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== Introduction ==
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This article details the installation of panniers and luggage carriers unto regular [[bicycle]]s, ie to allow use of the bicycle as a '''freight bicycle'''.<ref name="KVDP, november 2012" />
Isolation is one of the key elements of [[poverty]]; isolated communities have little or no access
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to goods and services, and few opportunities to travel beyond their immediate surroundings.
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This restricts agricultural productivity, reduces health and educational and limits
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opportunities for employment and political opportunity.
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[[Image:bicycle1.jpeg|thumb|250px|left|Figure 1: Cyclist carrying mattresses, Puttalam District. An example of ordinary bicycle used to transport difficult loads. Photo: Practical Action.]]
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== Pannier installation ==
Limited financial resources prevents investment in transport maintaining the position of
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[[Image:bicycles_construction_panniers.jpg|thumb|right|200px|Figure 1: Construction of panniers]]
poverty and isolation. Consequently,
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[[Image:bicycles_extentions.jpg|thumb|right|200px|Figure 2: Construction of luggage carrier for a standard bicycle]]
there is a need to develop alternative,
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[[Image:bicycles__panniers20in.jpg|thumb|right|200px|Figure 3: Construction of luggage carrier with small (20”) rear wheel]]
more affordable means of transport
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Developing such systems requires
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consideration of four key elements:<br>
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• the improvement of village level
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infrastructure such as paths,
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tracks, and footbridges<br>
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• the provision of adequate and
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affordable rural transport services<br>
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• the siting of services closer to the
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communities , thereby removing or
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reducing the need for lengthy travel<br>
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• the promotion and use of
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intermediate means of transport
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including; pack animals, sledges,
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animal carts, cycle based transport
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and some low cost motorised
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devices. One of the more common
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types of intermediate transport is
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the bicycle.<br clear="all">
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== Bicycles ==
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Bicycles are a low cost means of transport that can improve access to water, health facilities
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and, for example, address stove marketing problems faced by woman producer groups in
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Kenya.
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The bicycle is still expensive for poorer families in Africa and can cost between 20 to over
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100 per cent of a rural household’s annual income. Therefore, transport needs to be
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supported by an affordable system of manufacture, supply, and repair.
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Affordability is related to the availability of spare parts and repair services, which are
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sometime lacking in rural areas. Several projects have attempted to boost local economics
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by encouraging artisanal production of suitable transport and improve the local capabilities of
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metal workers to maintain and repair bicycles and other types of transport.
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== Panniers ==
   
The carrying capacity of the bicycle can be greatly increased by attaching panniers either
 
The carrying capacity of the bicycle can be greatly increased by attaching panniers either
 
side of the wheel. However, the loads in the panniers must be reasonably well balanced.
 
side of the wheel. However, the loads in the panniers must be reasonably well balanced.
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type material. The ends can be filled in on fixed panniers but not on fold-up designs.
 
type material. The ends can be filled in on fixed panniers but not on fold-up designs.
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[[Image:bicycles_construction_panniers.jpg|thumb|900px|center|Figure 2: Construction of panniers]]
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===Luggage carrier installation===
 
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===Bicycle extensions===
   
These low cost adaptations of standard bicycles enable larger and more bulky loads to be
 
These low cost adaptations of standard bicycles enable larger and more bulky loads to be
 
carried on an extended rear carrier.
 
carried on an extended rear carrier.
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The load that can be carried is limited by the strength of the rear wheel and tyre. A
 
The load that can be carried is limited by the strength of the rear wheel and tyre. A
 
strengthened wheel can be used so that the limiting factor is the load capacity of the tyre.
 
strengthened wheel can be used so that the limiting factor is the load capacity of the tyre.
[[Image:bicycle_extended_bicycle.jpg|thumb|250px|left|Figure 3: Extended bicycle Photo: Practical Action]]
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{|border="1"
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|-
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|bgcolor="silver"|
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Extended cycle user, W
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Aloysius Fernando, cultivator of
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mainly plantains & peanuts,
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sells peanuts in nearby towns.
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With the extended cycle, he can
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now transport enough to meet
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demand (1200 packets as
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oppose to 400 packets on his
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original bicycle). With increased
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business earnings he began to
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cultivate a larger area of land
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and could hire a peanut shelling
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machine.
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|}
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This particular bicycle adaptation requires; the chain to be lengthened, the brackets for the
 
This particular bicycle adaptation requires; the chain to be lengthened, the brackets for the
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be cut or modified in any way.
 
be cut or modified in any way.
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===Construction of a luggage carrier with small (20”) rear wheel===
[[Image:bicycles_extentions.jpg|thumb|900px|center|Figure 4: Construction of extension for a standard bicycle]]
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===Construction of extension with small (20”) rear wheel===
   
The advantages of a small rear wheel are; there is more space for the load, the load is lower
 
The advantages of a small rear wheel are; there is more space for the load, the load is lower
 
and easier to balance, the wheel is stronger, and the bicycle is easier to pedal. The main
 
and easier to balance, the wheel is stronger, and the bicycle is easier to pedal. The main
 
disadvantage is that the smaller wheel does not ride as easily over pumps and potholes.
 
disadvantage is that the smaller wheel does not ride as easily over pumps and potholes.
[[Image:bicycles__panniers20in.jpg|thumb|900px|center|Figure 5: Construction of extension with small (20”) rear wheel]]
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===Bicycle taxis===
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== References ==
The Bicycle taxi or boda boda has become popular in Uganda and Kenya, they operate for
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This document was produced by Neil Noble for Practical Action and last updated
hire from stands in towns, bus stops and market centres. The name boda boda is said to
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in January 2007.
come from the time when the East African Community existed and there was free movement
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across the boarder between Uganda and Kenya. Travellers were offered transport to the
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boarder by bicycle-riders shouting ‘Border Border’ to attract passengers.
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Converting a bicycle to a taxi requires reinforced forks, stronger brakes, a passenger seat
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and footrests, and cushions. New seat designs enable woman to ride side-addle should help
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to improve access.
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Although the work is hard, the operators can earn a living despite a lack of formal education.
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Since then, the document has been edited by several Appropedians:
The community transport organisation in Ndhiwa and The Kibos Cycle Taxi Association of
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<ref name="KVDP, november 2012">Text added by KVDP, november 2012</ref>
Kisumu, Western Kenya worked in conjunction with [[Practical Action East Africa]] to:<br>
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• enhance the safety of bicycle taxis<br>
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==Further reading==
• provide a cycle lane along the Kibos road<br>
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* Bicycle Trailers ([[Practical Action Technical Brief]])<br>
• set up a mini-medical insurance scheme for passengers and operators<br>
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* Low-cost Load-carrying Devices: The Design & Manufacture of Some Basic Means of Transport Ron Dennis and Alan Smith ITDG Publishing 1995
• provide a credit scheme and repair fund for the members
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* Puncture Prevention Techniques for Low Cost Vehicles Michael Ayre & Alan Smith
 
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* The Impact of Road Condition on Operating Costs of Bicycles, IT Transport, 2004, DFID. http://www.ittransport.co.uk/index.php?page=publications
== References and further reading ==
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* Forum News, IFRTD
Bicycle Trailers ([[Practical Action Technical Brief]])<br>
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A quarterly newsletter looking at the issues of transport with animal power, bridges, bicycles, gender and transport, financing, engineering, sustainable rural livelihoods, and community planning. Forum News is produced four times a year in English, French and Spanish.
Low-cost Load-carrying Devices: The Design & Manufacture of Some Basic Means
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of Transport Ron Dennis and Alan Smith ITDG Publishing 1995<br>
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Puncture Prevention Techniques for Low Cost Vehicles Michael Ayre & Alan Smith<br>
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The Impact of Road Condition on Operating Costs of Bicycles, IT Transport, 2004,
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DFID. http://www.ittransport.co.uk/index.php?page=publications<br>
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Forum News, IFRTD
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A quarterly newsletter looking at the issues of transport with animal power, bridges,
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bicycles, gender and transport, financing, engineering, sustainable rural livelihoods,
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and community planning. Forum News is produced four times a year in English,
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French and Spanish.
      
== Useful contacts and addresses ==
 
== Useful contacts and addresses ==
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productivity, the quality of life and the environment in Africa.<br>
 
productivity, the quality of life and the environment in Africa.<br>
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Re~Cycle<br>
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Re-Cycle<br>
 
Unit A Global Park<br>
 
Unit A Global Park<br>
 
Moorside<br>
 
Moorside<br>
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unwanted bicycles to send to reliable partners in developing countries.<br>
 
unwanted bicycles to send to reliable partners in developing countries.<br>
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== Wikis ==
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Practical Action
HowtoPedia http://www.howtopedia.org/en/How_to_use_a_Bicycle_to_carry_things<br>
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Appropedia http://www.appropedia.org/BICYCLE
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{|border="1"
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|-
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|bgcolor="silver"|'''Practical Action'''
   
The Schumacher Centre for Technology and Development<br>
 
The Schumacher Centre for Technology and Development<br>
 
Bourton-on-Dunsmore<br>
 
Bourton-on-Dunsmore<br>
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E-mail: inforserv@practicalaction.org.uk<br>
 
E-mail: inforserv@practicalaction.org.uk<br>
 
Website: http://www.practicalaction.org/<br>
 
Website: http://www.practicalaction.org/<br>
This document was produced by Neil Noble for Practical Action and last updated
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in January 2007.
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|}
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==Gallery==
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<gallery>
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File:bicycle1.jpeg|Figure 1: Cyclist carrying mattresses, Puttalam District. An example of ordinary bicycle used to transport difficult loads. Photo: Practical Action.
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File:bicycle_extended_bicycle.jpg|Figure 2: Extended bicycle Photo: Practical Action
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</gallery>
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== External links ==
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HowtoPedia http://www.howtopedia.org/en/How_to_use_a_Bicycle_to_carry_things<br>
    
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{{Includes content from}}
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{{Includes content from|Bicycles in developing contexts}}
    
[[Category:Cycling]]
 
[[Category:Cycling]]
 
[[Category:Transport]]
 
[[Category:Transport]]
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