability to crowd out native speciesWetland sensitivity such as hydroperiod, hydrodynamics and nutrient availability are generally better at some facets depended on which type of a wetland the plants will nurture. Several plant species life cycle then the native species. Invasive's are often hard and genera grow only in Salt to control brackish marshes, freshwater marshes, freshwater swamps and can become prolific given enough timepeatland ecosystems. <ref>City of PhiladelphiaAmong the Stately Trees, wordpress. (2013). “The top 75 Wetland Plants”, Lehigh University. Invasive Plant List[[http://wwwamongthestatelytrees.philawordpress.govcom/ParksandRecreation2013/environment04/forestry16/Pagesthe-top-75-wetland-plants/Invasives.aspx#page=1]]</ref> Plants native to Identifying the importance of each species habitat is indicative for the type of wetland one area are not necessarily invasive in another. The distinction between invasive an newly introduced plants lies in a species ability chooses to overtake native flora in an area other then were they evolvedconstruct.    4Amongst the importance of wetland vegetation, some plants can have medicinal, and edible benefits. Delaware River Basin Commission. 2012 Delaware River Some are both medicinal and Bay Water Quality Assessmentedible, such as the Groundnut (''Apios americana medik''), which has three times the protein of potatoes5The medicinal value found in plants can be traced from Native American tribes that use plants for their medicinal significance. Philadelphia Water Department. 2006. "Tidal Wetland"Tea made from the roots and leaves of medicinal plants is a favorable approach; medicinal plants can range from curing stomachaches, headaches, Andropogon Associates LTD. http://www.phillywatersheds.org/doc/ERU_4_Tidal_Wetland.pdf 7. Clemson University. Floating Treatment Systemscolds, Report. 2008 8to swellings.<ref> Tyler Kimberly, Ruan Michelle. 2012. “Edible and Medicinal Plants”, SUNY Plattsburgh, NY. http://edibleandmedicinalplants.weebly.com/index.html. (February 6</ref>In addition, 2014) 9 a wetland is primarily consists of plants with water filtrating qualities. Among the Stately TreesThese plants natural ability to purify water can help with water quality assessments of turbidity, pH levels, alkalinity, wordpress. toxic pollutants or substances (2013human health criteria for systemic toxicants)and biological monitoring. “The top 75 Wetland Plants”, Lehigh University. <ref> http://amongthestatelytreeswww.state.wordpressnj.comus/2013drbc/04library/16documents/the-top-75-wetland-plantsWQAssessmentReport2012.pdf </. (February 9, 2014) 10. Moore, Peter D.. (2001). ''Wetlands''. New York: Facts on File. 12. Keddy, Paul A. 2010. Wetland Ecology. Principles and Conservation. 2nd editionref>.
==Project Evaluation Criteria==
|align="right"| 1.99
|-
| 3 || Orkling O-ring || Ace Hardware
|align="right"| 0.35
|align="right"| 1.05
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:left;"
|+Timeline
!style="background:yellow;"|Date!!style="background:yellow;"|Task
|-
!style="background:Yellow;"|Date!!style="background:Yellow;"|Task
|-
|March 2, 2014||create Create timeline and finish budget.
|-
|March 06-11, 2014||Research and development of new ways to design Mary Mattingly's new bog idea.
|May 4, 2014||Placed rocks inside the bog along with plants, and final component was built.
|-
|May 5-9, 2014|| daily Daily plant monitoring continue and water quality testing begin.
|-
|May 9, 2014||Final Appropredia write up.
==Tools==
This is a comprehensive list of all the tools we used to construct the bog. Other tools may be substituted.
*Tools used not consider considered part of the budget as they are owned by a team member.
{| class="wikitable sortable"
|-
==Design==
[[File:Bogdesign.jpg||thumb|left|WetLand bog Design]]
    During the design process the WetLand Bogs bogs team strived to incorporate the ideas of our client, Mary Mattingly, into the parameters of Lonny Grafman's Engineering 305 (Appropriate Technology) course at Humboldt State University. Over the course of four months our team designed and tested a number of different approaches for this unique task. Our team faced many challenges including limited funding, test site availability and time. One of the unique challenges for this project was that the preliminarly preliminary design, construction, and testing took place in Arcata, CA, nearly 3,000 miles from the projects final destination.    
==Water Pump==
The water pump assembled for the WetLand bog can fill 1/4 of the 55 gallon drum with water at an estimate of 200 pumps and can drain out that amount of water with 300 pumps. These system can check for water quality and monitoring during low and high tides as needed daily. Easily Water pump is easily attachable with a hose ending into the Inlet and Outlet System.   
[[File:Waterpump.jpg||thumb|left|Water Pump]]
===Materials===
 
*1 1x1/2"x30" PVC
*1 1x1/2" PVC cap
*1 3/4" t-joint
*2 3/4" male threaded couplings
 
===Instructions===
===Instructional video===
More information on this water pump and its potential can be found in the video below and in our WetLand bog video at the bottom of the this appropredia Appropredia page:   
{{#widget:YouTube|id=vaho7JSVS1I&start=77?modestbranding=1?rel=0}}
==PVC Frame==
[[File:Framepvc.jpg||thumb|250px|Complete PVC frame at the Mad River]]
The bog frame will not take much time to construct, however, precision cutting of the PVC pipelines to desire desired length should be done patiently as well as the cementing of the frameshould be done patiently. Four buoy pieces were screw onto the outside of the frame for added buoyancy (buoy use in WetLand bog is graded for commercial use at 200lbs.)
===Materials===
*12' rope
*Fender washers
[[File:Frame.jpg||thumb|250px|PVC frame]]
[[File:Frame.jpg||thumb|250px|PVC frame]]
===Instructions===
{{How to
===Instructions===
 
[[Image:Drum_frame.jpg|thumb|right|400px|Sectioned 55 gallon drum attached to yoke.]]
{{How to
||||11.) Cut out saddle notch.
||||12.) Insert Drum Frame into PVC frame. Making sure to align saddle notches of both the PVC and Drum frame.
||||13.) Drill a few holes in each of the drum sections approximately 1" below the top. (overflow)
|footer=
}}
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
==Inlet/Outlet system==
The inlet/outlet system is one of the most complicated and labor intensive parts of the entire WetLand bog. After much trial and error the plans for the system that worked the best for our prototype bog are as follows:
===Materials===
[[File:Beneathbog.jpg||thumb|300px|right|Underneath the bog, Inlet and Outlet system connecting the halves of the 55 gallon drum with bulk head fittings, hose fittings, Barbed Insert Elbow and black tubing]]
*PVC glue
*~70" (3/4”) PVC pipe
 
 
===Instructions===
|footer=
}}
 
 
==Testing==
 
[[Image:PVC Frame.JPG|thumb|right|300px|PVC Frame at test site]]
Testing of the constructed bog began April 29, 2014 and lasted until May 11, 2014. A variety of parameters were tested both visually and mechanically. Our original test site was a location along the Mad River. We eventually obtained permission to test the bog at Fern Lake.
===Buoyancy===
[[File:Waterpvctube.jpg||thumb|left|First Boyouncy Buoyancy test: PVC tube with water bottles - Duration in the water 30 minutes test]]
[[File:Taylortest.jpg||thumb|left|Taylor testing for buoyancy - Test time 15 minutes in the Mad River]]
Buoyancy testing began with single capped PVC tube. Which , which we found to be surprisingly buoyant. We then tested the same tube with plastic water bottle lids screwed directly into the PVC tube. This was also surprisingly buoyant. We than filled each bottle to the with water and found the PVC tube to displace enough water with the added weight to float just above the water line. Testing progressed to the PVC frame of our final design. We added a quartered lifeguard buoy for extra buoyancy. With the request of our client for a water quality monitoring system we eventually added the sectioned 55 gallon drum to the PVC frame. Testing of the PVC frame and the 55 gallon drum proved to overwhelmingly buoyant. We filled the drum with 40 gallons of water, a 170 pound team member hopped in wearing a 30 lbs weight belt and the bog still floated. Our results show that PVC when capped and sealed is buoyant. The sectioned 55 gallon drum also proved to be buoyant and when when combined the two were able to maintain positive buoyancy with over 500 pounds added.
170lbs(teammate)+30lbs(weight belt)+(40gal of fresh water*8.34lbs/gal fresh water)= 533.6lbs.
 
===Pressure===
 Pressure testing begin by adding a half of teammate half body weight of which totaled 85lbs onto the PVC frame. The Frame remain remained steady only tilting to the sides when pressure was added significantly to one side of the bog. Another test took place in which a group member tried to submerge the bog in Fern Lake from the sides of the 55 gallon drum and middle border connecting the halve drums. With 190lbs of pressure it did not tilt or submerge the bog from the middle border. The sides of the PVC frame did experience a submergence in the water, but did not cause any damage to the bog.
[[File:Kevintest.jpg||thumb|right|Kevin's pressure test on the bog stationed in Fern Lake]]
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
===Water Quality===
Water quality was monitored once a day over four days. We checked the PH, turbidity, dissolved Oxygen, and Salinity of the bog. We also tested the water at the test site for comparison. Results are as follows.
[[File:Watertest.jpg||thumb|350px|right|Water Quality Testing Equipment: Left - Dissolve Oxygen: Middle - PH and Salinity: Right - Turbidity]]
{| class="wikitable sortable"
|-
| 5/10/14
| 7.70 | 6.90
|-
| 5/11/14
|7.95|6.85
|}
|-
| 5/10/14
| 4.68 | 12.70
|-
| 5/11/14
|4.57|7.34
|}
|-
| 5/10/14
| 104.9 | 63.7
|-
| 5/11/14
|101.3|57.2
|}
|-
! style="background:Yellow;"|Date
! style="background:Yellow;"|Fern Lake(°%)
! style="background:Yellow;"|Bog (%)
|-
|-
| 5/10/14
| 91.7 | 20.4
|-
|5/11/14
|92.0|27.9
|}
==Plants==
 
[[File:ArcataForest.jpg||thumb|right|300px||Arcata Community Forest environment-Fern Lake with WetLand bog out in the distance]]
For testing purposes we planted a variety of local flora.
*Skunk Cabbagesp: Lysichiton americanus*Horsetail*Lilly===Rush===Horsetail sp: Spenophyta ===Sedges===Scouring rush *Lilly sp: SpenophytaErythronium hendersonii S. Watson
== Operation ==
 
This is how to successfully operate the bog. Once planted the bog will require visual inspection, water quality analysis and should be flushed 2-3 times per week.
=== Maintenance ===
Maintenance of the bog should be preformed daily, weekly and monthly. Maintenance consists of visual monitoring for undesirable materials, leaks, plant health and water quality analysis.
 
[[File:Bog2.jpg||thumb|200px|right|Bog- May10, 2014]]
=== Schedule ===
==Video==
Demonstration of the bog at Fern Lake.
 
{{#widget:YouTube|id=uv0Df1a1A5Y&start=77?modestbranding=1?rel=0}}
==Team==
The members who are responsible for the Wetland bog prototype for the Spring 2014 semester, Engineering 305 (Appropriate Technology) course at Humboldt State University.
*Instructor: [[User: Lonny|Lonny Grafman]]
 
*[[User:Tbyrd|Taylor Strawn]]
*[[User:KBM|Kevin Brenes-Melgar]]
==References==
Most of the references use in this section are for Eastern states native flora as this project will be projected in Philadelphia. Check USDA for plant habitat suitability.
{{Reflist}}
[[Category:Projects]]
[[Category:WetLand]]
[[Category:Water quality]]
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