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Hydropower

72 bytes added, 15:29, 21 March 2013
made headline "Waterflow", and "Categorization of freshwater power plants"
* [[Damless hydro|Continuous flow power plants]] (mechanical and electrical generator equipped) <ref>[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VMY-4P2C7CW-1&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=1027978519&_rerunOrigin=google&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=73879df4117fe399322ed83658ac3e9b River current energy conversion system term]</ref><ref>[http://www.berr.gov.uk/files/file47400.pdf Tidal energy conversion system term]</ref><ref>[http://www.freepatentsonline.com/5708305.html Wave energy conversion system term]</ref>
Note that the top 4 energy conversion systems are '''ocean energy conversion systems'''' (use in open sea), the osmotic power plant is used where sweetwater and saltwater converges (ie river mouths ending into the sea) and the lower 3 energy conversion systems are used in (freshwater) rivers, streams or on basins/ponds.
===Categorization of freshwater power plants===
Category: plants can also be classified as “along the waterstream” or “other”. The first, "along the waterstream" receives water from the river or stream without accumulation infrastructure (dam, pool, pond ...). The volume of water available for the turbine depends on the instantaneous waterflow of the river.
 Category: plants can also be classified as “along the waterstream” or “other”. The first, "along the waterstream" receives water from the river or stream without accumulation infrastructure (dam, pool, pond ...). The volume of water available for the turbine depends on the instantaneous waterflow of the river. ==Waterflow==
The amount of instantaneous waterflow of a river system depends on the rains, which is dependant on the season. The instantaneous waterflow varies from day to day with a minimum therof, located usually at the end of the dry season if it is marked. The concept of average flow has no interest in powerplants "along the waterstream", however, it does allow to better estimate the potential energyoutput of an infrastructure if an accumulation is envisaged. Low water flow, ie the minimum flow of the river during 24h states the minimal poweroutput potential of an installation. If the hydrological observations (measures of the flow of the river) are done for several years, it is possible to know the average minimum waterflow attained annually, or it is possible to observe it every 5 years, or -even more rare-, every 10 years. Indeed, the severity of the drought is variable depending on the year. A flow measure during 365 days can not indicate whether the observed minimum is an exceptional speed (either low or high) or rather an average minimum.
The hydrological data may be essential for the design of the proposed small hydroelectric plant. A lack of flow and thus availability of water will lead to disillusionment when the installation is working due to the large gap between the expected power output and true available power. There is of course no need to seek accurate hydrological data if the power output of the proposed installation is well below the maximum power of the site chosen for the project. Given that the turbine is to be placed near the river, it is highly desirable to know the variations of water level, to avoid seeing water invading the facilities during floods.
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