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__TOC__
=[[smart shade method |Smart shade methods]]=
in [[smart shade method |this page]] we review methods for this project<br /><br />
=Literature Review=
See also : [[Smart solar shades literature review]]
<ol><li>{{Cite journal| doi ==2010."[http:1016//www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0038092X04002415/pdfft?md5S0016-3287(02)00008-3| issn = 0016-3287| volume = 34| issue =334d50805aead5aa354432c3ee4c0dc2&pid7| pages =1663-s2.0-S0038092X04002415-main.pdf Status of thin film solar cells in research, production and the market ]" 674| last = Joshua M| first = Pearce| title =Photovoltaics — a path to sustainable futures| journal = Futures''' By Arnulf Ja¨ger| date = 2002-Waldau ''' 09}}<br><br /><br />'''ReviewAbstract:''':Photovoltaics As both population and energy use per capita increase, modern society is one of the fastest growing industries at presentapproaching physical limits to its continued fossil fuel consumption. Over The immediate limits are set by the last five yearsplanet’s ability to adapt to a changing atmospheric chemical composition, not the production availability of photovoltaicsolar cells has steadily increased resources. In order for a future society to be sustainable while operating at an annual average or above our current standard of 40%living a shift away from carbon based energy sources must occur. An overview of the current state of active solar (photovoltaic, driven not only PV) energy technology is provided here to outline a partial solution for the environmental problems caused by the progress accelerating global energy expenditure. The technical, social, and economic benefits and limitations of PV technologies to provide electricity in materials both off-grid and processing technology, but by market introduction programmes in many countries around the world. This growth on-grid applications ismainly being attained by an increase critically analyzed in manufacturing capacities based on the technology context of crystalline, single junctiondevices. Consistent with the time needed for any major change this shift in energy infrastructuresources. It is shown that PV electrical production is a technologically feasible, economically viable, environmentally benign, sustainable, another 20–30 years of sustainedand aggressive growth will be required for photovoltaics socially equitable solution to substitute a significant share of conventional society’s future energyrequirements.<br>sources. The question is whether a switch will be possible with the current technologies alone or whether this growth will<br><br>only be possible with the continuous introduction of new technologies. It leads us to the search for new developments'''Key Features''': with respect to material use and consumption, device design and production technologies as well as new concepts *Introduction tophotovoltaicsincrease overall efficiency[http://mtu.academia. This paper analyses the current status of thin film solar cells and their outlook for futureedu/JoshuaPearce/Papers/1540219/Photovoltaics_-_a_path_to_sustainable_futures open access]developments.<br>
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<br><li>{{Cite journal| doi ==2010."[http:/1109/wwwTPEL.sciencedirect2008.com/science/article/pii/S0038092X11003847/pdfft?md52009056| issn = 0885-8993| volume = 24| issue =862c6c731f56e74bd59b2933e210860f&pid4| pages =1952-s2962| last = Kimball| first = J.W.| coauthors = Kuhn, B.T.; Balog, R.0-S0038092X11003847-mainS.pdf Multiple-input Maximum Power Point Tracking algorithm | title = A System Design Approach for solar panels with reduced sensing circuitry for portable applications ]" Unattended Solar Energy Harvesting Supply| journal =Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on| date = 2009-04}}<br>''' By F. Boico, B. Lehman ''' <br /><br />'''ReviewAbstract:''':A method to track the maximum Remote devices, such as sensors and communications devices, require continuously available power of multiple. In many applications, conventional approaches are too expensive, too large, or unreliable. For short-term needs, primary batteries may be used. However, they do not scale up well for long-inputterm installations. Instead, portableenergy harvesting methods must be used. Here, photovoltaic systems a system design approach is proposedintroduced that results in a highly reliable, highly available energy harvesting device for remote applications. The First, a simulation method shares a singlecurrent sensor by interleaving Perturb that uses climate data and target availability produces Pareto curves for energy storage and generation. This step determines the energy storage requirement in watt-hours and Observe operationsthe energy generation requirement in watts. The system has reduced Cost, size , reliability, and longevity requirements are considered to choose particular storage and costgeneration technologies, making it attractive and then to specify particular components. The overall energy processing system is designed for compactportable solar panels modularity, fault tolerance, and energy flow control capability. Maximum power point tracking is used to optimize solar battery chargerspanel performance. The result is a highly reliable, such as highly available power source. Several prototypes have been constructed and tested. Experimental results are shown for cell phones, laptops, one device that uses multicrystalline silicon solar cells and other portable electronics with rechargeable lithium-iron-phosphate batteriesto achieve 100% availability.A flexible total system architecture Future designers can use the same approach to design is proposed systems for a wide range of power requirements and testedinstallation locations.<br><br>'''Key Features:'''* MPPT information----
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<li>{{Cite journal
| doi = 10.1109/TIE.2009.2020703
| issn = 0278-0046
| volume = 56
| issue = 11
| pages = 4502-4509
| last = Nasiri
| first = A.
| coauthors = Zabalawi, S.A.; Mandic, G.
| title = Indoor Power Harvesting Using Photovoltaic Cells for Low-Power Applications
| journal = Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on
| date = 2009-11
}}
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'''Abstract:''' Utilization of low-power indoor devices such as remote sensors, supervisory and alarm systems, distributed controls, and data transfer system is on steady rise. Due to remote and distributed nature of these systems, it is attractive to avoid using electrical wiring to supply power to them. Primary batteries have been used for this application for many years, but they require regular maintenance at usually hard to access places. This paper provides a complete analysis of a photovoltaic (PV) harvesting system for indoor low-power applications. The characteristics of a target load, PV cell, and power conditioning circuit are discussed. Different choices of energy storage are also explained. Implementation and test results of the system are presented, which highlights the practical issues and limitations of the system.
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'''Key Features:'''
* Battery connection
* Other energy storage possibilities
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<br><li>{{Cite journal| volume = 9| issue =2| pages =2081-86| last = Stephenson| first = D."[G.| title = Equations for solar heat gain through windows| journal = Solar Energy| accessdate = 2012-02-10| date = 1964| url = http://wwwservices.sciencedirectlib.commtu.edu:2116/science/article/pii/S0360132313002060/pdfft?md5=892a6704ced02d2a5c9108da9850c85f&pid=1-s2.0-S0360132313002060-main.pdf Tree canopy shade impacts on solar irradiance received by building walls and their surface temperature ]" == 0038092X65902070}}''' By Rowan Berry a, Stephen J. Livesley, Lu Ayeb''' <br /><br />'''ReviewAbstract:''':Shading coefficients are used to predict the seasonal and diurnal benefit of architectural shading devices.It is more difficult to model the impact of tree shade on building thermal performance, and data is rareand varies greatly with species and season. We established a range of tree shade amounts and shadequalities from which to develop simple, robust models that predict external wall surface temperatures.We measured percentage shade cover, solar irradiance and external surface temperature on north andwest sun-bearing walls of three identical buildings in spring and summer 2010/11. One building wasshaded by tall Angophora trees, another by smaller Fraxinus trees and one was unshaded.Tree shade reduced wall surface temperatures by up to 9 C and external air temperatures by up to1 C. The smaller trees did little to reduce external wall surface temperatures, and moving the tall treesfurther away from the building wall eliminated their cooling benefits. Wall surface temperatures werebest predicted by shade cover and solar irradiance, and was most poorly predicted by shading coefficients,that varied greatly through the day and the season, as tree height and leaf area index increased.Trees can reduce external solar irradiance loads when they are close enough and tall enough to shadethe majority of the wall. To simulate the thermal performance benefits that trees provide, it is necessaryto account for seasonal, growth and phenological changes in tree shade amount and quality.
An analysis of solar-radiation records obtained at Scarborough, Ontario, indicates that the insolation in Canada can be significantly greater than the values given by Moon's1 standard solar-radiation curves. It is possible to represent the solar data by a single analytical expression involving an atmospheric extinction coefficient and an apparent value of the solar constant. This expression allows the calculation of insolation on any surface and the determination of the time and date when the maximum insolation can occur for any surface. Simple expressions relate the time, date, latitude, building orientation, and the type of window glass and shading with the solar heat gain through windows. These can be used to program any digital computer to compute design values of the instantaneous heat gain through the windows of a building.
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'''Key Features''':
*Calculates insolation empirically (20 stations in Scarborough, Ontario)
*Similar Latitude (Scarborough: 43.78º, Houghton: 47.12º)
*Variables: time, date, latitude, building orientation, type of glass, and shading
*Equations for Direct Normal Insolation @ ground level (DNI)...
*Isolation Charts
==20."[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0927024804003174/pdfft?md5=4cc72159a8d355f9865d05282a42d5ce&pid=1-s2.0-S0927024804003174-main.pdf Design of DSC panel with efficiency more than 6%]" == ''' By Songyuan Dai, Kongjia Wang, Jian Weng, Yifeng Sui,Yang Huang, Shangfeng Xiao, Shuanghong Chen, Linhua Hu,Fantai Kong, Xu Pan, Chengwu Shi, Li Guo ''' <br /><br />'''Review''':Dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs), as a new innovative technology, were developed veryquickly in the past decade since Prof. M. Gra¨ tzel (EPFL) made the breakthrough in 1991(Nature 353 (1991) 737). While photoelectric conversion efficiency of 11.04% was achievedlast year in EPFL (J. Photocem. Photobiol. A: Chem. 164 (2004) 3), 8.2% was achieved with asize of 2.36 cm2 in 2001 by the ECN group (Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 84 (2004) 125), whichis a very exciting result for large scale DSCs. As potential low cost solar cells, DSC moduleand the panel’s efficiency and stability are still critical problems to the way of marketing. Weshow our research in the test and design of modules and panels in the past few years at ourinstitute. We have achieved photoelectric conversion efficiency around 6% with 15X20 cm2module, and our future primary 500W DSC power station with the same performance40X60 cm2 panel is under way.-
<br><li>{{Cite journal| doi = 10.1016/j.solener.2003.12.007| issn = 0038092X| volume = 76| issue = 5| pages = 523-544| last = Galasiu| first = Anca D| coauthors = Morad R Atif, Robert A MacDonald| title = Impact of window blinds on daylight-linked dimming and automatic on/off lighting controls| journal = Solar Energy| accessdate = 2012-02-10| date =2004-01| url =20."[http://ieeexplorenparc.cisti-icist.nrc-cnrc.ieeegc.orgca/stampnpsi/stamp.jspctrl?tpaction=shwart&arnumberindex=6073396 Maximum power point tracking without current sensor for photovoltaic module integrated converter using Zigbee wireless network ]"an&req=5753984&lang= en}}''' By Sol Moon, Seong-Jin Kim, Jeong-Won Seo, Joung-Hu Park ⇑, Changkun Park, Chan-Su Chung ''' <br /><br />'''ReviewKey Features''':In this paper, a simple maximum power point tracking method for series-connected DC–DC convertermodule of photovoltaic power conditioning systems is proposed. This approach enables maximum powerpoint tracking control with the converter’s output voltage information instead of calculating solar arraypower, which significantly simplifies the sensor network by removing any current sensor. Furthermore,there is no multiplication process of power calculation for perturbation-and-observation algorithm totrack the maximum power point because the power calculation is replaced by simple output voltagesensing. This simple tracker realization can reduce the cost and size, and can be utilized with a low performance/low cost controller. For the implementation of the proposed control strategy, Zigbee (Xbee-pro)wireless communications and DSP’s Series Communications Interface are utilized. Then, a couple of series-connected hardware prototype of photovoltaic modules was built and tested for the performanceevaluation.
*Photo controlled lighting systems (variable lighting based off of PV sensing)
*Possibly useful for future work section
*lighting control systems found to be responsible for 50-60% reduction in energy consumption
*Compares dimming systems and on/off systems
*investigates numerous blinds configurations
==20."[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960148100000598/pdfft?md5=601a6663ae569c83fd67e25c3b42c6fb&pid=1-s2.0-S0960148100000598-main.pdf Titania solar cells: new photovoltaic technology ]" == ''' By George Phani*, Gavin Tulloch, David Vittorio, Igor Skryabin ''' <br /><br />'''Review''':Titania solar cells are a new type of photovoltaic device invented by Professor MichaelGraÈ tzel at Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland). Titania solar cellsconvert sunlight directly into electricity through a process similar to photosynthesis. It hasperformance advantages over other solar cells, which include the ability to perform well inlow light and shade, and to perform consistently well over a wide range of temperatures.Titania solar cells can be fabricated to be either transparent or opaque in appearance. Thesimple materials, construction technique and processing equipment make Titania modulesattractive for a€ordable power generation. Applications of such a module include manyconsumer and professional products, including vertically mounted solar tiles used asintegrated building materials and, in future, used as power generating windows. 7 2000-
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<li>{{Cite journal
| doi = 10.1177/0013916591234004
| volume = 23
| issue = 4
| pages = 474 -493
| last = Boubekri
| first = Mohamed
| coauthors = Robert B. Hull, Lester L. Boyer
| title = Impact of Window Size and Sunlight Penetration on Office Workers' Mood and Satisfaction
| journal = Environment and Behavior
| accessdate = 2012-02-10
| date = 1991-07-01
| url = http://eab.sagepub.com/content/23/4/474.abstract
}}
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'''Abstract:'''
Sunlighting or direct-gain passive solar strategies let sunlight penetrate the living space. In environments where the well-being of the building occupant is a salient concern to the designer, this intrusion of sunlight ought to be controlled so that it does not impede the performance of the occupant. This study investigates the impact of window size and different amounts of sunlight penetration on occupant emotional response and degree of satisfaction. Unlike previous sunlight requirement studies, sunlight penetration is measured not in terms of duration, but rather in terms of size of sunlit areas, and therefore as a visual stimulus. The study was performed in an office room of a typical size. It was found that window size did not significantly affect the occupant emotional state or the degree of satisfaction. Sunlight penetration significantly affected the feeling of relaxation when the observer was sitting sideways to the window and the relationship had an inverted U-shape. The study stresses the validity of this novel way of assessing sunlight penetration in terms of size of the sun patches inside the room and its importance as a significant environmental attribute and design parameter that ought to be accounted for during the design of windows in sunlighting or direct-gain passive solar strategies.
==20."[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0927024810007117/pdfft?md5=eb70bcfd991d7fee695075a4e2f3d1eb&pid=1-s2.0-S0927024810007117-main.pdf Concepts of inorganic solid-state nanostructured solar cells ]" == ''' By Thomas Dittrich n, AbdelhakBelaidi 1, AhmedEnnaoui ''' <br /><br />'''ReviewKey Features''':The development of inorganic solid-state nanostructured solar cells over the last years has been reviewed with respect to concepts and materials. Major attention has been paid to solar cells with extremely thin absorber, solar cells with ultra-thin nano-composite absorber and solar cells with quantum dot absorber layers. The focus has been set to structured transparent electron conductors and absorber materials prepared by mainly low-temperature and wet chemical deposition methods. The great potential of inorganic solid-state nanostructured solar cells is discussed.
*Possibly useful for general discussion (Effects on users) and important information for controls, QC, reception, and design
*Study investigates the impact of window size as well as assorted amounts of sunlight penetration's effect on occupant (user) emotional response and satisfaction
*Interesting algebraic approach to determine mood
*Trends for mood based on area of floor covered in sun
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<li>{{Cite journal
| doi = 10.1016/S0378-7788(98)00035-8
| issn = 0378-7788
| volume = 29
| issue = 1
| pages = 47-63
| last = Lee
| first = E.S.
| coauthors = D.L. DiBartolomeo, S.E. Selkowitz
| title = Thermal and daylighting performance of an automated venetian blind and lighting system in a full-scale private office
| journal = Energy and Buildings
| date = 1998-12
}}
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'''Key Features''':
==20*Study utilized automated Venetian blinds synchronized with a dimmable electric lighting system."[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0927024811001899/pdfft?md5=170a59d5df79d1443ea8239d62323697&pid=1-s2.0-S0927024811001899-main.pdf Photovoltaic electrochromic device for solar cell module *Report is very well written and self-powered smart glass applications ]" == may provide good introduction information''' By Lee-May Huang a,n, Chih-WeiHub, Han-ChangLiu a, Chih-YuHsu c, Chun-HengChen a*Contains room blueprints, Kuo-ChuanHo ''' <br /><br />'''Review''':An innovative concept list of solution type photovoltaic electrochromic (PV-EC) device has been developedmonitored data.. The device includes a semi-transparent silicon thin-film solar cell (Si-TFSC) substrate, an electro- chromic solution, and a transparent non-conductive substrate, wherein the electrochromic solution is located between the transparent non-conductive substrate and the Si-TFSC substrate. The solution type PV-EC device has at least the following advantages: (1) the electrodes in the PV-EC device are planarly distributed in the whole semi-transparent Si-TFSC substrate to create a uniform electric field, which makes large area PV-EC module application feasible; (2) since the PV-EC device can *Paper could be driven with low voltage and low current, the demand extremely useful for photopotential and photocurrent produced by the Si-TFSCs is lowered and thus the thickness of an intrinsic layer in each of the Si-TFSCs can be thinned, which increases the transmittance of the device, and (3) the electrical power generated by the PV-EC module can be controlled by an additional output switch layout coupled with the Si-TFSC. When illuminated by sunlight, a portion of electronic current produced by a Si-TFSC is converted into ionic current to cause color changing of the PV-EC device, while the monolithically integrated Si-TFSC module generates electricity to a connected load. In view of photoelectric conversion and optical modulation properties, the PV-EC device can both function as solar cell module and as self-powered smart glass, which has great advantages in green energy application.basis for writing report
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<li>{{Cite journal| doi ==2010."[http:1016//wwwj.enbuild.2007.sciencedirect04.com/science/article/pii/S0960148111004629/pdfft?md5006| issn = 0378-7788| volume = 40| issue =4a382e7856103f894f5e0671613d11b9&pid4| pages =1514-s2523| last = Roisin| first = B.| coauthors = M.0-S0960148111004629-mainBodart, A. Deneyer, P. D.pdf Design Herdt| title = Lighting energy savings in offices using different control systems and fabrication of diffusive solar cell window ]" their real consumption| journal =Energy and Buildings| date = 2008}}''' By Ruei-Tang Chen, Joseph Lik Hang Chau*, Gan-Lin Hwang ''' <br /><br />'''ReviewKey Features''':A diffusive solar cell window was designed and fabricated with uniformly distributed nanocompositeparticles in a light diffusive plate that was sandwiched between two glass layers. The entire compositeconstruction transfers light radiation to solar cells at the edge of the windows. It is based on a newcombination of existing technologies because of it uses mature, mass-produced components - solar cells - aswell as nanocomposite particles that are embedded inside the light-guide plate. They are integrated using aninexpensive and widely used method for making building windows. The result is an inexpensive, strong,stable, viewquality-preserving solar energy-harvesting windowthat has no close competition. The diffusivesolar cell window does not suffer from aging, and products that are made using diffusive solar cell windowtechnology will be new entries to the solar power generation window market.
*Simulations based off of DAYSIM
*Estimates energy savings due to smart dimming of lights
*Savings found to be between 45-61%
*Possibly useful for future work and background information
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<li>{{Cite journal| doi ==2010."[http:1016//wwwj.solener.2004.sciencedirect04.com/science/article/pii/S0960148113006952/pdfft?md5003| issn = 0038-092X| volume =f04761ad64232293ac38acfe378e330b&pid77| issue =1| pages = 15-s228| last = Christoph F.0| first = Reinhart| title = Lightswitch-S0960148113006952-main.pdf Modeling 2002: a model for manual and automated control of electric lighting and maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method for PV array under partial shade conditions ]" blinds| journal =Solar Energy| date = 2004}}''' By Jun Qi, Youbing Zhang, Yi Chen ''' <br /><br />'''ReviewKey Features''':Influenced by partial shade, PV module aging or fault, there are multiple peaks on PV array’s outputpowerevoltage (PeV) characteristic curve. Conventional maximum power point tracking (MPPT)methods are effective for single peak PeV characteristic under uniform solar irradiation, but they may failin global MPP tracking under multi-peak PeV characteristics. Existing methods in literature for thisproblem are still unsatisfactory in terms of effectiveness, complexity and speed. In this paper, we firstanalyze the mathematical model of PV array that is suitable for simulation of complex partial shadesituation. Then an adaptive MPPT (AMPPT) method is proposed, which can find real global maximumpower point (MPP) for different partial shade conditions. When output characteristic of PV array varies,AMPPT will adjust tracking strategies to search for global peak area (GPA). Then it is easy for conventionalMPPT to track the global MPP in GPA. Simulation and experimental results verify that the proposedAMPPT method is able to find real global MPP accurately, quickly and smoothly for complex multi-peak PeV characteristics. Comparison analysis results demonstrate that AMPPT is more effective for most shadetypes.
*Proposes a simulation algorithm that predicts the switching patterns of lightswitches
*References several papers on blind use that may be useful
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<li>{{Cite journal| doi ==2010."[http:1177//www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1010603004001091/pdfft?md51420326X9400300307| volume = 3| issue =057516a76f378fa784c82f82404097bb&pid3| pages =1135 -s2.0-S1010603004001091-main.pdf Light and energy—dye solar cells for the 21st century ]" =144| last = Newsham''' By Gavin E. Tulloch ''' <br /><br />'''Review''':Dye solar cells (DSC) are the | first commercially available third generation solar cell technology= G. DSC have been subject of increasinglaboratory research since first reported by Grätzel in 1991 [Nature 353 (1991) 737]r. Much of that work has been involved with laboratoryscale cells | title = Manual Control of less than 1 cm2. The knowledge resources required to undertake research in DSC are much broader than those necessary Window Blinds and Electric Lighting: Implications forComfort and Energy Consumptiontraditional solar cell technologies such as silicon. These elements are discussed | journal = Indoor and related to the operation of the DSC, from which theBuilt Environmentrelative advantages of DSC are gleaned.| accessdate = 2012-02-10The experience gained from laboratory work has formed the basis for market expectations concerning performance and stability of DSC| date = 1994-05-01in commercial applications| url = http://ibe. However, it has been found that there is a new set of variables to be addressed when taking the technologyfrom the laboratory cell level to the module and product levelsagepub. This paper describes the background cell technology and the module designsconsidered for the first production DSC modules and explains the reasons for selection of the preferred design for outdoor applicationscom/content/3/3/135. Aabstractnumber of alternative product designs that are expected to be commercially viable in the next several years are discussed. In conclusion}}some tandem designs demonstrate the potential of DSC for integrated products to serve the energy market.<br>
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'''Abstract:'''
Algorithms to describe the manual control of window blinds and electric light ing, in response to comfort stimuli, were incorporated into a building thermal model. By comparison with fixed control schedules, this paper examines the impact of manual control on model predictions of thermal comfort and build ing energy consumption. For a typical, south-facing office in Toronto, the ther mal comfort of an occupant close to the window was substantially improved by the provision of window blinds. Compared to an office with no blinds, mean PPD (predicted percentage of occupants dissatisfied with the thermal environment) was lowered from 22 to 13%, and overheated hours were reduced by over 200 per year. However, when the lighting was also manually controlled, the blinds imposed an energy penalty. Though reduced solar gain lowered cooling energy by 7%, heating energy increased by 17%, and reduced daylight increased lighting energy by 6 6 %. The implications of these results on the modelling of occupied buildings are discussed.
==20."[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1010603004001248/pdfft?md5=0e1fa5495be9ad066ac6cdd1fd14def8&pid=1-s2.0-S1010603004001248-main.pdf 100 mm × 100 mm large-sized dye sensitized solar cells ]" == ''' By Kenichi Okada, Hiroshi Matsui, Takuya Kawashima, Tetsuya Ezure, Nobuo Tanabe ''' <br /><br />'''ReviewKey Features''':In this study, up sizing technology of dye sensitized solar cells (DSC) was developed. Conversion efficiency of large cells was drasticallydecreased if it was fabricated by ordinary materials and processes of mini size cells, due to its high internal resistance. We investigateda method to reduce sheet resistant of transparent conductive substrates. It was found that nickel was appropriate for current correctinglines of DSCs because of its lifetime in a redox electrolyte, and low dark current density to the electrolyte. High conductive transparentsubstrates were fabricated with nickel grids formed by an electroplating process and fluorine doped SnO2/ITO double layered transparentconductive oxides. These substrates achieved low sheet resistance 0.28 and 66% light transmittance, and 4.3% conversion efficiencyin the total area, 5.1% in the active area was obtained on a 100mm × 100mm size large cell.
*Paper examines impact of manual control of window blinds and lighting for a typical south-facing office room in Toronto, ON
*Stresses user comfort over thermal efficiency
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<li>{{Cite journal| doi = 10.1191/1365782803li064oa| issn = 14771535, 00000000| volume = 35| issue = 3| pages = 243-260| last = Reinhart| first = Cf| coauthors = K Voss| title = Monitoring manual control of electric lighting and blinds| journal = Lighting Research and Technology| accessdate = 2012-02-10| date =2003-09-01| url =20."[http://wwwnparc.cisti-icist.sciencedirectnrc-cnrc.com/science/article/piigc.ca/S1364032112005242npsi/pdfftctrl?md5action=eea670d45143bdd6f3303ebceb44bc46shwart&pidindex=1-s2.0-S1364032112005242-main.pdf A current and future study on non-isolated DC–DC converters for photovoltaic applications ]"an&req=5756023&lang= en}}''' By M.H. Taghvaee a,n, M.A.M.Radzi a, S.M.Moosavain b, HashimHizam a, M.HamiruceMarhaban ''' <br /><br />'''ReviewKey Features''':Photovoltaic (PV) is a fast growing segment among renewable energy (RE) systems, whose develop- ment is owed to depleting fossil fuel and climate-changing environmental pollution. PV power output capacity, however, is still low and the associated costs still high, so efforts continue to develop PV converter and its controller, aiming for higher power-extracting efficiency and cost effectiveness. Different algorithms have been proposed for Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT). Since the choice of right converter for different application has an important influence in the optimum performance of the photovoltaic system, this paper reviews the state-of-the-art in research works on non-isolated DC–DC buck, boost, buck–boost, Cu´ k and SEPIC converters and their characteristics, to find a solution best suiting an application with Maximum Power Point Tracking. Review shows that there is a limitation in the system’s performance according to the type of converter used. In can be concluded that the best selection of DC–DC converter which is really suitable and applicable in the PV system is the buck–boost DC–DC converter since it is capable of achieving optimal operation regardless of the load value with negotiable performance efficiency and price issue
*Builds off previous research paper
*Probability of light switching based on illuminance
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<li>{{Cite journal
| doi = 10.1016/j.solener.2005.05.004
| issn = 0038-092X
| volume = 80
| issue = 5
| pages = 482-491
| last = Charron
| first = Raemi
| coauthors = Andreas K. Athienitis
| title = Optimization of the performance of double-facades with integrated photovoltaic panels and motorized blinds
| journal = Solar Energy
| date = 2006-05
}}
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'''Key Features''':
==20."[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032110004016/pdfft?md5=e356accffbb4f3f8406962e93a59710b&pid=1*System uses a double-s2.0-S1364032110004016-main.pdf A review of solar photovoltaic technologies ]" == facade system for energy capture''' By Bhubaneswari Paridaa, S. Iniyanb, Ranko Goicc ''' <br /><br />'''Review''':Global environmental concerns and the escalating demand for energy, coupled with steady progress inrenewable energy technologies, are opening up new opportunities for utilization of renewable energyresources. Solar energy is the most abundant, inexhaustible and clean of all the renewable energyresources till date. The power from sun intercepted by the earth is about 1.8×1011 MW, which is manytimes larger than the present rate of all the energy consumption. Photovoltaic technology is one of thefinest ways to harness the solar power. This paper reviews the photovoltaic technology, its power generatingcapability, the different existing light absorbing materials used, its environmental aspect coupledwith a variety of its applications. The different existing performance and reliability evaluation models,sizing and control, grid connection and distribution have also been discussed.
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<li>{{Cite journal
| doi = 10.1016/j.enbuild.2005.10.002
| issn = 0378-7788
| volume = 38
| issue = 6
| pages = 648-660
| last = Tilmann E.
| first = Kuhn
| title = Solar control: A general evaluation method for facades with venetian blinds or other solar control systems
| journal = Energy and Buildings
| date = 2006-06
}}
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<br>
'''Key Features''':
==20."[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1386947702003612/pdfft?md5=72cd848b687ea99ebfa99d3ce483f974&pid=1*More-s2.0-S1386947702003612-main.pdf Third generation photovoltaics: solar cells for 2020 and beyond ]" == ''' By Martin A. Green∗ ''' <br /><br />'''Review''':Many workingin the )eld of photovoltaics believe that ‘)rst generation’ silicon wafer-based solar cells sooner or later willbe replaced by so a ‘second generation’ of lower cost thin-)lm technology, probably also involving a di.erent semiconductor.Historically, CdS, a-Si, CuInSe2, CdTe and, more recently, thin-)lm Si have been regarded as key thin-)lm candidates.Since any mature solar cell technology is likely to evolve to the stage where costs are dominated by those study of the constituentbuilding designmaterials*Equation dense, may still be it silicon wafers or glass sheet, it is argued that photovoltaics will evolve, in its most mature form, to a ‘thirdgeneration’ of high-e4ciency thin-)lm technology. By high e4ciency, what is meant is useful for energy conversion values double orcalculationstriple the 15–20% range presently targeted. Tandem cells provide the best-known example of such high-e4ciency approaches,where e4ciency can be increased merely by adding more cells of di.erent band gap to a stack. However, a range of otherbetter-integrated approaches are possible that o.er similar e4ciency to an in)nite stack of such tandem cells. <br>
----
<li>{{Cite journal
| doi = 10.1191/1365782802li026oa
| volume = 34
| issue = 1
| pages = 11 -25
| last = Roche
| first = L
| title = Summertime performance of an automated lighting and blinds control system
| journal = Lighting Research and Technology
| accessdate = 2012-02-10
| date = 2002-03-01
| url = http://lrt.sagepub.com/content/34/1/11.abstract
}}
<br>
<br>
'''Abstract:'''
==20."[http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1190778 HIGH VOLTAGE SILICON VMJ SOLAR CELLS FOR UP TO 1000 SUNS INTENSITIES]" == ''' By Bemard L. Sater An innovative automated blind and lighting control system was developed to eliminate direct solar penetration and keep working plane illuminances within an optimal range, while making maximum use of daylight, and Neil Dminimizing blind movement. Sater ''' <br /><br />'''Review''':High voltage silicon vertical multi-junction (VMJ) Data collected from a controlled experiment indicate that the system eliminated direct solar cellsare ideally suited for glare and kept the working plane illuminance within the target range, while providing efficient operation at solarintensities exceeding 1000 suns AM1.5. This paperdiscusses the unique features only 30% more electric lighting than a theoretical system with no blinds and advantages perfect knowledge of the VMJcellworking plane illuminance. The authors believe the high output powerperformance capability and manufacturing simplicity ofVMJ cells will enable more cost-effective photovoltaicconcentrator system designs. Preliminary test data isshown for needed to provide 60% less electric lighting than a 0similar system with switchable rather than dimmable luminaires.78 cm2 VMJ cell Total blind movement varied from less than 1 min to over 6 min in one day depending on the weather, with 40 series connectedjunctions producing 31an average of 190 s.8 watts at 25.5 volts at near 2500suns AM1.5 intensity (40Similar integrated systems have the potential to save a large fraction of the electricity used for lighting, while providing an amenable visual environment.4 watts per cmz output at 211watts per cmz input with an estimated efficiency near20%)
<br>
'''Key Features''':
*Automated blind and lighting control system
*Shown to provide 60% less electric lighting
*Higher importance on staying within an illumination band than thermal
<br>
==20."[http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5739826 Photovoltaic Module Shading: Smart Grid Impacts ]" == ''' By Peter Mark Jansson, Senior Member, Kevin Whitten, Member, John L. Schmalzel, Fellow''' <br /><br />'''Review''':In the design of a solar photovoltaic system, onecriterion that continues to receive low priority is the provision ofminimum inter row spacing for photovoltaic modules.Consumers and installers alike strive to maximize area usage forsystems such that they achieve the highest amount of annualenergy output. This, in turn, leads to module rows being designedvery close to each other; with array tilt lowered in an attempt toreduce inter row shading. This design practice fails to take intoconsideration many effects that close row spacing can have onsystem output. When designing a photovoltaic array to optimizeits performance as a power generator and its contribution to theelectric grid during peak demand periods – shading concernsbecome a key consideration. This paper describes a processdeveloped at Rowan University’s Center for Sustainable Designto test the impact that inter row shading can have on poweroutput and performance across the day. A test rig and protocolwere created which tested module’s output given various depthsof shading from one row of modules upon another. The exclusionof bypass diodes in the system was also tested to view the mostextreme possible cases of power loss induced by shading. Theresults of this experimentation showed that even very smallamounts of shading upon solar photovoltaic modules can lead tosignificant loss in power generation. As more PV systems areinstalled on the utility system their availability during peak timesbecomes an ever increasing requirement for Smart Grid success.This paper also explores the ramifications that proper inter rowspacing design guidelines could have on reinforcing some of thefundamental principles of Smart Grid.----
<li>{{Cite journal
| doi = 10.1016/j.solener.2006.06.015
| issn = 0038-092X
| volume = 81
| issue = 3
| pages = 369 - 382
| last = Tzempelikos
| first = Athanassios
| coauthors = Andreas K. Athienitis
| title = The impact of shading design and control on building cooling and lighting demand
| journal = Solar Energy
| date = 2007
}}
<br>
<br>
'''Key Features''':
*Study done in Montreal, Quebec... daylight availability ratio tables
*Another good option to base writing off of
<br>
----
<li>{{Cite journal| doi ==2010."[http:1016//ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp0360-1323(87)90043-6| issn =&arnumber0360-1323| volume =4802770 Improved Energy Capture in Series String Photovoltaics via Smart Distributed Power Electronics ]" 22| issue =1| pages = 67-75''' By Leonor Linares, Student Member, IEEE, Robert W| last = M. Erickson, Fellow, IEEE, Sara MacAlpine, | first = Zaheer-Uddin| title = The influence of automated window shutters on the design and performance of a passive solar house| journal = Building andEnvironment| date = 1987}}Michael Brandemuehl ''' <br /><br />'''ReviewKey Features''':This paper proposes an improved module integratedconverter to increase energy capture in the photovoltaic (PV)series string. Prototypes for self-powered, high efficiency dc-dcconverters that operate with autonomous control for tracking themaximum power of solar panels locally and on a fine scale aresimulated, built and tested. The resulting module is a low-cost,reliable smart PV panel that operates independently of thegeometry and complexity of the surrounding system.The controller maximizes energy capture by selection of one ofthree possible modes: buck, boost and pass-through.Autonomous controllers achieve noninteracting maximum powerpoint tracking and a constant string voltage.The proposed module-integrated converters are verified insimulation. Experimental results show that the converterprototype achieves efficiencies of over 95% for most of itsoperating range. A 3-module PV series string was tested undermismatched solar irradiation conditions and increases of up to38% power capture were measured.
<br>
----
<li>{{Cite book
| publisher = Chelsea Green Publishing
| isbn = 9781933392035
| last = Kachadorian
| first = James
| title = The passive solar house
| date = 2006-07-31
}}
<br>
<br>
'''Key Features''':
==20."[http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1338094 Application of Adaptive Algorithm of Solar cell battery charger ]" == ''' By Cong*Book about general passive house information (Do-Ling Hou, Jie Wu, Miao Zhang , JinIt-Ming Yang and Jin-Peng Li ''' <br /><br />'''Review''':This paper presents the adaptive algorithm toYourself type book)resolve the problem in the maximum power point tracking(MPPT) of *Chapter about solar cell battery charger and applies it in thedesign for MPPT system. Results of the research show thatcalculationsthe adaptive algorithm has not only accelerated thecalculating speed and strengthen the searchingperformances, but also has the high tracking precision.<br>
----
<li>{{Cite journal
| doi = 10.1109/JSEN.2008.922692
| issn = 1530-437X
| volume = 8
| issue = 6
| pages = 678-681
| last = Li
| first = Yanqiu
| coauthors = Hongyun Yu, Bo Su, Yonghong Shang
| title = Hybrid Micropower Source for Wireless Sensor Network
| journal = IEEE Sensors Journal
| accessdate = 2012-02-07
| date = 2008-06
| url = http://services.lib.mtu.edu:2107/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=4529197&tag=1
}}
<br>
<br>
'''Key Features''':
*Utilizes a hybrid energy system (Li-ion batteries and ultracapacitors)
*Entire paper on power source
*Little design information
<br>
==20."[http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1574918 A Study of the Remaining Battery Power Indication Circuit for Independent Solar Cell Control Systems ]" == ''' By S. Usudal, T. Sunagawal, K. Miyoshi2 and J. Lei3IIndustrial Systems Engineering, Osaka Prefectural College of Technology, Osaka, Japan2Tsukasa Electric Industry Co.,Ltd, Osaka, Japan ''' <br /><br />'''Review''':An independent solar cell control system operateswithout supply from an external commercial powersource. The system usually consists of solar cells, a storagebattery, a DC load and a control circuit. For systems of thiskind, it is very important to equip them with a recharge anddischarge function that can work efficiently in all seasonsand a function with which to tell the battery operation status.This paper is to report on our study of battery recharge anddischarge characteristics for designing a circuit that indicatesremaining power in the solar-cell battery. The studyalso includes the developing of a method to design the saidcircuit, as well as primary performance and field tests on atrial product of the circuit we designed using that method.---
<li>{{Cite journal
| doi = 10.1109/TPEL.2008.2009056
| issn = 0885-8993
| volume = 24
| issue = 4
| pages = 952-962
| last = Kimball
| first = Jonathan W.
| coauthors = Brian T. Kuhn, Robert S. Balog
| title = A System Design Approach for Unattended Solar Energy Harvesting Supply
| journal = IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics
| accessdate = 2012-02-07
| date = 2009-04
| url = http://services.lib.mtu.edu:2107/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=4812334
}}
<br>
<br>
'''Abstract:'''Remote devices, such as sensors and communications devices, require continuously available power. In many applications, conventional approaches are too expensive, too large, or unreliable. For short-term needs, primary batteries may be used. However, they do not scale up well for long-term installations. Instead, energy harvesting methods must be used. Here, a system design approach is introduced that results in a highly reliable, highly available energy harvesting device for remote applications. First, a simulation method that uses climate data and target availability produces Pareto curves for energy storage and generation. This step determines the energy storage requirement in watt-hours and the energy generation requirement in watts. Cost, size, reliability, and longevity requirements are considered to choose particular storage and generation technologies, and then to specify particular components. The overall energy processing system is designed for modularity, fault tolerance, and energy flow control capability. Maximum power point tracking is used to optimize solar panel performance. The result is a highly reliable, highly available power source. Several prototypes have been constructed and tested. Experimental results are shown for one device that uses multicrystalline silicon solar cells and lithium-iron-phosphate batteries to achieve 100% availability. Future designers can use the same approach to design systems for a wide range of power requirements and installation locations.
<br>
'''Key Features''':
*Good Design flow diagrams
*Good information on energy storage options
*Well written, a good basis for energy information
<br>
==20."[http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5751225 Solar Cell as a Capacitive Temperature Sensor ]" == ''' By H. ANANTHA KRISHNAN. K. MISRAISRO Satellite CentreM. S. SURESHBNM Institute of Technology ''' <br /><br />'''Review''':Spacecrafts in geostationary Earth orbit and low Earth polarorbit experience temperatures in the range of ¡180±C to 80±C[1, 2] depending on the orbit. Solar cells are mounted on lightweight aluminum honeycomb panels which are deployed and Sunpointed in on-orbit operation. Solar panels charge batteries andsupply power to the satellite during sunlit period and batteriessupply power during eclipse period. The open circuit voltage(Voc) of a silicon solar cell varies by about ¡2:5 mV=±C [3]and temperature can bring about a dramatic change in thesolar cell characteristic, particularly with reference to operatingvoltage. PRT mounted on the rare of the solar panel measurethe temperature of the solar panel. This introduces errors dueto temperature gradients between solar cell blanket and solarpanel and slow transient response of PRTs. A method of usingsolar cell capacitance to measure the temperature of solar cellblanket is proposed. This removes error due to location andtransient response of PRT. Solar cell as a temperature sensor formeasurement of temperature is demonstrated.---
<li>{{Cite conference
| publisher = IEEE
| doi = 10.1109/UPEC.2006.367719
| isbn = 978-186135-342-9
| pages = 79-83
| last = Glavin
| first = M.
| coauthors = W.G. Hurley
| title = Battery Management System for Solar Energy Applications
| accessdate = 2012-02-08
| date = 2006-09
| url = http://services.lib.mtu.edu:2107/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=4218648
}}
<br>
<br>
'''Abstract:'''Generally in photovoltaic applications the storage battery has the highest life time cost in the system; it has a profound affect on the reliability and performance of the system. Currently the most commonly used storage technology for photovoltaic applications is the lead acid battery. The advantages of the lead acid battery are its low cost and great availability. The problem is that photovoltaic panels are not an ideal source for charging batteries. With the lead acid battery the charging regime may have a significant impact on its service life. The battery management system described in this paper aims to optimize the use of the battery, to prolong the life of the battery, making the overall system more reliable and cost effective. Maximum power point tracking will also be incorporated into the battery management system, to move the solar array operating voltage close to the maximum power point under varying atmospheric conditions, in order to draw the maximum power from the array. This paper will describe different battery technologies that are currently used with photovoltaic systems along with some of the charging techniques that are available
<br>
'''Key Features''':
==1."[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0016328702000083 Photovoltaics — *Mentions a path to sustainable futures]" ==few different storage technologies (mostly nickel metal and ultracaps) *Some simple background on MPPTs*All around not a very detailed paper'''By Joshua M Pearce'''<br /><br /> '''Review''':As both population and energy use per capita increase, modern society is approaching physical limits to its continued fossil fuel consumption. The immediate limits are set by the planet’s ability to adapt to a changing atmospheric chemical composition, not the availability of resources. In order for a future society to be sustainable while operating at or above our current standard of living a shift away from carbon based energy sources must occur. An overview of the current state of active solar (photovoltaic, PV) energy technology is provided here to outline a partial solution for the environmental problems caused by accelerating global energy expenditure. The technical, social, and economic benefits and limitations of PV technologies to provide electricity in both off-grid and on-grid applications is critically analyzed in the context of this shift in energy sources. It is shown that PV electrical production is a technologically feasible, economically viable, environmentally benign, sustainable, and socially equitable solution to society’s future energy requirements.
==2."[http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4529197 Hybrid Micropower Source for Wireless Sensor Network]" == ----
'''By Yanqiu Li<li>{{Cite journal| doi = 10.1109/TCSI.2009.2015690| issn = 1549-8328, Hongyun Yu1558-0806| volume = 56| issue = 11| pages = 2519-2528| last = Brunelli| first = D.| coauthors = C. Moser, Bo SuL. Thiele, and Yonghong Shang'''<br /><br />L. Benini'''Review''':Wireless sensor networks have become | title = Design of a very significantSolar-Harvesting Circuit for Batteryless Embedded Systemsenabling technology in many applications | journal = IEEE Transactions on Circuits and the use ofSystems I: Regular Papers| accessdate = 2012-02-08environmental energy is a feasible source for low| date = 2009-power wireless11sensor networks| url = http://services.lib.mtu.edu:2107/xpls/abs_all. jsp?arnumber=4785219}}<br>Abstact:The challenges limited battery lifetime of developing a power supply includinggeneration modern embedded systems and mobile devices necessitates frequent battery recharging or conversion, storage, replacement. Solar energy and power managementsmall-size photovoltaic (PV) systems are manifold attractive solutions to extend increase the lifetime autonomy of embedded and personal devices attempting to achieve perpetual operation. We present a wireless sensor network.The objective of this research battery less solar-harvesting circuit that is tailored to develop an intelligent hybridthe needs of low-power system to realize a self-sustaining wireless sensor nodeapplications. Thephotovoltaic harvester performs maximum-power-point tracking of solar energy collection under nonstationary light conditions, with high efficiency and thermoelectric generators are adopted as low energyconverterscost exploiting miniaturized PV modules. The lithium ion battery We characterize the performance of the circuit by means of simulation and extensive testing under various charging and ultracapacitor are usedas reservoirsdischarging conditions. An intelligent power management system Much attention has beendeveloped given to control identify the power distributionlosses of the different circuit components. The design data andexperimental results Results show that the hybrid micropower source our system canextend achieve low power consumption with increased efficiency and cheap implementation. We discuss how the lifetime scavenger improves upon state-of -the-art technology with a sensor networkmeasured power consumption of less than 1 mW. We obtain increments of global efficiency up to 80%, diverging from ideality by less than 10%. Moreover, we analyze the behavior of super capacitors. We find that the voltage across the supercapacitor may be an unreliable indicator for the stored energy under some circumstances, and this should be taken into account when energy management policies are used.<br>'''Key Features''':
*Uses an ultracapacitor
*Section specifically about ultracapacitor analysis and problems
*Section specifically about System problems (MPPT)
<br>
==4."[http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4218648 Battery Management System for Solar Energy Applications ]" == ----
'''By <li>{{Cite conference| publisher = IEEE| doi = 10.1109/EPEPEMC.2008.4635510| isbn = 978-1-4244-1741-4| pages = 1688-1695| last = Glavin, | first = M. ; NatE.| coauthors = Paul K. UnivW. of IrelandChan, Galway ; HurleyS. Armstrong, W.G.''' Hurley| title = A stand-alone photovoltaic supercapacitor battery hybrid energy storage system| accessdate = 2012-02-08| date = 2008-09| url = http://services.lib.mtu.edu:2107/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=4635510}}<br /><br />'''ReviewAbstract:''':Generally in Most of the stand-alone photovoltaic applications the (PV) systems require an energy storage battery has buffer to supply continuous energy to the highest life time cost in the system; it has load when there is inadequate solar irradiation. Typically, Valve Regulated Lead Acid (VRLA) batteries are utilized for this application. However, supplying a profound affect on the reliability and performance large burst of current, such as motor startup, from the system. Currently the most commonly used storage technology for photovoltaic applications is the lead acid battery. The advantages degrades battery plates, resulting in destruction of the lead acid battery are its low cost and great availability. The problem An alterative way of supplying large bursts of current is that photovoltaic panels are not an ideal source for charging to combine VRLA batteries. With and supercapacitors to form a hybrid storage system, where the lead acid battery can supply continuous energy and the supercapacitor can supply the instant power to the charging regime may have a significant impact on its service lifeload. The battery management system described in In this paper aims to optimize the use of the battery, to prolong the life role of the battery, making supercapacitor in a PV energy control unit (ECU) is investigated by using Matlab/Simulink models. The ECU monitors and optimizes the overall system more reliable and cost effective. Maximum power point tracking will also be incorporated into flow from the battery management system, PV to move the solar array operating voltage close to battery-supercapacitor hybrid and the maximum power point under varying atmospheric load. Three different load conditionsare studied, including a peak current load, in order to draw pulsating current load and a constant current load. The simulation results show that the maximum hybrid storage system can achieve higher specific power from than the arraybattery storage system. This paper will describe different battery technologies that are currently used with photovoltaic systems along with some of the charging techniques that are available<br>'''Key Features''':
*Utilizes an ultracapacitor/battery hybrid system
*Contains matlab model results for PV system, battery, and ultracapacitor
*Purely theoretical
<br>
----
<li>{{Cite conference
| publisher = IEEE
| doi = 10.1109/ECCE.2010.5618014
| isbn = 978-1-4244-5286-6
| pages = 336-341
| last = Liu
| first = Xiong
| coauthors = Peng Wang, Poh Chiang Loh, Feng Gao, Fook Hoong Choo
| title = Control of hybrid battery/ultra-capacitor energy storage for stand-alone photovoltaic system
| accessdate = 2012-02-08
| date = 2010-09
| url = http://services.lib.mtu.edu:2107/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=5618014
}}
<br>
<br>
'''Abstract:'''Battery life is an important criterion in a stand-alone photovoltaic system operation due to intermittent characteristic of solar irradiation and demand. This paper presents a stand-alone photovoltaic system with Ni-MH battery and ultra-capacitor serving as its energy storage elements. A control strategy is proposed in this paper to reduce charging and discharging cycles and avoid deep discharges of battery. The battery converter is controlled in current mode to track a charging/discharging reference current which is given by energy management system, whereas the ultra-capacitor converter is controlled to corporate solar irradiation fluctuations, load spikes and variations to maintain a stable dc-link voltage. Isolated PV system with the proposed control schemes is created using MATLAB SIMULINK. An optimum performance is achieved to serve as both high power and high energy sources due to complementary characteristic of battery and ultra-capacitor.
<br>
'''Key Features''':
*Good DC/DC Converter schematic and calculations and results
*Detailed information for power electronics design
<br>
==5."[http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4785219 Design of a Solar-Harvesting Circuit for Batteryless Embedded Systems ]" == ''' By Brunelli, D. ; Dept. of Electron., Comput. Sci. & Syst. (DEIS), Univ. of Bologna, Bologna, Italy ; Moser, C. ; Thiele, L. ; Benini, L'''<br /><br />'''Review''':The limited battery lifetime of modern embedded systems and mobile devices necessitates frequent battery recharging or replacement. Solar energy and small-size photovoltaic (PV) systems are attractive solutions to increase the autonomy of embedded and personal devices attempting to achieve perpetual operation. We present a battery less solar-harvesting circuit that is tailored to the needs of low-power applications. The harvester performs maximum-power-point tracking of solar energy collection under nonstationary light conditions, with high efficiency and low energy cost exploiting miniaturized PV modules. We characterize the performance of the circuit by means of simulation and extensive testing under various charging and discharging conditions. Much attention has been given to identify the power losses of the different circuit components. Results show that our system can achieve low power consumption with increased efficiency and cheap implementation. We discuss how the scavenger improves upon state-of-the-art technology with a measured power consumption of less than 1 mW. We obtain increments of global efficiency up to 80%, diverging from ideality by less than 10%. Moreover, we analyze the behavior of super capacitors. We find that the voltage across the supercapacitor may be an unreliable indicator for the stored energy under some circumstances, and this should be taken into account when energy management policies are used.
<li>{{Cite web
| publisher = Maxwell Technologies
| title = Maxwell Technologies - Products - Ultracapacitors - K2 Series
| accessdate = 2012-02-10
| url = http://www.maxwell.com/products/ultracapacitors/product.aspx?pid=K2-SERIES
}}
<br>
Overview:Maxwell Technologies’ K2 series of ultracapacitor cells provide extended power availability, allowing critical information and functions to remain available during dips, sags, and outages in the main power source. In addition, it can relieve batteries of burst power functions, thereby reducing costs and maximizing space and energy efficiency. The ultracapacitor features a cylindrical design and an electrostatic storage capability that can cycle a million charges and discharges without performance degradation. They are available in quick and easy to implement threaded terminals or in compact, weldable terminals.
<br>
'''Key Features''':
*Data sheet for specified ultracapacitors
<br>
----
<li>{{Cite conference| publisher ==6E.T."[http://ieeexploreS.ieeeI.org/stamp/stampI.jsp?tpValladolid University| last =&arnumberVasquez| first =4635510 A stand-alone photovoltaic supercapacitor battery hybrid energy storage system]" Jose| coauthors == '''By GlavinFernando Rodrigo, M.E. ; Power Electron. Res. CentreJose Ruiz, NatSantiago Matilla| title = Using Ultracapacitors in Photovoltaic Systems. UnivA technical proposal| accessdate = 2012-02-10| url = http://www. of Ireland, Galway ; Chan, Picrepq.Kcom/icrepq06/273_dominguez.W. ; Armstrong, S. ; Hurley, W.G.''' pdf}}<br /><br />'''ReviewAbstract:''':Most In this paper we expose a new strategy to deliver thepower of the stand-alone photovoltaic a Photovoltaic (PVor any other energy sourceof small power) systems require an energy storage buffer to supply continuous energy System attached to the load when there is inadequate solar irradiationmain. Typically, Valve Regulated Lead Acid (VRLA) batteries are utilized for this application. However, supplying a large burst Theobject of current, such as motor startup, from the implementation of a battery degrades battery plates, resulting ofultracapacitors in destruction of the battery. An alterative way of supplying large bursts of current photovoltaic system is to combine VRLA batteries and supercapacitors to form convert a hybrid storage system, where the battery can supply continuous energy and the supercapacitor can supply the instant variable power delivery to constant power.This will improve the loadenergy efficiency by two ways. In this paper, the role One is to take advantage of the supercapacitor time in a PV energy control unit (ECU) is investigated by using Matlab/Simulink models. The ECU monitors and optimizes which thesystem does not work because the power flow from the PV to the battery-supercapacitor hybrid and the loadis toolow (irradiation). Three different load conditions are studied, including a peak current load, pulsating current load and a constant current load. The simulation results show Another advantage is that the hybrid storage system can achieve higher specific outputpower is lower than the battery storage systeminput power.<br>'''Key Features''':
*Not dated
*Not published
*Equation dense
*May be able to use conclusion for background information
<br>
----
<li>{{Cite book
| publisher = Chelsea Green Publishing
| isbn = 9781931498128
| last = Chiras
| first = Daniel D.
| title = The solar house: passive heating and cooling
| date = 2002
}}
<br>
<br>
'''Key Features''':
==7."[http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp*Another book about general passive house information*More in depth approach*Section about best places in US for passive heating/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5618014 Photovoltaics — Control of hybrid battery/ultra-capacitor energy storage for stand-alone photovoltaic system]" == cooling
'''By Xiong Liu ; Div. of Power Eng., Nanyang Technol. Univ., Singapore, Singapore ; Peng Wang ; Poh Chiang Loh ; Feng Gao ''' <br /><br />'''Review''':Battery life is an important criterion in a stand-alone photovoltaic system operation due to intermittent characteristic of solar irradiation and demand. This paper presents a stand-alone photovoltaic system with Ni-MH battery and ultra-capacitor serving as its energy storage elements. A control strategy is proposed in this paper to reduce charging and discharging cycles and avoid deep discharges of battery. The battery converter is controlled in current mode to track a charging/discharging reference current which is given by energy management system, whereas the ultra-capacitor converter is controlled to corporate solar irradiation fluctuations, load spikes and variations to maintain a stable dc-link voltage. Isolated PV system with the proposed control schemes is created using MATLAB SIMULINK. An optimum performance is achieved to serve as both high power and high energy sources due to complementary characteristic of battery and ultra-capacitor.
----
<br>
<li>{{Cite journal
| doi = 10.1109/63.65005
| issn = 08858993
| volume = 6
| issue = 1
| pages = 73-82
| last = Enslin
| first = J.H.R.
| coauthors = D.B. Snyman
| title = Combined low-cost, high-efficient inverter, peak power tracker and regulator for PV applications
| journal = IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics
| accessdate = 2012-02-10
| date = 1991-01
| url = http://services.lib.mtu.edu:2107/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=65005&tag=1
}}
<br>
<br>
'''Abstract:'''A novel compound power converter that serves as a DC-to-AC inverter, maximum power point tracker (MPPT), and battery charger for stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) power systems is introduced. A theoretical analysis of the proposed converter is performed, and the results are compared with experimental results obtained from a 1.5 kW prototype. The overall cost of PV systems can thus be reduced by using load management control and efficiency-optimization techniques. Power flow through the converter is controlled by means of a combination of duty cycle and output frequency control. With load management, large domestic loads, such as single phase induction motors for water pumping, hold-over refrigerators, and freezers, can be driven by day at a much higher energy efficiency. This is due to the high efficiency of the inverter with high insolation, and because the inverter uses the energy directly from the solar array. The battery loss component is thus reduced.
<br>
'''Key Features''':
==8."[http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=65005 Combined *Emphasises low-cost, high*MPPT only*Schematics*AC application -efficient inverter, peak power tracker and regulator for PV applications ]" == may not be useful''' By Enslin, J.H.R. ; Dept. of Electr. Eng., Pretoria Univ., South Africa ; Snyman, D.B.''' <br /><br />'''Review''':A novel compound power converter that serves as a DC-to-AC inverter, maximum power point tracker (MPPT), and battery charger for stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) power systems is introduced. A theoretical analysis of the proposed converter is performed, and the results are compared with experimental results obtained from a 1.5 kW prototype. The overall cost of PV systems can thus be reduced by using load management control and efficiency-optimization techniques. Power flow through the converter is controlled by means of a combination of duty cycle and output frequency control. With load management, large domestic loads, such as single phase induction motors for water pumping, hold-over refrigerators, and freezers, can be driven by day at a much higher energy efficiency. This is due to the high efficiency of the inverter with high insolation, and because the inverter uses the energy directly from the solar array. The battery loss component is thus reduced
----
<li>{{Cite journal
| doi = 10.1109/60.282492
| issn = 08858969
| volume = 9
| issue = 1
| pages = 192-198
| last = Alghuwainem
| first = S.M.
| title = Matching of a DC motor to a photovoltaic generator using a step-up converter with a current-locked loop
| journal = IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion
| accessdate = 2012-02-10
| date = 1994-03
| url = http://services.lib.mtu.edu:2107/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=282492
}}
<br>
<br>
'''Abstract:'''A photovoltaic (PV) generator is a nonlinear device having insolation-dependent volt-ampere characteristics. Because of its relatively high cost, the system designer is interested in optimum matching of the motor and its mechanical load to the PV generator so that maximum power is obtained during the entire operating period. However, since the maximum-power point varies with solar insolation, it is difficult to achieve an optimum matching that is valid for all insolation levels. In this paper it is shown that for maximum power, the generator current must be directly proportional to insolation. This remarkable property is utilized to achieve insolation-independent optimum matching. A shunt DC motor driving a centrifugal water pump is supplied from a PV generator via a step-up converter whose duty ratio is controlled using a current-locked feedback loop.
<br>
'''Key Features''':
==9."[http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=282492 Matching of *Applications load is a DC motor to a photovoltaic generator using a step-up converter with a current-locked loop ]" == ''' By Alghuwainem, S.M. ; Dept. of Electr. Eng., King Saud Univ., Riyadh, Saudi Arabia ''' <br />*Much higher power application<br />'''Review''':A photovoltaic (PV) generator is a nonlinear device having insolation-dependent volt-ampere characteristics. Because of its relatively high cost, the system designer is interested in optimum matching of the motor and its mechanical load to the PV generator so that maximum power is obtained during the entire operating period. However, since the maximum-power point varies with solar insolation, it is difficult to achieve an optimum matching that is valid for all insolation levels. In this paper it is shown that for maximum power, the generator current must be directly proportional to insolation. This remarkable property is utilized to achieve insolation-independent optimum matching. A shunt DC motor driving a centrifugal water pump is supplied from a PV generator via a step-up converter whose duty ratio is controlled using a current-locked feedback loop
----
<li>{{Cite journal
| doi = 10.1109/TPEL.2007.892346
| issn = 0885-8993
| volume = 22
| issue = 2
| pages = 698-700
| last = Pandey
| first = Ashish
| coauthors = Nivedita Dasgupta, Ashok K. Mukerjee
| title = A Simple Single-Sensor MPPT Solution
| journal = IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics
| accessdate = 2012-02-10
| date = 2007-03
| url = http://services.lib.mtu.edu:2107/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=4118324
}}
<br>
<br>
'''Abstract:'''Maximum power point trackers (MPPTs) are used to ensure optimal utilization of solar cells. The implementation essentially involves sensing input current and voltage. An MPPT algorithm uses this information to maximize power drawn from the solar cells. Understandably, such realization is costly. Current state of the art allows replacing one of the sensors by complicated computations. In the present work, an empirical observation is used to develop a strategy, which employs a single voltage sensor and carries out simple computations for a buck converter-based MPPT.
<br>
'''Key Features''':
==10."[http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4118324 A Simple Single-Sensor *Introduces a method for simple MPPT Solution ]" == algorithms*Regarded as costly*Analysis is very simple''' By Pandey, A. ; Rocsys Technol., Hyderabad ; Dasgupta, N. ; Mukerjee, A.K.''' <br /><br />'''Review''':Maximum power point trackers (MPPTs) are used to ensure optimal utilization of solar cells. The implementation essentially involves sensing input current and voltage. An MPPT algorithm uses this information to maximize power drawn from the solar cells. Understandably, such realization is costly. Current state of the art allows replacing one of the sensors by complicated computations. In the present work, an empirical observation is used to develop a strategy, which employs a single voltage sensor and carries out simple computations for a buck converter-based MPPT
----
<li>{{Cite conference| publisher =IEEE| doi =1110."[http:1109//ieeexploreIECON.1990.149286| isbn = 0-87942-600-4| pages = 1073-1077| last = Enslin| first = J.ieeeH.org/stamp/stampR.jsp?tp=&arnumber| title =149286 Maximum power point tracking: a cost saving necessity in solar energy systems ]" | accessdate =2012-02-10| url = ''' By Enslin, Jhttp://services.Hlib.Rmtu. ; Deptedu:2107/xpls/abs_all. of Electr. Eng., Pretoria Univ., South Africa ''' jsp?arnumber=149286}}<br /><br />'''ReviewKey Features''':It is argued that a well-engineered renewable remote energy system utilizing the principal of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) can be cost effective, has a high reliability, and can improve the quality of life in remote areas. A highly efficient power electronic converter for converting the output voltage of a solar panel or wind generator to the required DC battery bus voltage has been realized. The converter is controlled to track the maximum power point of the nput source under varying input and output parameters. MPPT for relatively small systems is achieved by maximization of the output current in a battery charging regulator, using an optimized hill-climbing, inexpensive microprocessor-based algorithm. Through field measurements it is shown that a minimum input source saving of 15% on 3-5 kWh/day systems can easily be achieved
*Possible usage for background in paper
*MPPT algorithm explained
<br>
==12."[http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4207429 Comparison of Photovoltaic Array Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques ]" == ''' By Esram, T. ; Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL ; Chapman, P.L.''' <br /><br />'''Review''':The many different techniques for maximum power point tracking of photovoltaic (PV) arrays are discussed. The techniques are taken from the literature dating back to the earliest methods. It is shown that at least 19 distinct methods have been introduced in the literature, with many variations on implementation. This paper should serve as a convenient reference for future work in PV power generation.----
<li>{{Cite journal
| doi = 10.1109/TEC.2006.874230
| issn = 0885-8969
| volume = 22
| issue = 2
| pages = 439-449
| last = Esram
| first = Trishan
| coauthors = Patrick L. Chapman
| title = Comparison of Photovoltaic Array Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques
| journal = IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion
| accessdate = 2012-02-10
| date = 2007-06
| url = http://services.lib.mtu.edu:2107/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=4207429
}}
<br>
<br>
'''Abstract:'''It is argued that a well-engineered renewable remote energy system utilizing the principal of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) can be cost effective, has a high reliability, and can improve the quality of life in remote areas. A highly efficient power electronic converter for converting the output voltage of a solar panel or wind generator to the required DC battery bus voltage has been realized. The converter is controlled to track the maximum power point of the nput source under varying input and output parameters. MPPT for relatively small systems is achieved by maximization of the output current in a battery charging regulator, using an optimized hill-climbing, inexpensive microprocessor-based algorithm. Through field measurements it is shown that a minimum input source saving of 15% on 3-5 kWh/day systems can easily be achieved
<br>
'''Key Features''':
==13."[http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=649937 Integrated photovoltaic maximum power point tracking converter ]" == *Well cited paper*Definitive paper for MPPT*Well defined problem statement''' By Enslin, J.H.R. ; Dept. of Electr. & Electron. Eng., Stellenbosch Univ., South Africa ; Wolf, M.S. ; Snyman, D.B. ; Swiegers, W.''' <br /><br />'''Review''':A low-power low-cost highly efficient maximum power point tracker (MPPT) to be integrated into a photovoltaic (PV) panel is proposed. This can result in a 25% energy enhancement compared to a standard photovoltaic panel, while performing functions like battery voltage regulation and matching of the PV array with the load. Instead of using an externally connected MPPT, it is proposed to use an integrated MPPT converter as part of the PV panel. It is proposed that this integrated MPPT uses a simple controller in order to be cost effective. Furthermore, the power converter has to be very efficient, in order to transfer more energy to the load than a directly-coupled system. This is achieved by using a simple soft-switched topology. A much higher conversion efficiency at lower cost will then result, making the MPPT an affordable solution for small PV energy systems
----
<li>{{Cite journal| volume =21| issue = 1| pages = 49-56| last =14."[http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tpWalker| first =&arnumberGeoff| title =707796 A fuzzy logic based photovoltaic peak power tracking control ]" Evaluating MPPT converter topologies using a MATLAB PV model| journal =Journal of Electrical Electronics Engineering| date = 2001}}''' By Simoes, M.G. ; PMC/Mechatronics, Sao Paulo Univ., Brazil ; Franceschetti, N.N. ; Friedhofer, M.''' <br /><br />'''ReviewKey Features''':This paper describes the analysis, modeling and implementation of a fuzzy based photovoltaic peak power tracking system. The maximum power of a photovoltaic system changes with temperature, solar intensity and load. An analytical model is built for the solar cell on the basis of the manufacturer characteristics. The solar panel is integrated with the converter model and a fuzzy algorithm is developed so as to perform an on-line search procedure to track the maximum power continuously. The system is implemented by an inexpensive RISC microcontroller. Experimental results have shown excellent performance, robustness with parameter variation, modularity for parallel operation at higher power, and ready to retrofit existing installations
*Theoretical approach
*Includes model code
*Presents MPPT equations
<br>
==15."[http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5725334 An efficient method of MPPT tracking system of a solar powered Uninterruptible Power Supply application ]" == ''' By Thulasiyammal, C. ; Dept. of ICE, AVC Coll. of Eng., Mayiladuthurai, India ; Sutha, S.''' <br /><br />'''Review''':The study deals with an innovative system achieving an alternative source of energy supply from photovoltaic energy system which operates in case of utility power failure and provides continuity of supply even in medical appliances or industrial applications. It is also designed to reduce usage of utility supply which is generated from coals, nuclear having more carbons as outlets, lagging of sources and providing impure power to consumers. But the solar power is a pure and precious resource and no more impure outlets other disadvantages as like high initial cost. But the economical status may be improved in future but we may not have resource to generate power sometimes. So cost criteria can be meeting out in future to generate power from solar energy. The proposed PV system is composed of conventional novel single axis tracking system and PV system with DC-DC boost converter and PWM voltage source inverter. Here the tracking system is designed to get always 12 V dc output. This voltage is taken as input to the proposed method to maximize the output.---
<li>{{Cite journal
| doi = 10.1109/41.649937
| issn = 02780046
| volume = 44
| issue = 6
| pages = 769-773
| last = Enslin
| first = J.H.R.
| coauthors = M.S. Wolf, D.B. Snyman, W. Swiegers
| title = Integrated photovoltaic maximum power point tracking converter
| journal = IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
| accessdate = 2012-02-10
| date = 1997-12
| url = http://services.lib.mtu.edu:2107/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=649937
}}
<br>
<br>
'''Abstract:'''A low-power low-cost highly efficient maximum power point tracker (MPPT) to be integrated into a photovoltaic (PV) panel is proposed. This can result in a 25% energy enhancement compared to a standard photovoltaic panel, while performing functions like battery voltage regulation and matching of the PV array with the load. Instead of using an externally connected MPPT, it is proposed to use an integrated MPPT converter as part of the PV panel. It is proposed that this integrated MPPT uses a simple controller in order to be cost effective. Furthermore, the power converter has to be very efficient, in order to transfer more energy to the load than a directly-coupled system. This is achieved by using a simple soft-switched topology. A much higher conversion efficiency at lower cost will then result, making the MPPT an affordable solution for small PV energy systems.
<br>
'''Key Features''':
==16."[http://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=1147764&ftid=370257&dwn=1&CFID=286603648&CFTOKEN=48950420 Design Considerations for Solar Energy Harvesting Wireless Embedded Systems ]" == *MPPT schematics and results''' By Vijay Raghunathan, Aman Kansal, Jason Hsu, Jonathan Friedman, and Mani Srivastava''' <br /><br />'''Review''':Sustainable operation of battery powered wireless embedded systems (such as sensor nodes) is a key challenge, and considerable research effort has been devoted to energy optimization of such systems. Environmental energy harvesting, in particular solar based, has emerged as a viable technique to supplement battery supplies. However, designing an efficient solar harvesting system to realize the potential benefits of energy harvesting requires an in-depth understanding of several factors. For example, solar energy supply is highly time varying and may not always be sufficient to power the embedded system. Harvesting components, such as solar panels, and energy storage elements, such as batteries or ultracapacitors, have different voltage-current characteristics, which must be matched to each other as well as the energy requirements of the system to maximize harvesting efficiency. Further, battery non-idealities, such as self-discharge and round trip efficiency, directly affect energy usage and storage decisions. The ability of the system to modulate its power consumption by selectively deactivating its sub-components also impacts the overall power management architecture. This paper describes key issues and tradeoffs which arise in the design of solar energy harvesting, wireless embedded systems and presents the design, implementation, and performance evaluation of Heliomote, our prototype that addresses several of these issues. Experimental results demonstrate that Heliomote, which behaves as a plug-in to the Berkeley/Crossbow motes and autonomously manages energy harvesting and storage, enables near-perpetual, harvesting aware operation of the sensor node.
----
<li>{{Cite conference| publisher = IEEE| doi = 10.1109/ISIE.1998.707796| isbn = 0-7803-4756-0| volume =1| pages =17300-305| last = Simoes| first = M."[G.| coauthors = N.N. Franceschetti, M. Friedhofer| title = A fuzzy logic based photovoltaic peak power tracking control| accessdate = 2012-02-10| url = http://wwwservices.mdpilib.commtu.edu:2107/1424-8220xpls/6/9/1102/pdf Self-Powered Wireless Sensor Networks for Remote Patient Monitoring in Hospitals ]" =abs_all.jsp?arnumber= 707796}}''' By Abhiman Hande , Todd Polk, William Walker and Dinesh Bhatia''' <br /><br />'''ReviewAbstract:''': Patient vital sign monitoring within hospitals requires the use of non-invasivesensors that are hardwired to bedside monitors. This set-up is cumbersome, forcing thepatient to be confined to his hospital bed thereby not allowing him to move around freelywithin the hospital premises. This paper addresses describes the use analysis, modeling and implementation of wireless sensor networks formonitoring patient vital sign data in a hospital setting. Crossbow MICAz motes have beenused to design a robust mesh network that routes patient data to a remote base station withinthe hospital premises. A hospital care giver can have access to this data at any point in timeand doesn’t have to be physically present in the patient’s room to review the readings. Thenetwork infrastructure nodes are self-powered and draw energy from overhead 34Wfluorescent lights via solar panelsfuzzy based photovoltaic peak power tracking system. The sensor nodes can be interfaced to a variety maximum power of vitalsign sensors such as electrocardiograms (ECGs), pulse-oximeters and blood pressure (BP)sensors. In order to verify a completely functioning photovoltaic systemchanges with temperature, a commercial BP/heart-ratemonitor (BPM) was interfaced to a wireless sensor nodesolar intensity and load. The sensor node controls An analytical model is built for the BPMto initiate a reading, then collects solar cell on the data and forwards it to basis of the base stationmanufacturer characteristics. An attractivegraphical user interface (GUI) was designed The solar panel is integrated with the converter model and a fuzzy algorithm is developed so as to store and display patient data perform an on -line search procedure to track the basestation PCmaximum power continuously. The set-up was found to be extremely robust system is implemented by an inexpensive RISC microcontroller. Experimental results have shown excellent performance, robustness with low parameter variation, modularity for parallel operation at higher power consumption, and ready to retrofit existing installations.<br>'''Key Features''':
==18."[http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5231747 Solar Energy Harvesting for Wireless Sensor Networks ]" == *Well documented algorithm (Fuzzy logic)''' By Bhuvaneswari, P.T.V. ; MITWSN Lab., Anna Univ., Chennai, India ; Balakumar, R. ; Vaidehi, V. ; Balamuralidhar, P.''' <br /><br />'''Review''':The commercially available sensor nodes are battery-driven devices. A number of nodes together constitute a network. As days proceed, the batteries used in the nodes lose their charge and subsequently get isolated from the network. Many energy harvesting schemes have been proposed to alleviate this problem. In this paper, a solar energy based energy harvesting scheme is proposed. This scheme works on the principle of photo-voltaic effect. A recharging circuitry is also designed, that recharges the batteries of the nodes when the charge drops below a threshold level. This leads to strengthening the lifetime of the nodes as well as the network. Compatibility and low power design are the two major salient features of the designed circuitry. The performance of the circuit is also tested with the MICAz hardware.
----
<li>{{Cite conference| publisher = IEEE| doi = 10.1109/ICEES.2011.5725334| isbn =978-1-4244-9732-4| pages =19233-236| last = Thulasiyammal| first = C."[| coauthors = S. Sutha| title = An efficient method of MPPT tracking system of a solar powered Uninterruptible Power Supply application| accessdate = 2012-02-10| date = 2011-01| url = http://ieeexploreservices.lib.ieeemtu.orgedu:2107/stampxpls/stampabs_all.jsp?tparnumber=5725334&arnumber=4271835 Everlast: Long-life, Supercapacitor-operated Wireless Sensor Node ]" =tag= 1}}''' By Simjee, F. ; Center for Embedded Comput. Syst., California Univ., Irvine, CA ; Chou, P.H.''' <br /><br />'''ReviewAbstract:''':This paper describes a supercapacitor-operated, solar-powered wireless sensor node called Everlast. Unlike traditional wireless sensors that store The study deals with an innovative system achieving an alternative source of energy supply from photovoltaic energy system which operates in batteriescase of utility power failure and provides continuity of supply even in medical appliances or industrial applications. It is also designed to reduce usage of utility supply which is generated from coals, nuclear having more carbons as outlets, Everlast's use lagging of supercapacitors enables sources and providing impure power to consumers. But the system solar power is a pure and precious resource and no more impure outlets other disadvantages as like high initial cost. But the economical status may be improved in future but we may not have resource to generate power sometimes. So cost criteria can be meeting out in future to operate for an estimated lifetime of 20 years without any maintenancegenerate power from solar energy. The novelty proposed PV system is composed of this conventional novel single axis tracking system and PV system lies in the feedforward, PFM (pulse frequency modulated) with DC-DC boost converter and open-circuit solar PWM voltage method for maximum power point source inverter. Here the tracking, enabling system is designed to get always 12 V dc output. This voltage is taken as input to the solar cell proposed method to efficiently charge maximize the supercapacitor and power the nodeoutput. Experimental results show that Everlast can achieve low power consumption, long operational lifetime, and high transmission rates, something that traditional sensor nodes cannot achieve simultaneously and must trade-off<br>'''Key Features''':
==20."[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0141933107000415/pdfft?md5=e8f106e10478b6d36e2d1b6b3c2242f9&pid=1-s2.0-S0141933107000415-main.pdf Indoor solar energy harvesting for sensor network router nodes ]" == *12v output*lacking methodology''' By Abhiman Hande,Todd Polk,William Walker,Dinesh Bhatia ''' <br /><br />'''Review''':A unique method has been developed to scavenge energy from monocrystaline solar cells to power wireless router nodes used in indoor applications. The system’s energy harvesting module consists of solar cells connected in series-parallel combination to scavenge energy from 34W fluorescent lights. A set of ultracapacitors were used as the energy storage device. Two router nodes were used as a router pair at each route point to minimize power consumption. Test results show that the harvesting circuit which acted as a plug-in to the router nodes manages energy harvesting and storage, and enables near-perpetual, harvesting aware operation of the router node.
----
<li>{{Cite conference| publisher = IEEE| doi = 10.1109/EPC.2007.4520376| isbn = 978-1-4244-1444-4, 978-1-4244-1445-1| pages = 461-466| last = Sharaf| first =A.M.| coauthors =22E."[Elbakush, I. H. Altas| title = Novel Control Strategies For Photovoltaic Powered PMDC Motor Drives| accessdate = 2012-02-10| date = 2007-10| url = http://ieeexploreservices.ieeelib.orgmtu.edu:2107/stampsearch/stampsrchabstract.jsp?tp=&arnumber=483472 200 W low cost module integrated utility interface for modular photovoltaic energy systems ]" == 4520376&openedRefinements%3D*%26filter%3DAND%28NOT%284283010803%29%29%26searchField%3DSearch+All%26queryText%3Dphotovoltaic+motor+control}}''' By Andersen, M. ; MA Consult, Aalborg, Denmark ; Alvsten, B. ''' <br /><br />'''ReviewKey Features''':This paper describes the design of a utility interface for a 200 W solar cell array. The interface comprises high frequency soft switching PWM power conversion, analog and logic control and protection circuits and an analog maximum power point tracker (MPPT). All circuits are implemented with standard components (no microcontroller) and thus facilitates integration into ASIC components at a later development stage. The design emphasis is on module integration, low cost production and compliance with standards on utility interfacing. The special requirements of utility interfacing and solar cell array utilization are described and the design of the components of the utility interface is described. The theory and design are verified with the implemented laboratory prototype, which shows excellent performance and verifies the operation of the interface
*PID controller for PV powered PMDC drives
*Well documented simulation
*Lacking on the PV side
<br>
---- <br><li>{{Cite web| title = Arduino motor/stepper/servo control - How to use| accessdate =2012-02-10| url =23."[http://wwwlearn.sciencedirectadafruit.com/scienceadafruit-motor-shield}}<br><br>'''Key Features''': *Reference/articlerequirements for small motor control using arduino microcontroller boards*May be useful resource for blind/shade actuation<br> ---- <li>{{Cite web| title = Arduino playground - InterfacingWithHardware| accessdate = 2012-02-10| url = http:/pii/0927024896000633arduino.cc/pdf?md5playground/Main/InterfacingWithHardware}}<br><br>'''Key Features''': *Resource for interfacing arduino microcontrollers with many types of hardware*Interfacing with temperature sensors potentially useful<br> ---- <li>{{Cite web| title =b3801c5962cd7437c448a924a0a71af0&pidArduino playground - PIDLibrary| accessdate =12012-02-s210| url = http://arduino.0cc/playground/Code/PIDLibrary}}<br><br>'''Key Features''': *Useful for PID control on arduino*contains libraries for PID functions<br> ---- <br><li>{{Cite web| last = Popat| first = Pradeep| title = Patent US5760558 - Solar-powered, wireless, retrofittable, automatic controller for venetian blinds and similar window converings| accessdate = 2012-02-092702489600063308| url = http://www.google.com/patents/US5760558}}<br><br>'''Abstract:'''A system for automatic operation of venetian blinds and similar window coverings. A preferred embodiment, system 30, can be retrofitted to any conventional venetian blind without tools, removal of the blind, or installation of wiring (FIG. 10A). System 30 is attached to a blind 15 by a bracket 80, which engages a headrail 16 of blind 15, and is secured by a thumbscrew 84 (FIG. 4C). System 30 includes a gearmotor 85 which drives a coupling tube 91; coupling tube 91 is attached to a tilt-mainadjustment shaft 18 of blind 15 (FIG. 3A). The mechanical coupling between gearmotor 85 and coupling tube 91 includes a flexible coupling and an extensible coupling, which enable gearmotor 85 to rotate shaft 18 over a wide range of sizes and configurations of blind 15 (FIGS. 5A and 5B).pdf Low cost System 30 also includes a photovoltaic modules based source 31 mounted on dye sensitized nanocrystalline titanium dioxide a flexible member 99. Member 99 provides electrical connections to source 31, and supports it in an advantageous position to receive solar radiation (FIGS. 8B and 8C), regardless of the size and mounting arrangement of blind 15. System 30 also includes four momentary-contact electrical switches 38 to 41 and an actuating body 94, to which a tilt-control wand 19 of blind 15 can be attached. Together, actuating body 94 and carbon powder ]" switches 38 to 41 enable system 30 to be conveniently controlled by rotary and axial movements of wand 19 (FIG. 10A).<br>'''Key Features''':  *Patent*Good resource for control logic*Retrofittable<br> ---- <li>{{Cite web| last = Corazzini| first =Warren| title = Patent US5413161 - Solar powered window shade| accessdate = 2012-02-08| url = http://www.google.com/patents/US5413161}}<br><br>'''Abstract:'' By Andreas Kay'A solar powered window shade is provided which consists of a venetian blind mounted within an interior of a frame of a window in a wall of a building. An apparatus is carried by the venetian blind, Michael Graitzel for converting solar radiation of sunlight into electrical energy. A mechanism is carried by the venetian blind for utilizing the electrical energy to open and close the venetian blind. At sunrise and all through the day, the venetian blind will remain opened to allow sunlight to enter through the window, to help heat up the building. At sunset and all through the night, the venetian blind will remain closed to produce a thermal barrier, to help retain the heat within the building. <br>'''Key Features''':  *Patent*Short<br> ---- <li>{{Cite web| last = Knowles| first = Byron| title = Motorized window shade| accessdate = 2012-02-10| date = 2008-07-02| url = http://www.freepatentsonline.com/EP1939389.html}}<br><br>''' Key Features''':  *Patent<br > ---- <li>{{Cite web| title = Automatic Window Blinds Controller (PICAXE)| accessdate = 2012-02-10| url = http://www.instructables.com/id/Build-A-Motorized-Window-Blinds-Controller-For-Les/}}<br><br >'''Key Features''': *Not published*DIY approach to an automated window blind*Uses a PIC microcontroller<br> ---- <li>{{Cite journal| doi = 10.1016/0038-092X(94)90076-E| issn = 0038-092X| volume = 52| issue = 1| pages = 3-7| last = E.| first = Bilgen| title = Experimental study of thermal performance of automated venetian blind window systems| journal = Solar Energy| date = 1994-01}}<br><br>'''ReviewKey Features''':  *No MTU Access<br> ---- <br><li>{{Cite journal| last = Raghunathan| first = Vijay| coauthors = Kansal Aman, Jason Hsu, Jonathan Friedman, Mani Srivastava| title = Design considerations for solar energy harvesting wireless embedded systems| series = Proceedings of the 4th international symposium on Information processing in sensor networks| accessdate = 2012-02-07| url = http://services.lib.mtu.edu:3919/citation.cfm?id=1147764}}<br><br>'''Abstract:A new type '''Sustainable operation of battery powered wireless embedded systems (such as sensor nodes) is a key challenge, and considerable research effort has been devoted to energy optimization of photovoltaic module such systems. Environmental energy harvesting, in particular solar based on monolithically series connected dye sensitized photoelectrochemical cells , has emerged as a viable technique to supplement battery supplies. However, designing an efficient solar harvesting system to realize the potential benefits of energy harvesting requires an in-depth understanding of several factors. For example, solar energy supply is describedhighly time varying and may not always be sufficient to power the embedded system. Harvesting components, such as solar panels, and energy storage elements, such as batteries or ultracapacitors, have different voltage-current characteristics, which must be matched to each other as well as the energy requirements of the system to maximize harvesting efficiency. Further, battery non-idealities, such as self-discharge and round trip efficiency, directly affect energy usage and storage decisions. The ability of the system to modulate its power consumption by selectively deactivating its sub-components also impacts the overall power management architecture. Each This paper describes key issues and tradeoffs which arise in the design of solar cell element consists energy harvesting, wireless embedded systems and presents the design, implementation, and performance evaluation of Heliomote, our prototype that addresses several of these issues. Experimental results demonstrate that Heliomote, which behaves as a plug-in to the Berkeley/Crossbow motes and autonomously manages energy harvesting and storage, enables near-perpetual, harvesting aware operation of the sensor node.<br>'''Key Features''':  *interesting power densities of three porous layers onalternative energies table*MPPT background*Solar harvesting design section*Lacking schematics/diagrams*Applicable design considerations to smart shades project<br> ---- <li>{{Cite journal| doi = 10.3390/s6091102| issn = 1424-8220| volume = 6| issue = 9| pages = 1102-1117| last = Hande| first = Abhiman| coauthors = Todd Polk, William Walker, Dinesh Bhatia| title = Self-Powered Wireless Sensor Networks for Remote Patient Monitoring in Hospitals| journal = Sensors| accessdate = 2012-02-08| date = 2006-09-22| url = http://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/6/9/1102}}<br><br>'''Abstract:''' Patient vital sign monitoring within hospitals requires the use of non-invasivesensors that are hardwired to bedside monitors. This set-up is cumbersome, forcing thepatient to be confined to his hospital bed thereby not allowing him to move around freelywithin the hospital premises. This paper addresses the use of wireless sensor networks formonitoring patient vital sign data in a hospital setting. Crossbow MICAz motes have beenused to design a transparent conducting substrate, namely robust mesh network that routes patient data to a remote base station withinthe hospital premises. A hospital care giver can have access to this data at any point in timeand doesn’t have to be physically present in the patient’s room to review the readings. Thenetwork infrastructure nodes are self-powered and draw energy from overhead 34Wfluorescent lights via solar panels. The sensor nodes can be interfaced to a photoelectrode variety of dye sensitized nanocrystalline TiO 2vitalsign sensors such as electrocardiograms (anataseECGs), pulse-oximeters and blood pressure (BP)sensors. In order to verify a spacer of electrically insulatingcompletely functioning system, light reflecting particles of TiO 2 a commercial BP/heart-ratemonitor (rutileBPM)was interfaced to a wireless sensor node. The sensor node controls the BPMto initiate a reading, then collects the data and forwards it to the base station. An attractivegraphical user interface (GUI) was designed to store and display patient data on the basestation PC. The set-up was found to be extremely robust with low power consumption.<br>'''Key Features''':  *Mostly implementation and lacking design<br> ---- <li>{{Cite conference| publisher = IEEE| doi = 10.1109/CICSYN.2009.91| isbn = 978-0-7695-3743-6| pages = 57-61| last = Bhuvaneswari| first = P.T.V.| coauthors = R. Balakumar, V. Vaidehi, P. Balamuralidhar| title = Solar Energy Harvesting for Wireless Sensor Networks| accessdate = 2012-02-08| date = 2009-07| url = http://services.lib.mtu.edu:2107/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=5231747}}<br><br>'''Abstract:'''The commercially available sensor nodes are battery-driven devices. A number of nodes together constitute a network. As days proceed, the batteries used in the nodes lose their charge and subsequently get isolated from the network. Many energy harvesting schemes have been proposed to alleviate this problem. In this paper, a solar energy based energy harvesting scheme is proposed. This scheme works on the principle of photo-voltaic effect. A recharging circuitry is also designed, that recharges the batteries of the nodes when the charge drops below acounterelectrode threshold level. This leads to strengthening the lifetime of graphite powder the nodes as well as the network. Compatibility and carbon blacklow power design are the two major salient features of the designed circuitry. The pores performance of these layers are filled the circuit is also tested with the MICAz hardware.<br>'''Key Features''':  *Builds off previous work*Circuit schematic included*Utilizes battery<br> ---- <li>{{Cite conference| publisher = IEEE| doi = 10.1109/LPE.2006.4271835| isbn = 1-59593-462-6| pages = 197-202| last = Simjee| first = Farhan| coauthors = Pai H. Chou| title = Everlast: Long-life, Supercapacitor-operated Wireless Sensor Node| accessdate = 2012-02-08| date = 2006-10| url = http://services.lib.mtu.edu:2107/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=4271835}}<br><br>'''Abstract:'''This paper describes aredox electrolyte containing iodide supercapacitor-operated, solar-powered wireless sensor node called Everlast. Unlike traditional wireless sensors that store energy in batteries, Everlast's use of supercapacitors enables the system to operate for hole transport between photoan estimated lifetime of 20 years without any maintenance. The novelty of this system lies in the feedforward, PFM (pulse frequency modulated) converter and open- circuit solar voltage method for maximum power point tracking, enabling the solar cell to efficiently charge the supercapacitor and power the node. Experimental results show that Everlast can achieve low power consumption, long operational lifetime, and counterelectrodehigh transmission rates, something that traditional sensor nodes cannot achieve simultaneously and must trade-off. Themonolithic series connection <br>'''Key Features''':  *Operates on the transparent conducting substratesupercapacitor*Equations and diagrams<br> ---- <li>{{Cite journal| doi = 10.1016/j.micpro.2007.02.006| issn = 0141-9331| volume = 31| issue = 6| pages = 420-432| last = Hande| first = Abhiman| coauthors = Todd Polk, William Walker, Dinesh Bhatia| title = Indoor solar energy harvesting for sensor network router nodes| journal = Microprocessors and Microsystems| date = 2007-09-01}}<br><br>'''Key Features''':  *Similar to hospital paper, ealthough better design*Limited application to smart shades<br> ---- <li>{{Cite journal| doi = 10.1109/TIE.2009.2020703| issn = 0278-0046| volume = 56| issue = 11| pages = 4502-4509| last = Nasiri| first = A.g| coauthors = S.A. Zabalawi, SnO 2 coated glassG. Mandic| title = Indoor Power Harvesting Using Photovoltaic Cells for Low-Power Applications| journal = IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics| accessdate = 2012-02-10| date = 2009-11| url = http://services.lib.mtu.edu:2107/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=4838877&tag=1}}<br><br>'''Abstract:'''Utilization of low-power indoor devices such as remote sensors, supervisory and alarm systems, distributed controls, and data transfer system is on steady rise. Due to remote and distributed nature of these systems, it isachieved by simple overlap attractive to avoid using electrical wiring to supply power to them. Primary batteries have been used for this application for many years, but they require regular maintenance at usually hard to access places. This paper provides a complete analysis of a photovoltaic (PV) harvesting system for indoor low-power applications. The characteristics of a target load, PV cell, and power conditioning circuit are discussed. Different choices of energy storage are also explained. Implementation and test results of each carbon counterelectrode with the back contact system are presented, which highlights the practical issues and limitations of the adjacentsystem.<br>'''Key Features''':  <br> ---- <li>{{Cite conference| publisher = Catholic University College Sint Lieven| last = Thienpondt| first = Jorge| coauthors = Sven Leyre, Jean-Pierre Goemaere, Lieven Strycker| title = Energy Harvesting for Home Automation Applications| accessdate = 2012-02-10photoelectrode| url = http://www.els.usv.ro/pagini/past_editions/ELS%202009/C2.09_THIENPONDT%20Jorge. Such modules may be produced in a continuous nonpdf}}<br><br>'''Key Features''':  <br> ---- <li>{{Cite conference| publisher = IEEE| doi = 10.1109/IECON.1995.483472| isbn = 0-7803-3026-9| volume = 1| pages = 572-577| last = Andersen| first = M.| coauthors = B. Alvsten| title = 200 W low cost module integrated utility interface for modular photovoltaic energy systems| accessdate = 2012-02-vacuum process by simple10printing techniques| url = http://services. In this lib.mtu.edu:2107/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=483472}}<br><br>'''Abstract:'''This paper we present describes the first results design of a utility interface for a 200 W solar cell array. The interface comprises high frequency soft switching PWM power conversion, analog and logic control and protection circuits and an analog maximum power point tracker (MPPT). All circuits are implemented with standard components (no microcontroller) and thus facilitates integration into ASIC components at a later development stage. The design emphasis is on energy conversion efficiency module integration, low cost production andlong term stability obtained compliance with this new type standards on utility interfacing. The special requirements of utility interfacing and solar cellarray utilization are described and the design of the components of the utility interface is described.The theory and design are verified with the implemented laboratory prototype, which shows excellent performance and verifies the operation of the interface<br>'''Key Features''':  *MPPT design<br></ol>
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