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CCAT rocket stove

157 bytes added, 04:24, 20 November 2017
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{{Topic content|Improved cook stoves}}
This [[Improved cook stoves|Improved Fuel Stove]], or Rocket Stove, is the final project for [[Engr305|Appropriate Technology]] class at [[Humboldt State University]]. The project goal is to construct a demonstration rocket stove for the [[Campus Center for Appropriate Technology]] on the campus at of Humboldt State University. The rocket stove will serve as an example of improved fuel stove technology and development; students and public touring the center will learn about the design, function and need for improved fuel stoves around the world. The rocket stove will also enable the residents of the center to cook with traditional [[biomass]], reducing their dependence on petroleum based forms of energysources. It is important to note that rocket stoves are designed for populations around the world who still depend on biomass for their cooking fuel. The use of rocket stoves in developed nations is not necessary. Developed nations using modern cooking methods are not faced with health and environmental issues related with traditional cooking methods. The improved [ fuel stove] was designed, built and tested by Daniel Moyer and Tyler Jones.
Populations continue to increasingly rely on biomass for cooking fuel, thus hindering the next step toward modern cooking methods. Populations in developing nations want the same modern, self cleaning, convection, downdraft stove found in American suburbs. Many people argue that modern cooking methods are more appropriate. Modern cooking methods are efficient at fuel conversion and produce less atmospheric particulates, however the dependence on petroleum hinders the appropriateness of modern cooking methods.
== Introduction ==
Improved cook stoves are an attempt to address the negative environmental and social effects of the three rock fire. Improved Stoves increase efficiency of fuel consumption and reduce the amount of pollution released into indoor cooking environments. Improved fuel stoves designs are constructed with metal housing and insulating materials enclosing the fire. Improved fuel stoves improve heat transfer and fuel combustion, resulting in an efficient clean burning wood stove. In order to understand why improved fuel stoves are necessary, one must first look at the unhealthy and unsustainable traditional cooking methods.
===[[Three rock fire|Traditional Three Rock Fire]]=== ===Stove Programs=======Obstacles====Improved stove programs face many political, social and economic obstacles that must be addressed if cook stoves are an improved stove program is going attempt to succeed. One of address the major obstacles to the success negative environmental and social effects of improved stove programs in rural areas is the freely available biomass resources that lead people to continue to rely on biomass for cookingthree rock fire. Improved stove programs have failed in areas were Stoves increase efficiency of fuel is not purchased or fuel is easy to collect. "Many stove programs have failed because the target group has no shortage of wood or do not perceive shortages consumption and thus see no pressing reason to adopt improved stove" (Barnes 1994). Stove programs must be conducted in areas that have a need for improved stoves. "Programs must be targeted carefully to situations in which people pay high prices for fuel or walk long distances to collect fuel wood to other biomass materials" <ref name="Barnes" />. Ease of use is a major concern where stoves require fuel wood to be cut reduce pollution released into small piecesindoor cooking environments. Stove users that have neither the time nor the tools to cut the wood into small sizes, may result in the improved stove going unused. "No matter how efficient or cheap the stove, individual households have proved reluctant to adopt it if it is difficult to install and maintain or less convenient and lass adaptable to local preferences than its traditional counterpart" <ref name="Barnes" />. The high price of the improved stoves can be a formidable barrier to their adoption. "Although in the long run improved Improved fuel stoves save money, the initial cash outlay required may prevent poorer people from affording the stove" <ref name="Barnes" />. ====Ways to Succeed====Stove programs have a better chance of success in urban areas where people buy both the fuel and the stove. Programs in rural areas succeed where fuel wood has already been harvested and people designs are spending extended periods of time gathering fuel. Improved stoves that have a quick payback period generally are more likely to be adopted in poorer rural areas. "Programs have been most effective where households pay relatively high prices for wood fuels; in such cases, the improved stoves can pay for themselves in fuel savings very rapidly, even though they are usually more expensive to produce and buy than traditional stoves" <ref name="Barnes" />. Targeting specific areas where cooking fuel is expensive can ensure improved stoves to be quickly adopted and purchased. The evaluation of improved stoves is an important in understanding how and why improvements and changes in design should be implemented.====Indigenous Culture====The respect for indigenous culture is important in the improved stove design. Feedback and a two way interaction constructed with local users should be designed in any improved stove program. "Stove dissemination programs are most effective when they allow for interaction metal housing and feedback between designers, producers, and users" <ref name="Barnes" />. Stoves need to be adapted to each region around insulating materials enclosing the world. The different styles of cooking in various countries dictate different stove designs. "Stoves should be modified or redesigned to meet regional requirements" <ref name="Barnes" />fire. Improved stoves are most successful where local knowledge and customs are taken into account. "Households have been most receptive when the dissemination process takes full account of the capacities and the needs of local stove producers and consumers" <ref name="Barnes" />. Stove programs do best in areas where people have an unequivocal need to save fuel and the improved stoves can be produced cheaply by local industries or artisans. "Improved stoves are most popular when they are easily improve heat transfer and locally manufactured and have clear advantages in fuel economycombustion, durability, ease of use, and cleanliness" <ref name="Barnes" />. Populations utilizing improved resulting in an efficient clean burning wood stove realize the benefits and advantages to their health and local environment.
== Design ==
Materials The materials used in the construction of the a rocket stove stoves main body are made from recycled metal barrels. An old lemon oil can was trimmed to the proper dimensions, becoming our pot skirt. The insulated combustion chamber is comprised of ceramic insulated bricks purchased at a local pottery supply store. The chamber is held together with eighteen gauge stainless steel metal plating fastened with 3/8 inch hardware. The hardware used to construct the rocket stove includes machine screws, nuts, washers and sheet metal screws; all of our hardware utilized was purchased from a local hardware store.  
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== Testing ==
Testing is essential to rocket stove projects. Testing should happen throughout the entire life of a stove project. The evaluation of improved stoves helps determine if the model is marketable, whether production costs are as low as possible, and if improvements are needed. "Careful testing of stoves has resulted in a more accurate understanding of how to make a better stove. Without experimentation and testing, the development of a stove is based on conjecture" <ref name="Bryden" /> . Technical advances in energy efficiency alone will not ensure success. Stove programs must be complemented by appropriate project design, implementation and proper institutional support. Without proper testing, stove programs will have unrealistic expectation of the efficiency of improved stoves. Stove programs can overestimate the efficiency of improved stoves when tested in a controlled lab setting. Improved stoves never do as well in real households. "The fuel savings that can be attained in a laboratory often have little relationship to savings possible under field conditions" <ref name="WittBarnes" >Barnes, Douglas F. "What Makes People Cook With Improved Biomass Stoves." World Bank. Web. 03 Oct. 2011. <>.</ref> . Many stove programs in controlled lab settings achieved a 75% reduction in fuel consumption. After examination of early stove programs, fuel efficiency expectations of improved stoves have been substantially reduced. "Most people in the stove community now agree that a 50% decrease in fuel consumption should be considered a major achievement and that should be content with a savings of 25% or even less" <ref name="Barnes" />. Laboratory settings can be valuable with designing and initial testing of improved stoves; testing in field conditions can ensure the final product is built and designed correctly. Producing a stove design that adheres and conforms to local culture is vital in ensuring a successful stove program.
===Types of Testing===
Populations around the world are going to continue to use biomass fuel for the indefinite future. The use of improved stoves can help control the external costs to both the environment and human society. "It seems inevitable that an increasing amount of biomass fuel will be bought and burned in purchased stoves" <ref name="Barnes" />. Fuel savings may not be the driving factor in the adaptation of improved stoves. Improved stoves work because they make cooking quicker, safer, and cleaner. Improved stoves protect children from the dangers of burns from the open fire, reduce respiratory diseases, and burn clean and free of soot.
== Lit Review Update ==<references/>Logan Ward and Erik Rasmussen
On September 11, we visited the rocket stove at CCAT to check on how it's doing and update the page a little. The stove is in decent condition but there are a few areas that the stove could be improved. The rocket stove has gone through a few very minor changes since its creation. Recently, it received a fresh paint job. Also, the chimney has been lengthened considerably. As you can see from previous pictures, the original chimney was rather short. The new chimney is much taller and has a cap on the top. We also left a laminated informational piece to hang around the chimney and let people know what the rocket stove is and information about rocket stoves in general. == Updated Testing ==We met up with Dan and tested the stove. It appeared as if the stove hadn’t been used in quite a few years.  *The first step was to wash the cookpot *Then, we gathered pieces of kindling 1’ to 1.5’ long. The kindling weighed a total of .44 lbs *After that, we filled the pot with water and placed it in the skirt *Next, we started burning the pieces of wood in the combustion chamber. We also added dead grass to the kindling.  *The water came to a rapid boil within 7 minutes and 25 seconds. *The water's temperature was measured at 150 degrees Fahrenheit.  We observed a few problem areas. The vermiculite used to insulate the combustion chamber is old and could be replaced. Also, there are small gaps between the combustion chamber and the metal case of the barrel, which may have decreased the concentration of the heat around the pot and the low temperature of the boiling water. These gaps could easily be filled in by some kind of heat resistant sealant. Also, it was unclear if the addition of the longer chimney improved the flow of gasses or not. As noted earlier the chimney should be short, reaching just above the cookpot so the lengthened chimney might have actually hindered the flow of gases. Also, the bricks in the combustion chamber may need some replacing as well. If this stove was being consistently used, it would probably be a good idea to address these concerns as you would want your stove in prime running condition. <gallery>Image:rocket_stove1.jpg|Fig 1: Erik and Dan feeding the stoveImage:rocket_stove2.jpg|Fig 1a: View inside the beastImage:rocket_stove3.jpg|Fig 1b: Temperature readingImage:rocket_stove4.jpg|Fig 1c: View from above without the cookpotImage:rocket_stove5.jpg|Fig 1d: Laminated information hanging from the stove<!/gallery> == October 2014 Update ==Updated by Jacob Carroll-- DonJohnson and Carlos A. Sanchez It looked like the rocket stove has not been used in quite some time. Reasons for not using the rocket stove is easy of use. Its difficult to light and once it is lit it's hard to stay lit. The bottoms of pots get scorched. It also becomes very smokey when using. The weather has taken its toll on it. I was bummed out that we couldn’t test it out and see actual results. We are planning on going back to do some testing and see how it compares with when it was first built.We will post results once we run some tests.  We proceed with the analytical analysis. The first thing that we noticed was the smoke flute and the laminated information were gone. Rust has taken its toll on the stove.The top and bottom have taken the most hit from it. There are some holes from the rust going all the way through the top. So the top will soon need to be replaced. The bottom also has been affected. It appears that the rust has eaten the metal, and is now really thin at the bottom. No holes yet but maybe in the near future. There doesn't change seem to be much continuity of the next line unless you intend rocket.Moving on to change the categorization --combustion chamber. The heat resistant sealant that was used to seal the ceramic bricks is almost completely gone. The bottom brick is also in bad shape. When we wiggled the bottom brick we saw that only one big chunk moved. We also noticed that the back part of the combustion chamber had cracks. Test results will be posted soon.  <gallery>Image:DSC 4950.JPG|Fig 1: General viewImage:DSC 4936.JPG|Fig 1d: RustImage:DSC 4937.JPG|Fig 1a: Rust holes on topImage:DSC 4940.JPG|Fig 1b: Combustion chamberImage:DSC 4952.JPG|Fig 1c: Back wall cracks </gallery>
== See also ==
== References ==

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