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Cycling

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Reverted to old version by KVDP, starting to mark edits using the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:NAMEDREFS#Multiple_references_to_the_same_footnote Named references method]
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 ==An efficient mode Cycling as a means of transport==== Introduction ==Isolation is one of the key elements of [[poverty]]; isolated communities have little or no accessto goods and services, and few opportunities to travel beyond their immediate surroundings.This restricts agricultural productivity, reduces health and educational and limitsopportunities for employment and political opportunity. Limited financial resources prevents investment in transport maintaining the position of poverty and isolation. Consequently, there is a need to develop alternative, more affordable means of transport. Developing such systems requires consideration of four key elements:* the improvement of village level infrastructure such as paths, tracks, and footbridges* the provision of adequate and affordable rural transport services* the siting of services closer to the communities , thereby removing or reducing the need for lengthy trave* the promotion and use of intermediate means of transport including; pack animals, sledges, animal carts, cycle based transport and some low cost motorised devices. One of the more common types of intermediate transport is the bicycle. Bicycles are a low cost means of transport that can improve access to water, health facilities and, for example, address stove marketing problems faced by woman producer groups in Kenya.<ref name="Bicycles in developing contexts" /> ===Energy efficiency===
Even areas with just footpaths bicycling is the most energy-efficient means of transport generally available. Bicycling at low to medium speeds (10-15 mph, 16-24 km/h), uses only the energy required to walk.
In both biological and mechanical terms, the bicycle is extraordinarily efficient. In terms of the amount of energy a person must expend to travel a given distance, investigators have calculated it to be the most efficient self-powered means of transportation.<ref>"Bicycle Technology", S.S. Wilson, Scientific American, March 1973</ref> From a mechanical viewpoint, up to 99% of the energy delivered by the rider into the pedals is transmitted to the wheels, although the use of gearing mechanisms may reduce this by 10-15%.
<ref>[http://www.jhu.edu/~gazette/1999/aug3099/30pedal.html "Johns Hopkins Gazette"], 30 August, 1999</ref><ref>"Bicycling Scie1000nceScience", Frank R. Whitt, David G. Wilson, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1982, ISBN 0-262-23111-5</ref>
In terms of the ratio of cargo weight a bicycle can carry to total weight, it is also a most efficient means of cargo transportation.
An added bonus is that a bicycle can utilize gravity to go faster down hill and even partialy any counterpart hills.
 
==Work use==
Extended cycle user Aloysius Fernando, cultivator of mainly plantains & peanuts, sells peanuts in nearby towns. With the extended cycle, he can now transport enough to meet demand (1200 packets as opposed to 400 packets on his original bicycle). With increased business earnings he began to cultivate a larger area of land and could hire a peanut shelling machine.
 
===Bicycle taxis===
The Bicycle taxi or boda boda has become popular in Uganda and Kenya, they operate for
hire from stands in towns, bus stops and market centres. The name boda boda is said to
come from the time when the East African Community existed and there was free movement
across the boarder between Uganda and Kenya. Travellers were offered transport to the
boarder by bicycle-riders shouting ‘Border Border’ to attract passengers.
Converting a bicycle to a taxi requires reinforced forks, stronger brakes, a passenger seat
and footrests, and cushions. New seat designs enable woman to ride side-addle should help
to improve access.
 
Although the work is hard, the operators can earn a living despite a lack of formal education.
The community transport organisation in Ndhiwa and The Kibos Cycle Taxi Association of
Kisumu, Western Kenya worked in conjunction with [[Practical Action East Africa]] to:<br>
 
* enhance the safety of bicycle taxis<br>
* provide a cycle lane along the Kibos road<br>
* set up a mini-medical insurance scheme for passengers and operators<br>
* provide a credit scheme and repair fund for the members
 
==Cost==
The bicycle is still expensive for poorer families in Africa and can cost between 20 to over 100 per cent of a rural household’s annual income. Therefore, transport needs to be supported by an affordable system of manufacture, supply, and repair.
 
Affordability is related to the availability of spare parts and repair services, which are
sometime lacking in rural areas. Several projects have attempted to boost local economics
by encouraging artisanal production of suitable transport and improve the local capabilities of
metal workers to maintain and repair bicycles and other types of transport.
==Safety==
===Charging a mobile device===
The bicycle's dynamo can be used to charge a mobile device. See the [http://usb-bike.be/ universal bike charger system] and [http://www.econvergence.net/category-s/1822.htm The Cycle Charger]
==Footnotes and references==
{{reflist}}<ref name="Bicycles in developing contexts">Text taken from [[Bicycles in developing contexts]] article<references/ref>
== See also ==
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