S0038092X04002415/pdfft?md5=334d50805aead5aa354432c3ee4c0dc2&pid=1-s2.0-S0038092X04002415-main.pdf Status of thin film solar cells in research, production and the market ]" == ''' By Arnulf Ja¨ger-Waldau ''' <br /><br />'''Review''': Photovoltaics is one of the fastest growing industries at present. Over the last five years, the production of photovoltaic solar cells has steadily increased at an annual average of 40%, driven not only by the progress in materials and processing technology, but by market introduction programmes in many countries around the world. This growth is mainly being attained by an increase in manufacturing capacities based on the technology of crystalline, single junction devices. Consistent with the time needed for any major change in energy infrastructure, another 20–30 years of sustainedand aggressive growth will be required for photovoltaics to substitute a significant share of conventional energysources. The question is whether a switch will be possible with the current technologies alone or whether this growth will only be possible with the continuous introduction of new technologies. It leads us to the search for new developments with respect to material use and consumption, device design and production technologies as well as new concepts to increase overall efficiency. This paper analyses the current status of thin film solar cells and their outlook for future developments.
S0016328702000083 Photovoltaics — a path to sustainable futures]" == '''By Joshua M Pearce'''<br /><br /> '''Review''': As both population and energy use per capita increase, modern society is approaching physical limits to its continued fossil fuel consumption. The immediate limits are set by the planet’s ability to adapt to a changing atmospheric chemical composition, not the availability of resources. In order for a future society to be sustainable while operating at or above our current standard of living a shift away from carbon based energy sources must occur. An overview of the current state of active solar (photovoltaic, PV) energy technology is provided here to outline a partial solution for the environmental problems caused by accelerating global energy expenditure. The technical, social, and economic benefits and limitations of PV technologies to provide electricity in both off-grid and on-grid applications is critically analyzed in the context of this shift in energy sources. It is shown that PV electrical production is a technologically feasible, economically viable, environmentally benign, sustainable, and socially equitable solution to society’s future energy requirements.
==23."[http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4529197 Hybrid Micropower Source for Wireless Sensor Network]" ==