Changes

Jump to navigation Jump to search
337 bytes removed ,  16:15, 11 August 2012
starting major rewrite
Line 1: Line 1:  
{{Offline content bundle}}
 
{{Offline content bundle}}
   
{{TOCright}}
 
{{TOCright}}
 
+
'''Biomass''' is the term used to describe all the organic matter produced from living or dead [[animals]] or [[plants]]. All plants (which too feed animals) are sustained trough photosynthesis that exists on the earth’s surface. The source of all energy in biomass is thus the sun, the biomass acting as a kind of chemical energy store.  Biomass is constantly undergoing a complex series of physical and chemical transformations and being regenerated while giving off energy in the form of heat to the atmosphere.
== Introduction ==
  −
===What is biomass?===
  −
Biomass is the term used to describe all the organic matter produced from living or dead [[animals]] or [[plants]]. All plants (which too feed animals) are sustained trough photosynthesis that exists on the earth’s surface. The source of all energy in biomass is thus the sun, the biomass acting as a kind of chemical energy store.  Biomass is constantly undergoing a complex series of physical and chemical transformations and being regenerated while giving off energy in the form of heat to the atmosphere. To make use of biomass for our own energy needs we can simply tap into this energy source, in its simplest form we know, this is a basic open fire used to provide heat for cooking, warming water or warming the air in our home.  More sophisticated technologies exist for extracting this energy and converting it into useful heat or power in an efficient way. 
   
   
 
   
 
The exploitation of energy from biomass has played a key role in the evolution of mankind.  Until relatively recently it was the only form of energy which was usefully exploited by humans and is still the main source of energy for more than half the world’s population for domestic energy needs.   
 
The exploitation of energy from biomass has played a key role in the evolution of mankind.  Until relatively recently it was the only form of energy which was usefully exploited by humans and is still the main source of energy for more than half the world’s population for domestic energy needs.   
  −
Traditionally the extraction of energy from biomass is split into 3 distinct categories:
  −
*'''[[Solid biofuels|Solid biomass]]''' - the use of trees, crop residues, animal and human waste (although not strictly a solid biomass source, it is often included in this category for the sake of convenience), household or industrial residues for direct combustion to provide heat. Often the solid biomass will undergo physical processing such as cutting, chipping, briquetting, etc. but retains its solid form.
  −
  −
*'''[[Biogas and liquid biofuels|Biogas]]''' - biogas is obtained by anaerobically (in an air free environment) digesting organic material to produce a combustible gas known as methane.  Animal waste and municipal waste are two common feedstocks for [[anaerobic digestion]]. 
  −
  −
*'''Liquid Biofuels''' - are obtained by subjecting organic materials to one of various chemical or physical processes to produce a usable, combustible, liquid fuel.  Biofuels such as [[Vegetable oil as fuel|vegetable oils]] or [[Ethanol as fuel|ethanol]] are often processed from industrial or commercial residues such as bagasse (sugarcane residue remaining after the sugar is extracted) or from energy crops grown specifically for this purpose.  Biofuels are often used in place of petroleum derived liquid fuels.
     −
In this fact sheet we will be looking at the use of solid biomass, and the associated technologies. For further information on the other biofuels see the fact sheet in this series entitled ‘Biogas and liquid biofuels’
+
==Types of biomass==
+
3 types of biomass can be distinguished:
===Biomass use in the developing world===
+
 
More than two million people in the developing world use biomass for the majority of their household energy needs. It is used mainly for cooking, heating water and domestic space heating. Table 1 below shows household energy consumption as a percentage of total biomass consumption in a number of selected countries in Africa. Biomass is also used widely for non-domestic applications.  
+
*'''[[Solid biofuels|Solid biomass]]''' - the use of trees, crop residues, animal and human waste (although not strictly a solid biomass source, it is often included in this category for the sake of convenience), household or industrial residues for direct combustion to provide heat. Bagasse (sugarcane residue remaining after the sugar is extracted) is another example of solid biomass, it is used in making liquor. Often the solid biomass will undergo physical processing such as cutting, chipping, briquetting, etc. but retains its solid form.  
   −
{| border="1" cellpadding="1"
+
*'''[[Biogas and liquid biofuels|Liquid biomass]]''' - are obtained by subjecting organic materials to one of various chemical or physical processes to produce a usable, combustible, liquid fuel. Examples of liquid biomass are ie [[Vegetable oil as fuel|vegetable oils]], [[Ethanol as fuel|ethanol]], ...
!width="250"|Country
  −
!width="250"| Biomass energy consumption (% of total energy consumption)
  −
!width="250"| Household energy consumption (% of total biomass energy)
  −
|-
  −
|
  −
Burundi
  −
<br clear="all" />
  −
Ethiopia
  −
<br clear="all" />
  −
Kenya
  −
<br clear="all" />
  −
Somalia
  −
<br clear="all" />
  −
Sudan
  −
<br clear="all" />
  −
Uganda
  −
||
  −
94
  −
<br clear="all" />
  −
86
  −
<br clear="all" />
  −
70
  −
<br clear="all" />
  −
87
  −
<br clear="all" />
  −
84
  −
<br clear="all" />
  −
95
  −
||
  −
78.5
  −
<br clear="all" />
  −
97
  −
<br clear="all" />
  −
93
  −
<br clear="all" /> 
  −
92
  −
<br clear="all" /> 
  −
90
  −
<br clear="all" />
  −
78.6 
  −
|}
  −
Biomass is available in varying quantities throughout the developing world - from densely forested areas in the temperate and tropical regions of the world, to sparsely vegetated arid regions where collecting wood fuel for household needs is a time consuming and arduous task.
  −
  −
In recent decades, with the threat of global deforestation, much focus has been given to the efficient use of biomass (as well as introducing alternative fuels) in areas where woodfuel is in
  −
particular shortage. Although domestic fuelwood users suffer greatly from the effects of deforestation, the main cause of deforestation is clearing of land for agricultural use and for commercial timber or fuel-wood use.  
     −
Many programmes have been established during the last 3 decades aimed at developing and disseminating improved stove technologies to reduce the burden, primarily borne by women, of
+
*'''[[Biogas and liquid biofuels|Gaseous biomass]]''' - biogas is obtained by anaerobically (in an air free environment) digesting organic material. Methane, which is another combustible gas known can be extracted from this gas. Animal waste and municipal waste are two common feedstocks for [[anaerobic digestion]].
fuelwood collection as well as reducing health risks associated with burning fuelwood. Technologies have also been introduced to help with the processing of biomass, either to improve efficiency or to allow for easy transportation.  
  −
  −
Crop and industrial biomass residues are now widely used in many countries to provide centralised, medium and large-scale production of process heat for electricity production or other commercial end uses.  There are several examples in Indonesia of timber processing plants using wood waste-fired boilers to provide heat and electricity for their own needs, and occasionally for sale to other consumers.
      
===Getting the most out of the biomass===
 
===Getting the most out of the biomass===
Line 183: Line 124:  
==Utilising biomass==
 
==Utilising biomass==
 
{{Main|Biofuel}}
 
{{Main|Biofuel}}
 +
 +
Crop and industrial biomass residues are now widely used in many countries to provide centralised, medium and large-scale production of process heat for electricity production or other commercial end uses.  There are several examples in Indonesia of timber processing plants using wood waste-fired boilers to provide heat and electricity for their own needs, and occasionally for sale to other consumers.
 +
 +
To make use of biomass for our own energy needs we can simply tap into this energy source, in its simplest form we know, this is a basic open fire used to provide heat for cooking, warming water or warming the air in our home.  More sophisticated technologies exist for extracting this energy and converting it into useful heat or power in an efficient way.
 +
 +
===Biomass use in the developing world===
 +
More than two million people in the developing world use biomass for the majority of their household energy needs.  It is used mainly for cooking, heating water and domestic space heating.  Table 1 below shows household energy consumption as a percentage of total biomass consumption in a number of selected countries in Africa.  Biomass is also used widely for non-domestic applications.
 +
 +
{| border="1" cellpadding="1"
 +
!width="250"|Country
 +
!width="250"| Biomass energy consumption (% of total energy consumption)
 +
!width="250"| Household energy consumption (% of total biomass energy)
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
Burundi
 +
<br clear="all" />
 +
Ethiopia
 +
<br clear="all" />
 +
Kenya
 +
<br clear="all" />
 +
Somalia
 +
<br clear="all" />
 +
Sudan
 +
<br clear="all" />
 +
Uganda
 +
||
 +
94
 +
<br clear="all" />
 +
86
 +
<br clear="all" />
 +
70
 +
<br clear="all" />
 +
87
 +
<br clear="all" />
 +
84
 +
<br clear="all" />
 +
95
 +
||
 +
78.5
 +
<br clear="all" />
 +
97
 +
<br clear="all" />
 +
93
 +
<br clear="all" /> 
 +
92
 +
<br clear="all" /> 
 +
90
 +
<br clear="all" />
 +
78.6 
 +
|}
 +
Biomass is available in varying quantities throughout the developing world - from densely forested areas in the temperate and tropical regions of the world, to sparsely vegetated arid regions where collecting wood fuel for household needs is a time consuming and arduous task.
 +
 +
In recent decades, with the threat of global deforestation, much focus has been given to the efficient use of biomass (as well as introducing alternative fuels) in areas where woodfuel is in particular shortage. Although domestic fuelwood users suffer greatly from the effects of deforestation, the main cause of deforestation is clearing of land for agricultural use and for commercial timber or fuel-wood use.
 +
 +
Many programmes have been established during the last 3 decades aimed at developing and disseminating improved stove technologies to reduce the burden, primarily borne by women, of
 +
fuelwood collection as well as reducing health risks associated with burning fuelwood. Technologies have also been introduced to help with the processing of biomass, either to improve efficiency or to allow for easy transportation.
 +
 
===Local utilisation using improved stoves===  
 
===Local utilisation using improved stoves===  
 
{{Main|Improved solid biofuel stoves}}
 
{{Main|Improved solid biofuel stoves}}
Anonymous user

Navigation menu

MediaWiki spam blocked by CleanTalk.