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Bicycles in developing contexts

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== Introduction ==Isolation is one of This article details the key elements installation of panniers and luggage carriers unto regular [[povertybicycle]]; isolated communities have little or no accessto goods and servicess, and few opportunities ie to travel beyond their immediate surroundingsallow use of the bicycle as a '''freight bicycle'''.This restricts agricultural productivity<ref name="KVDP, reduces health and educational and limitsopportunities for employment and political opportunity.november 2012" />
== Pannier installation ==[[Image:bicycle1bicycles_construction_panniers.jpegjpg|thumb|250pxright|left200px|Figure 1: Cyclist carrying mattresses, Puttalam DistrictConstruction of panniers]][[Image:bicycles_extentions. An example jpg|thumb|right|200px|Figure 2: Construction of ordinary luggage carrier for a standard bicycle used to transport difficult loads. Photo: Practical Action.]]Limited financial resources prevents investment in transport maintaining the position ofpoverty and isolation[[Image:bicycles__panniers20in. Consequently,there is a need to develop alternative,more affordable means jpg|thumb|right|200px|Figure 3: Construction of transportluggage carrier with small (20”) rear wheel]]
Developing such systems requires
consideration of four key elements:<br>
• the improvement of village level
infrastructure such as paths,
tracks, and footbridges<br>
• the provision of adequate and
affordable rural transport services<br>
• the siting of services closer to the
communities , thereby removing or
reducing the need for lengthy travel<br>
• the promotion and use of
intermediate means of transport
including; pack animals, sledges,
animal carts, cycle based transport
and some low cost motorised
devices. One of the more common
types of intermediate transport is
the bicycle.<br clear="all">
== Bicycles ==
Bicycles are a low cost means of transport that can improve access to water, health facilities
and, for example, address stove marketing problems faced by woman producer groups in
The bicycle is still expensive for poorer families in Africa and can cost between 20 to over
100 per cent of a rural household’s annual income. Therefore, transport needs to be
supported by an affordable system of manufacture, supply, and repair.
Affordability is related to the availability of spare parts and repair services, which are
sometime lacking in rural areas. Several projects have attempted to boost local economics
by encouraging artisanal production of suitable transport and improve the local capabilities of
metal workers to maintain and repair bicycles and other types of transport.
== Panniers ==
The carrying capacity of the bicycle can be greatly increased by attaching panniers either
side of the wheel. However, the loads in the panniers must be reasonably well balanced.
type material. The ends can be filled in on fixed panniers but not on fold-up designs.
[[Image:bicycles_construction_panniers.jpg|thumb|900px|center|Figure 2: Construction of panniers]] ===Bicycle extensionsLuggage carrier installation===
These low cost adaptations of standard bicycles enable larger and more bulky loads to be
carried on an extended rear carrier.
The load that can be carried is limited by the strength of the rear wheel and tyre. A
strengthened wheel can be used so that the limiting factor is the load capacity of the tyre.
[[Image:bicycle_extended_bicycle.jpg|thumb|250px|left|Figure 3: Extended bicycle Photo: Practical Action]]
Extended cycle user, W
Aloysius Fernando, cultivator of
mainly plantains & peanuts,
sells peanuts in nearby towns.
With the extended cycle, he can
now transport enough to meet
demand (1200 packets as
oppose to 400 packets on his
original bicycle). With increased
business earnings he began to
cultivate a larger area of land
and could hire a peanut shelling
This particular bicycle adaptation requires; the chain to be lengthened, the brackets for the
be cut or modified in any way.
 [[Image:bicycles_extentions.jpg|thumb|900px|center|Figure 4: Construction of extension for a standard bicycle]] ===Construction of extension a luggage carrier with small (20”) rear wheel===
The advantages of a small rear wheel are; there is more space for the load, the load is lower
and easier to balance, the wheel is stronger, and the bicycle is easier to pedal. The main
disadvantage is that the smaller wheel does not ride as easily over pumps and potholes.
[[Image:bicycles__panniers20in.jpg|thumb|900px|center|Figure 5: Construction of extension with small (20”) rear wheel]]
===Bicycle taxis=References ==The Bicycle taxi or boda boda has become popular in Uganda and Kenya, they operate forhire from stands in towns, bus stops and market centres. The name boda boda is said tocome from the time when the East African Community existed and there This document was free movementacross the boarder between Uganda and Kenya. Travellers were offered transport to theboarder produced by bicycle-riders shouting ‘Border Border’ to attract passengers.Converting a bicycle to a taxi requires reinforced forks, stronger brakes, a passenger seatNeil Noble for Practical Action and footrests, and cushions. New seat designs enable woman to ride side-addle should helplast updatedto improve accessin January 2007Although the work is hard, the operators can earn a living despite a lack of formal education.The community transport organisation in Ndhiwa and The Kibos Cycle Taxi Association ofKisumu, Western Kenya worked in conjunction with [[Practical Action East Africa]] to:<br>
• enhance Since then, the safety of bicycle taxis<br>document has been edited by several Appropedians:• provide a cycle lane along the Kibos road<brref name="KVDP, november 2012">• set up a mini-medical insurance scheme for passengers and operatorsText added by KVDP, november 2012<br/ref>• provide a credit scheme and repair fund for the members{{reflist}}
== References and further Further reading ==* Bicycle Trailers ([[Practical Action Technical Brief]])<br>* Low-cost Load-carrying Devices: The Design & Manufacture of Some Basic Meansof Transport Ron Dennis and Alan Smith ITDG Publishing 1995<br>* Puncture Prevention Techniques for Low Cost Vehicles Michael Ayre & Alan Smith<br>* The Impact of Road Condition on Operating Costs of Bicycles, IT Transport, 2004,DFID.<br>* Forum News, IFRTDA quarterly newsletter looking at the issues of transport with animal power, bridges,bicycles, gender and transport, financing, engineering, sustainable rural livelihoods,and community planning. Forum News is produced four times a year in English,French and Spanish.
== Useful contacts and addresses ==
productivity, the quality of life and the environment in Africa.<br>
Unit A Global Park<br>
unwanted bicycles to send to reliable partners in developing countries.<br>
== Wikis ==HowtoPedia<br>Appropedia {|border="1" |-|bgcolor="silver"|'''Practical Action'''
The Schumacher Centre for Technology and Development<br>
This document was produced by Neil Noble for Practical Action and last updated
in January 2007.
File:bicycle1.jpeg|Figure 1: Cyclist carrying mattresses, Puttalam District. An example of ordinary bicycle used to transport difficult loads. Photo: Practical Action.
File:bicycle_extended_bicycle.jpg|Figure 2: Extended bicycle Photo: Practical Action
== External links ==
*[ HowtoPedia]
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