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Climate change

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{{topic header| default.png |Climate change}}
'''Climate change'''{{W|Climate change}} is a significant and lasting change in the weather pattern Earth's climate over a an extended period of decades to periods of millions of years. In this article we discuss the impact of a rise in the average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans since from the 19th century to the 21st century (the current '''global warming''')present.<ref>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_warming</ref> Global warming Climate change is expected to have far greater negative effects on [[developing countries]] as than on developed countriesdue to numerous factors including exposure to extreme weather and infrastructure considerations.
== The science of climate change ==
{{main|Science of climate change}}
Although the existence of global warming is unquestioned the greenhouse effect has been largely understood since 1896<ref>[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_climate_change_science Discovery of global warming by Svante ArrheniusSvante_Arrhenius#Greenhouse_effect]</ref>, there are people that still a tiny minority of scientists who remain critical of specifics written in some reports of the IPCC {{w|Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change}} and other organisations. These people, so-called climate change skeptics{{w|Climate change skeptics}}, make critical analysis' and so are able generally misinformed or are deliberately attempting to make a positive contribution.<ref>Take create doubt and uncertainty about the [http://en.wikipediascience.org/wiki/Hockey stick controversy Michael E. Mann hockeystick graph] for example which has been proven wrong. A significant rise in the new graph (by McIntyre and McKitrick) is still predicted, but the graph is less abrupt</ref>
OftenCertain politicians, civil government politicians lobbyists and economists try refer to bend information of disinformation from climate change 'skeptics to ' for their own advantage, portraying an image that global warming climate change does not exist, poses but a minor problem, or may even be beneficial, so as to be able to not act prevent action to reduce greenhouse gases (mostly resulting from the burning of fossil fuels). The GWPF in the UK is an example of a political lobbying group, which is secretly funded by fossil fuel interests.[http://www.theguardian.com/environment/climate-consensus-97-per-cent/2014/oct/08/gwpf-funder-leach-relying-on-unreliable-sources-of-info Guardian article on it.the secret funding of the GWPF]
== Risk management The impact of climate change ==[[File:Natural disasters caused by climate change.png|thumb|right|200px|Natural disasters caused or aggrevated by global warming]]Although climate change itself has been proven, there are many uncertainties in still exist regarding predicting the effect climate change will have on the worldeffects. The IPCC{{w|Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change}} considers is highly confident that there is a strong probability of serious climate change caused by human activity - but not a 100% certaintyimpacts will increase as greenhouse gases and associated positive feedback effects kick in (e.g. Howevermethane release from melting permafrost, changing albedo), though their estimates ''severity and the timescales may'' be wrongdiffer to some extent. Examples of impacts include: * Climate change Increasing heat stresses as global temperatures rise. While some regions such as Canada may benefit to some degree from rising temperatures, the overall effects on the ability of the planet to support life will be much less serious than expectednegative. As temperatures rise, many equatorial regions will become hostile to life;* Changing weather patterns, especially more extreme weather events and changing rainfall patterns, specifically increasing or decreasing precipitation levels. Increasing floods and we may drought periods will have plenty of time to convert to a generally negative effect on [[low carbon economy]] of [[renewable energyfarming]] <ref>www.knmi.nl/africa_scenarios/brochure_Afrika.pdf</ref><ref>http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/Water/images/precipitation_intensity_map.png Precipitation changes</ref><ref>http://climatelab.org/@api/deki/files/462/=Desertification_map.png</ref><ref>One solution is to grow more resilient crops, i.e. more resistant to changes in rainfall and disease</ref>;* Natural disasters (ie mud slides, hurricanes, ...) are expected to increase in their severity. Death toll in 2003 = 150,000 people <ref>[[energy efficiency]http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2003/12/61562 150000 people killed by global warming up to 2003]</ref><ref>http://climatelab. Ororg/climate_change_security</ref>:* Sea level rise<ref>Sea level rise: 2m rise expected by the year 2100, 6.5m by 2200</ref> will contaminate a very large percentage of the planets' agricultural fields with sea salt and make them no longer suitable for continued food production.<ref>Earth under water documentary</ref> In addition, many low-lying islands and coastlines will need to be abandoned, forcing many people to move.* It may be much worse worse than expectedIncreasing ocean acidity. As the pH of water decreases due to the input of carbonic acid (resulting from CO2 dissolving in water), life forms which rely on a chalk shell will find it increasingly impossible to survive. This will have negative effects on many ocean ecosystems, well outside mainstream estimatesespecially coral reefs which are the most bio-diverse of any ecosystem on the planet.  ==Historic changes in the earth's climate==
It The term "climate change" is impossible often used to know for certain describe the impact of human- it is simply a matter of considering possible outcomes. In particular:* If there is no caused pollution on the earth's climate change, but we have taken action, then we have invested in a low carbon economy, with sustainable communities and abundant clean energy. * If is important to understand that climate change is worse than expected, and we have only taken minor action, there will be a sea rise, crop failures in some areas causing millions of climate refugees, increased [[also caused by natural disasters]], greatly increased uncertainty in [[food production]], and major costs in adaptationphenomena.
==Impact History of climate change on the world==Ice Ages[[File:Natural disasters caused by climate change.png|thumb|right|200px|Natural disasters caused or aggrevated by global warming]]Both the developed as the developing world will be affected. The developing world earth's climate is expected subject to be affected to a greater extent thoughlarge fluctuations. Some effects are:* changing weatherpatterns (greater or fewer precipitation on specific areas, the weather The climate is also expected to be much more radical). This will negatively affect [[farming]]<ref>www.knmi.nl/africa_scenarios/brochure_Afrika.pdf</ref>dominated by ices ages<ref>http://earthobservatoryen.nasawikipedia.govorg/Featureswiki/Water/images/precipitation_intensity_map.png Precipitation changesTimeline_of_glaciation</ref><ref>http://climatelab.org/@api/deki/files/462/=Desertification_map, which reduce the earth's surface temperature and cover large parts of the surface in ice sheets.png</ref><ref>One solution is There have only been five ice ages to grow less fragile cropsdate, ie more resistant that have lasted from 30 million up to 300 million years. The most recent one occurred during to changes in watering</ref>* natural disasters (ie mud slides"Quaternary", hurricaneswhich started about 2.5 million years ago and is still lasting. In between ice ages, the poles are not covered by glaciers and the temperature is higher.The climate is quite stable in these periods, however during ice ages strong variations occur..) These variations are expected to rise. Death toll in 2003 = 150000 people called glacial (cold) and interglacial (hot) periods<ref>[http://wwwen.wiredwikipedia.com/science/discoveries/news/2003org/12wiki/61562 150000 people killed by global warming upto 2003]Timeline_of_glaciation</ref><ref>http://climatelab.org/climate_change_security</ref>* SeaGlacial and interglacial periods alternate every 5,000-level rise<ref>Sea level rise: 2m rise expected by 2100 A.D., 615,5m by 2200 A000 years.D.</ref> will contaminate a very large percentage of the agricultural fields with sea salt and make them no longer suitable for continued food production.<ref>Earth under water documentary</ref> In additionThe current interglacial period started 14, many low-lying islands and coastlines will need to be abandoned, forcing many people to move000 years ago.
== Climate change mitigation ==
{{main|Measures to stop global warming}}
Our Several options areavailable to reduce the impacts of a changing climate. Most of these (the most efficient ones) are lifestyle changes (i.e. stop the burning of fossil fuels, stop eating meat etc.) and can be put in place today. We also do not need to wait for any specific technology to became available. Rather, the essential technology is already here today. Politicians often portray a different picture but it is rarely based in reality. Selected options include: * Reduce carbon consumption Reducing the release of greenhouse gases{{W|Greenhouse gas}} (GHG's) into the atmosphere (ie through energy efficiency, ...)* Prevent carbon dioxide from being released into the atmosphere (ie through carbon capture and storage (CCS), [[biochar]], ...). With [[Carbon sequestration]] - prevent consumed carbon from getting into /CCS, after combusting a fuel, the atmosphere. After combustion, pump it CO<sub>2</sub> is stored in a cavity underground or underwater.* Remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, e.g. through geo-engineering [[ocean nourishment]], [[biocharfertilisation]], planting extra [[trees]], ...* Reduce Shield some of the planet from the temperature in other ways sun, or reflect a proportion of sunlight back into space (paint i.e. by painting roads , parking spaces and [[paint White roofs white|roofs white]]white, spray sulfate spraying sulphate aerosols into the stratosphere, to reflect a proportion of sunlight back into space. ..)<ref>Note: this direct temperature reduction does not reduce carbon levels, so [[ocean acidification]] from higher carbon dioxide is still a problem.</ref>* [[Climate change mitigation]]: build [[heat tolerant houses]] ([[passive solar]] with suitable [[insulation]]), [[flood control]] barriers), ...* Grin and bear it: put up with the inconveniences and the expected loss of biodiversity and increases in certain types of [[natural disasters]] (and hope that there will wait for extinction. The IPCC already considers a 2°C temperature rise to be improvements almost inevitable. In addition, it also advises the use of most other measures, yet stays critical of [[geoengineering]] options, due to the risks involved. == Climate change chain reactions == The change in temperature and weather has a huge impact on wildlife which can become dangerous if the change stays the same.Even the minor change of temperature can lead to earlier hatching of insects or melting of snow which protects snow rabbits from their natural hunters.These effects cause problems like insect overpopulation or too less surviving rabbits to reproduce sustainably.The insects are dangerous because they consume crops and other areas)plans and in huge amounts they are even able to consume a whole field of possible food.Because this problem is getting bigger and even endangers species and if it goes on like this many species will die out and even our own food capacity may shrink exponentionally== Climate Change on the Ocean ==
The best solution Earth is probably a mix called the blue planet because approximately 72 percent of some of these, as no single solution or even class of solutions appears adequateit is covered by oceans. The less action is taken, oceans influence the more we will depend weather on local to global scales, while changes in climate can fundamentally alter many properties of the "grin and bear it" optionoceans.
=== Technology Ocean conveyor system ===The [[bright green]] approach puts its trust in [[technology]] to give us answers in time, if we just put suitable resources into researching and applying solutions.
Technology is advancing and technologies such as [[thin film solar photovoltaics]]{{w|thin film solar photovoltaics}} (e.g. copper indium gallium diselenide{{w|copper indium gallium diselenide}}) offer The thermohaline circulation also called the great hope. Howeverocean conveyor belt or global ocean conveyor belt, the rate is a large scale ocean circulation that distributes vast quantities of progress is uncertain, heat and as climate change is already happening, action is needed now, without waiting for these new technologiesmoisture around on a planetary scale.
=== Low hanging fruit Gulf stream ===The logical place to start is in the area where potential gains are greatest and costs are lowest. This is '''[[energy efficiency]]''', and it offers cost savings in many areas. Thus the most important, pressing actions to be taken can be taken immediately without economic penalty, with suitable planning. Financial planning is an important aspect of this, as investment now may be required to gain long term benefits; it may be important to have programs such as [[light bulb]] exchanges or loans for energy efficiency measures (perhaps paid off through electricity bills<ref> If the energy company benefits from people using more energy, there may be a conflict of interest, so different reward models need to be explored; when the energy company is a government-owned corporation, this may give more flexibility to apply a different model in order to encourage uptake. (See [[Incentives for sustainability]] and [[Incentives to pollute]].</ref>)
Another measure is [[renewable energy]], which is more attractive in some locations than others (eGulf stream has the length of 10.g000 km. [[solar]] and [[biodiesel]] may be It is one of the most cost effective sources of electricity in a sunny isolated location, largest and [[solar hot water]] is perhaps the most cost-effective form of renewable energy in most locations{{fact}})fastest ocean current on earth. At this stage Originating from the majority tip of the population in [[developed countries]] have access to renewable energy through "[[green energy]]" offered by electricity companies (which is often not truly "green"Florida, at 2 <sup>m</sup>/<sub>s</sub>, but it varies in degree)brings 100. The cost premium for such energy is very modest compared with most people'000.000 <sup>m<sup>3</sup></sup>/<sub>s overall living costs (and modest compared with the money that most people spend on luxuries or entertainment). ''See [[How to increase the uptake of green energy]]</sub> water towards Europe.''
=== Reducing carbon usage Sea level rise ===[[Simple living]] offers various ways of reducing impact as well. To have a serious impact, these need to be actions which appeal to a large number of people, which may be very difficult without changes at the community level. The self-sacrificial aspects of simple living are unlikely to appeal to many people, based on past patterns.
Other aspects do improve [[quality As water gets warmer, it takes up more space. Each drop of life]] and are at least possible. These include promotion water only expands by a little bit, but when you multiply this expansion over the entire depth of behavior changesthe ocean, it all adds up and changing infrastructure in ways causes sea level to rise. But that encourage lower-energy behavior's not the only cause of the rise of sea level. Building The rise of [[cycleways]] rather than highways, making communities more walkable, making [[public transport]] a more attractive option, sea level also caused by the melting of glaciers and polar ice caps and introducing congestion charges (as in London) are supported by many sustainability advocates ice loss from Greenland and organizationsWest Antarctica.
Ensuring that buyers of houses === Ocean acidification === Ocean acidification is the ongoing decrease on ocean pH cause by human CO<sub>2</sub> Emission.Ocean pH has decreased by about 30% already and other buildings have access to all appropriate information if we continue emitting CO2 at the same rate by 2100 ocean acidity will increase by about energy costs150%, livability (which improves with good [[passive solar]] design) and environmental impacta rate that has not been experienced for at least 400, could make 000 years. Such a big difference monumental alteration in basic ocean chemistry is likely to the building industryhave wide implications for ocean life, and ensure especially for those organisms that sustainability require calcium carbonate to build shells or skeletons. == Impact of climate change on species == Through rising temperatures resulting in a shift of climate zones forces species to adapt to the new climatic conditions. By a rapidly increased temperature the risk for especially plants not to find areas with suitable living conditions early enough is taken more seriously by more buildershigher. Observations of several species conclude that they are moving their ranges polewards to keep up with changing climate.
=== Cost effectiveness of action ===
Note that the cost balance may appear different if [[externalities]] are accounted for - e.g. deaths due to vehicles, including emissions; improved health from cycling and walking acting to reduce health costs and improve productivity; and possibly even social cohesion as a result of people mingling on cycle, foot, and public transport, instead of traveling by car.
==Notes==
== External Links ==
*[http://www.ourfutureplanetskepticalscience.com/ Skeptical Science][http://en.wikipedia.org/topic-climate-change OurFuturePlanet - Climate Changewiki/Timeline_of_glaciation

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