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Biochar

534 bytes added, 19:48, 10 October 2013
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{{topic header| defaultBiochar2.png jpg | Biochar }}
{{merge from|Biochar Technology}}
'''Biochar''' is a name for [[charcoal]] when it is used for particular purposes, especially as a soil amendment.
Some of the world'''Biochar''' is a name for s most productive soils (e.g. Canadian prairies, Russian [[charcoalhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chernozem Chernozem]] when it / or "black earth") are very rich in organic carbon. This is now thought to be pyrogenic in origin, likely originating from prairie or forest fires. This carbon is used for particular purposesoften thousands of years old, especially as a demonstrating its stability in soil amendment.  For more extensive background on Biochar, please consult the [[Imagehttp:Biochar2//en.wikipedia.jpg]org/wiki/Biochar Wikipedia entry on biochar].
According to the [http://www.biochar-international.org/aboutbiochar.html International Biochar Initiative]:
''Biochar is a fine-grained charcoal high in organic carbon and largely resistant to decomposition. It is produced from pyrolysis of plant and waste feedstocks. As a soil amendment, biochar creates a recalcitrant soil carbon pool that is carbon-negative, serving as a net withdrawal of atmospheric carbon dioxide stored in highly recalcitrant soil carbon stocks. The enhanced nutrient retention capacity of biochar-amended soil not only reduces the total fertilizer requirements but also the climate and environmental impact of croplands. Char-amended soils have shown 50 - 80 percent reductions in nitrous oxide emissions and reduced runoff of phosphorus into surface waters and leaching of nitrogen into groundwater. As a soil amendment, biochar significantly increases the efficiency of and reduces the need for traditional chemical fertilizers, while greatly enhancing crop yields. Renewable oils and gases co-produced in the pyrolysis process can be used as fuel or fuel feedstocks. Biochar thus offers promise for its soil productivity and climate benefits.''
Some of the world's most productive soils (e.g. Canadian prairies, Russian [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chernozem Chernozem] / or "black earth") are very rich in organic carbon. This is now thought to be pyrogenic in origin, likely originating from prairie or forest fires. This carbon is often thousands of years old, demonstrating its stability in soil. For more extensive background on Biochar, please consult the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biochar Wikipedia entry on biochar].
 
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===Biochar as a method of carbon sequestration===
The [[earth]] absorbs around 18 times the amount of [[carbon]] emitted by [[humans]] each year.{{fact}}{{w|Carbon cycle}} However, about the same amount (one figure given is 99.9%) of this carbon is released to the atmosphere through [[decomposition]]. This cycle can be closed by a process known as [[pyrolysis]], in which biomass is heated in the absence of oxygen, creating charcoal and locking carbon in the form of biochar.{{w|Biochar}}
*Biochar for sale as a source of income for an emerging community
*Combine with solar thermal heat source to make a ''solar pyrolysis unit'' for charcoal production
 
=== Biochar Technology ===
(for merged content from [[Biochar Technology]] page)
 
=== Biochar Reactors ===
 
Several small-scale units have been devised for baking charcoal, many with simple common materials. Charcoal making ([[pyrolisis]]) dates back thousands of years in human history, traditionally practiced via earthen pits and mounds. Today, steel drums of different sizes are most commonly utilized due to portability, airflow control options, heat resistance, and availability. See articles below for some examples, and a new page here on [[Simple Biochar Kilns]].
=== Suitable feedstocks ===
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