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# Changes

## Hydropower

, 17:50, 21 March 2013
Analyzing the available hydropower: moved Measuring the flow of the water energy source from Microhydro
The amount of instantaneous waterflow of a river system depends on the rains, which is dependant on the season. The instantaneous waterflow varies from day to day with a minimum therof, located usually at the end of the dry season if it is marked. The concept of average flow has no interest in powerplants "along the waterstream", however, it does allow to better estimate the potential energyoutput of an infrastructure if an accumulation is envisaged. Low water flow, ie the minimum flow of the river during 24h states the minimal poweroutput potential of an installation. If the hydrological observations (measures of the flow of the river) are done for several years, it is possible to know the average minimum waterflow attained annually, or it is possible to observe it every 5 years, or -even more rare-, every 10 years. Indeed, the severity of the drought is variable depending on the year. A flow measure during 365 days can not indicate whether the observed minimum is an exceptional speed (either low or high) or rather an average minimum.
The hydrological data may be essential for the design of the proposed small hydroelectric plant. A lack of flow and thus availability of water will lead to disillusionment when the installation is working due to the large gap between the expected power output and true available power. There is of course no need to seek accurate hydrological data if the power output of the proposed installation is well below the maximum power of the site chosen for the project. Given that the turbine is to be placed near the river, it is highly desirable to know the variations of water level, to avoid seeing water invading the facilities during floods.

====Measuring the flow of the water energy source====
Depending on whether the stream runs horizontal, or whether it comes from a hill, more "head" is available, which means that we can use different types of water wheels or hydroelectric turbines. Head is the difference in elevation between the point where you start capturing the water (beginning of stream or water diversion) and where you start the use it (where the hydroelectric system is set up). Systems requiring a high head include: Pelton and Turgo turbine, and backshot and overshot water wheels. Systems that require little head and a high flow are Crossflow turbines and breastshot water wheels. Finally, when there is no head available whatsoever (horizontal stream), a undershot water wheel can be used.<ref>Practical self-sufficiency by Dick and James Strawbridge</ref>

In order to asses the amount of flow and head available, it is necessairy to measure it. The height elevation can be measured using measuring tap or a height meter. The flow can be measured by building a temporary dam with a pipe. By then filling a container with a known volume while measuring the time required for this with a stopwatch, we know the flow.
== Mechanical power ==
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