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CCAT rocket stove

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===Improved Cook Stove===
====Introduction====
A rocket stove is a type of improved biomass stove. Improved stoves reduce the demand for biomass fuel and improve living conditions for populations who currently use three rock fires. The main justifications for improved stoves are economical, social, and environmental. Stove programs can produce economic benefits. The stove saves time and money for the users. In urban areas, where people purchase biomass fuel, the payback time for the cost of a improved stove is short, thus providing extra cash from purchasing less fuel. "In rural areas, more efficient stove can reduce the time spent collecting fuel for cooking, freeing time for child care and income-producing activities." <ref name="Barnes" >Barnes, D.F., K. Openshaw., K.R. Smith., and R.V. Plas. What Makes People Cook with Improved Biomass Stoves? World Bank Technical Paper No. 242. Energy Series. Washington, D.C.: World Bank. <br>This publication from the World Bank gives a comparison of stove programs throughout the third world. The paper gives an overview of the general lessons from stove programs: consumer preferences, stove design, role of government and donor agencies and the role of subsidies. The paper presents the role of politics in improved stove programs; considerable information regarding the emergence of government based stove programs is included in the paper. Advantages of included the stove market and consumer preferences section. This topic was not specificity addressed in any other publication. The main disadvantage of this publication is the role to the publisher. The World Bank has provided this paper with good intentions that must be questioned.</ref> Improved stoves can help moderate the environmental externalities of over harvesting trees.
====Indoor Air Quality====
Indoor air quality is the main driving factor in the decimation programs around the developing third world. Soot and ash produced when cooking with traditional three rock fires creates unhealthy amounts of indoor air particulates, resulting in respiratory and breathing issues. Improved indoor air quality and fuel efficiency have social and health benefits, especially for women and children. In order to reduce indoor air pollution, improved stoves must improve combustion of the wood fuel. Improving combustion reduces the amount of smoke and harmful emissions produced during the burning process. "A hotter fire burns up more combustible gases and produces less smoke" <ref name="Bryden" >Bryden, Mark., Dean Still., Damon Ogle., and Nordica MacCarty. 2001. Designing Improved Wood Burning Heating Stoves. Creswell, OR: Aprovecho Research Center.</ref> . The key to having efficient combustion is to burn wood at a high temperature. Several methods can be used to increases the temperature of the fire. Having a good air draft into the fire is essential to increasing combustion temperature. Insulation around the fire can help the fire to burn hotter. "Lift the burning sticks up off the ground so that air can scrape under the sticks and through the charcoal" <ref name="Witt" >Witt, Mark., Kristina Weyer., David Manning. 2006. Designing a Clean Burning, High Efficiency, Dung Burning Stove: Lessons in cooking with cow patties. Creswell, OR: Aprovecho Research Center.</ref> . The most important factor in improving combustion is metering the fuel. Metering the fuel allows only the burning portion of the wood to be heated. "Meter the sticks into the combustion chamber to make a hot, fierce, jumpy looking fire that does not make charcoal" <ref name="Bryden" /> . Fully burned biomass fuel produces less smoke and harmful emissions reducing indoor air pollution.
====Fuel Efficiency====
Improved Fuel stoves can reduce the amount of wood fuel needed to cook. Improving the heat transfer efficiency of energy from the fire to the cooking vessel reduces the amount of energy wasted, thus reducing the amount of wood needed. In order to improve the fuel efficiency of rocket stoves you must improve the heat transfer from the fire to the cooking vessel. The crucial factor in improving stove efficiency is having the hot air and gas released from the fire, contact the cooking vessel in the largest possible surface area. This is accomplished through the use of a pot skirt that creates a narrow channel forcing hot air and gas to rub along the bottom and sides of the cooking vessel. Increasing heat transfer can also be accomplished through the use of wide pots. "Using a wide pot creates more surface are to increase the transfer of heat" <ref name="Witt" /> . Increasing the speed of the hot gases that rub against the pot can improve heat transfer. Improved stoves are insulated and lifted off of the floor preventing childhood burns.

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