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Hydropower

2 bytes added, 07:44, 10 February 2013
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Text replace - " trough" to " through"
# Electrical cabinet for control and distribution. For the safety of the facilities and also the people, one should distribute the current on the network via a switchboard where the devices (fuses, disconnectors) allow the controlling of the distribution. At the other end of the network similar equipment should be installed to control the distribution with the client.
# The electrical distribution network includes wiring that allows the transport of the power to the users. This network is either low voltage, ie operating voltage of client devices, or high voltage. This is necessary when the transport distance is over 500m. Indeed, to carry 20 kW at a voltage of 220V, one requires a 90 amp electrical cable of at least 10mm2 section. If the voltage is 5000V, a section of 1mm2 is sufficient. The cost of this cable will probably be cheaper than the other one.
# The leakage channel is the route of escape of the water that has gone trough through the turbine. This channel is connected to the stream that resupplies the watervolume that is diverted to the water intake. It is important that this channel is not flooded in case of riverflood. Indeed, the rise of water level can cause flooding of the engine room (generator and turbine) with a risk of damage.
Other equipment to provide is an sand trap on the feeder canal. The grains of sand that accompany the water on the turbine have an abrasive effect that reduces the life of the machine. The biggest materials (stones, bricks) have an even more destructive effect and gratings should be installed at the entrance to the intake line but also at the penstock to prevent such incidents.
The efficiency of the turbine is a charisteristic of the machine given by the manufacturer. This efficiency depends on the waterflow. Indeed, if the inflow is, for example, only half of the expected speed (or nominal waterflow), it is easy to understand that the piece of the waterflow that will run between the rotating parts and the fixed parts without reacting on the blades of the machine does little or nothing. So the effective waterflow drops sharply and leads to an efficiency drop.
The potential of a site can be improved if the hydroelectric equipment is not a hydroelectric facility along the waterstream but equipped with an accumulation pond. In these circumstances it is possible to, for a few hours of the day, provide sufficient waterflow for periods of greater consumption of electricity. When the population of the village sleeps, they generally consume much less electricity. This decrease in electricityrequirements accompanies, trough through the speedregulator discussed above, a decrease in waterconsumption. The saved amount can be used at times of greater need. This accumulation pond should be considered in the context of a daily regulation. If deals around overcoming the insufficiencies of low water flows, the accumulation intake reaches a size that is outside the context of small power plants.
===Assessment of electricity needs===

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