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'''Hydraulic wheels''' or water wheels are
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'''Hydraulic wheels''' or water wheels consist of large wooden or metal wheels, with a number of blades or buckets arranged on the outside rim forming the driving surface.
    
'''Impulse Turbines''' are one of two types of turbines used in [[hydroelectric]] power. The impulse turbine is typically used with a head over 10 meters or greater. These impulse turbines also operate under high pressures. The impulse turbine looks very similar to an old fashioned [[water wheel]] or river boat paddle.
 
'''Impulse Turbines''' are one of two types of turbines used in [[hydroelectric]] power. The impulse turbine is typically used with a head over 10 meters or greater. These impulse turbines also operate under high pressures. The impulse turbine looks very similar to an old fashioned [[water wheel]] or river boat paddle.
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An impulse turbine  has a large number of small "scoops" positioned around  a central hub. This central hub would be connected to the generator, thereby producing energy. The large number of "scoops" allows for the turbine to spin at very high speeds. To view various types of impulse turbines please view the following link.[http://www.jfccivilengineer.com/turbines.htm] [http://www.jfccivilengineer.com/images/turbin2.jpg Turbines]
 
An impulse turbine  has a large number of small "scoops" positioned around  a central hub. This central hub would be connected to the generator, thereby producing energy. The large number of "scoops" allows for the turbine to spin at very high speeds. To view various types of impulse turbines please view the following link.[http://www.jfccivilengineer.com/turbines.htm] [http://www.jfccivilengineer.com/images/turbin2.jpg Turbines]
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===Water wheels===
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==Water wheels==
 
Probably the most accessible technology for hydro power is the  [[Water wheel|water wheel]]{{w|Water wheel|water wheel}}. It can be built entirely from local materials. Only the generator has to be brought in. For small systems a modified motor or car alternator can be used.
 
Probably the most accessible technology for hydro power is the  [[Water wheel|water wheel]]{{w|Water wheel|water wheel}}. It can be built entirely from local materials. Only the generator has to be brought in. For small systems a modified motor or car alternator can be used.
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* Horizontal water wheels apart from museum pieces are today found mainly in the Himalaya region in the form of the ghatta. That version is a primitive version of a turbine.
 
* Horizontal water wheels apart from museum pieces are today found mainly in the Himalaya region in the form of the ghatta. That version is a primitive version of a turbine.
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===Impulse turbines===
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===Building a water wheel===
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Regular waterwheels can be build by making the buckets at a 114° angle. The width of the wheel is best made as large as possible, so the same width as the diversion channel; the depth of the buckets is best kept shallow. Make the wheel as large as you can, making advantage of the highest waterdrop possible.
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==Impulse turbines==
 
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===Building an impulse turbine===
 
The only machine that can be build without access to metal casting equipment or a 3D milling machine is the crossflow turbine. The only advanced tools needed are a cutting torch and welding equipment. Needed raw materials are sheet metal and metal pipe. Information how to build a crossflow turbine can be found on the CD3WD ( see Resources ) web site.
 
The only machine that can be build without access to metal casting equipment or a 3D milling machine is the crossflow turbine. The only advanced tools needed are a cutting torch and welding equipment. Needed raw materials are sheet metal and metal pipe. Information how to build a crossflow turbine can be found on the CD3WD ( see Resources ) web site.
  
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