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Water resource policy

10,118 bytes removed, 23:26, 3 July 2011
Narrowing scope to policy making structures deleting reference to policy issues covered elsewhere on this wiki
 
{{Under construction}}
This article is about water resource policy and the structure of its institutions. This has influence on the policy making processes but this article is restricted to a synchronic picuture of these structures and does not examine the dynamic diachronic process of decision making.<ref> The corresponding article on this topic at general-use websites such as wikipedia may address a broader scope.</ref>
Abstract: This article seeks to delineate a focus on water resource policy, its institutions and policy making processes rather than implementation or hydrology, irrigation, geography, fisheries management, implementation, the management of specific water projects or the purchase, ownership and conveyance of water law|water rights. [[Water resource management ]] is the ''implementation '' of policy and is usually carried out over smaller different, more subdivided political, spatial, and geographical domains than policy. It includes policy for "regions, catchments, shared or transboundary water resources, and inter-basin transfers,Policy is a cause of management practices, but best management practices are identified, evaluated, modified and disseminated by policy making bodies"<ref>http://www.gwptoolbox.org/index.php?option=com_tool&id=1</ref>. These policy issues may be subdivided by various means, but broadly concern either the identification, annexation, procurement, maintenance, protection, preservation, expansion of water supply and protection of its quantitative degradation through evaporative loss, water main breakage, waste or constraining qualitative degradation through direct pollution. "Supply isn't just about water production, it is also about distribution infrastructure" <ref> TakaDu p. 9 </ref> Technical issues of the world's aging water infrastructure also includes origination and dissemination of best practices to deal with metering, control systems, and pressure management.Much of policy discussion involves management of competing interests in supply and polluting uses by and between different user classes, with some commentators projecting resource wars as demand exceeds supply throughout most of the globe. <ref> Halcrow p. 27 & etc</ref> User classes of interest to policy making institutions and policy advocates include domestic, industrial, mining and agricultural facilities.<ref>http://www.ecolex.org/ecolex/ledge/view/RecordDetails;document_Law%20on%20Water%20Resources%20Development%20(Law%20No.%2011%20of%201974)..html?DIDPFDSIjsessionid=7DA28E1500FB24F295BD6F41E7070924?id=LEX-FAOC001336&index=documents</ref>
Water resource policy issues are receiving increasing attention. <ref> name= Halcrow http://www.futurewecreate.com/includes/0614Global%20Water%20Security%20PSC%2019%20Oct%20rev1.pdf</ref>It is widely believed that water policy is entering a period of more or less permanent crisis,<ref>http://www.gwp.org/Global/The%20Challenge/Resource%20material/IWRM%20at%20a%20glance.pdf</ref> at least in some regions, and the chilling spectre of worldwide crisis at some point in the future.<ref>http://www.voanews.com/english/news/usa/arts/Fight-for-Water-Hits-Crisis-Levels-Worldwide-118423974.html</ref>Given the complexity of international law, national sovereignty and forecasted water shortages, attention is increasingly focused on various approaches to this complex subject matter.<ref>http://www.cabdirect.org/abstracts/20023193561.html</ref> Organizations such as the Global Water Policy Project have sprung up to promote awareness and prod government and NGO's into heightened awareness of the problems.<ref>http://www.globalwaterpolicy.org</ref>
=== Multilateral/UN ===
{{Main|UN-Water}}
A few high points in multilateral initiatives are as follows:
<ref>http://www.unep.org/law/</ref>
* At Earth Summit 2002 governments established targets for 2015 to improve access to safe drinking water. <ref>http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/monitoring/globalassess/en/ Global Water Supply and Sanitation Assessment 2000 Report </ref> * In 2007 the World Bank developed a report series on Environment and Development <ref>World Bank|Series on Environment and Development.|http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTWAT/Resources/Env_Flows_Water_v1.pdf</ref>which thereafter (2009)reported on Environmental Flows in Water Resources Policies, Plans, and Projects<ref>Environmental Flows in Water Resources Policies, Plans, and Projects|World Bank|Series on Environment and Development.|http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTWAT/Resources/Env_Flows_Water_v1.pdf</ref> 
=== Bilateral ===
Treaties between nations may enumerate rights and responsibilities. For instance, a treaty between Poland and Germany, "An Agreement to establish cooperation on water resources management" provides:
* need to intensify debate
* need to harmonize public/private sectors<ref> Halcrow p 28</ref>
 
== Issues of concern to policy makers ==
 
===Flood and contamination control===
 
Water can become a natural disaster in the form of coastal or inland manifestations. These include tsunami, hurricane,cyclone, rogue wave and storm surge or floods originating from terrestrial water - bursting dams, rivers overflowing their banks. Planning and prevention of floods is a part of water resource policy which is separated from ordinary water resource management designed to allocate supply and provide for sanitation.
One jurisdiction's projects may cause problems in other jurisdictions, causing untold grief to all concerned. For instance, Monterey County California controls a body of water which acts as a reservoir for San Luis Obispo County. Who pays for measures to restrict growth of Quaaga Mussels? The down stream jurisdiction will face expensive damage to their piping systems if things get out of control, but boaters in the upstream jurisdiction will infect the lake if they are not subject to education and enforcement programs, which cost money. Similar examples abound.
 
 
===Freshwater===
 
=====Water supply=====
 
 
 
===== Surface and groundwater =====
Surface water and groundwater have often been studied and managed as separate resources, although they are interrelated.<ref name="circ1139">United States Geological Survey (USGS). Denver, CO. [http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/circ1139/ "Ground Water and Surface Water: A Single Resource."] USGS Circular 1139. 1998.</ref> There are three recognized classifications of groundwater which jurisdictions may distinguish: subterranean streams, underflow of surface waters, and percolating groundwater.<ref>http://www.blm.gov/nstc/WaterLaws/california.html</ref>
 
===== Policy makers' freshwater constituencies=====
 
Drinking water and water for utilitarian uses such as washing, crop cultivation and manufacture is competed for by various constituencies:
 
* residential
* Agriculture. "Many rural people practice subsistence rain fed agriculture as a basic livelihood strategy, and as such are vulnerable to the impacts of drought or flood that can diminish or destroy a harvest. "<ref>16th Conference on Climate Variability and Change|2.7|Evaluation of the Use of Forecast Interpretations information|Diego H. Pedreros, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA; and A. Bonilla, P. Ramirez, C. Funk, G. Husak, J. Michaelsen, and L. Aguilar|Session 2, Climate Predictions on Seasonal and Interannual Time Scales: 1(parallel with Session 1)
Monday, 10 January 2005, 1:30 PM-5:30 PM|http://ams.confex.com/ams/Annual2005/techprogram/paper_87610.htm</ref>
*construction
*industrial
*municipal or institutional activities
 
======Detrimental practices of concern to policy makers=====
 
* discharges from residential, business and irrigated agriculture
* dredge and fill activities including those conducted by other government agencies, which typically require permitting regardless
 
===Saltwater ===
 
Salt water resources are important for ethical-aesthetic reasons and on a practical level for recreation, tourism, maintenance of fisheries which includes wildlife resources such as birds and marine mammals. The sea is also a venue for shipping and for extractive exploitation for oil and minerals which creates a need for resource regulatory policy to protect the foregoing values from detrimental effects.
 
====Detrimental practices of concern to regulators====
 
=====Pollution from shipping=====
 
Ballast water, fuel/oil leaks and trash originating from ships is a growing concern in terms of water pollution in addition to other concerns. Sources may include.
 
* cruise ships
* tankers
* bulk cargo carriers
Ballast water may contain toxins, invasive plants, animals, viruses, and bacteria.
 
=====Pollution from extraction=====
 
Oil rigs and undersea mineral extraction creates a host of regulatory and resource management problems as demonstrated by high profile oil spills such as Deepwater Horizon. Also, decommissioning of such operations presents policy challenges. Rigs to reefs is a proposal which has as yet failed to reach consensus. California's Tranquillon Ridge project met its demise in the aftermath of Deepwater Horizon, and was controversial as environmentalists covenanted with the oil industry to open California's waters up to offshore drilling in exchange for early termination of existing Federal oil leases.
 
== Sanitation and water quality issues ==
 
===Surface water (runoff) and wastewater discharge ===
 
Such regulatory bodies as exist cover designated regions <ref>http://www.swrcb.ca.gov/waterboards_map.shtml</ref> and regulate piped waste water discharges to surface water which include riparian and ocean ecosystems. These systems of review bodies are charged with maintenance maintaining a healthy aquifer for purposes of wilderness ecology (wildlife habitat,drinking water, agricultural irrigation and fisheries. Another area of regulatory attention, which may or may not be housed within the same regulatory structure, includes storm water discharge which tend to carry fertilizer residue and bacterial contamination from domestic and wild animals. <ref>http://www.swrcb.ca.gov/water_issues/programs/ciwqs/who_is_regulated.shtml</ref> They have the authority to make orders which are binding upon private actors such as international corporations <ref>http://www.dailybreeze.com/news/ci_17612147</ref> and do not hesitate to exercise the police powers of the state. Water agencies have statutory mandate which in many hurisdictions is resilient to pressure from constituents and lawmakers in which they on occasion stand their ground despite heated opposition from agricultural interests<ref>http://www.montereyherald.com/local/ci_18314090?nclick_check=1</ref>
On the other hand, the Boards enjoy strong support from environmental concerns such as Greenpeace,Heal the Ocean and Channelkeepers.<ref>http://www.facebook.com/notes/heal-the-ocean/hilary-spoke-to-regional-water-quality-control-board-today/10150089482817928</ref>
 
 
Water quality issues or sanitation concerns reuse or water recycling and pollution control which in turn breaks out into stormwater and wastewater.
 
=== Stormwater runoff control policy ===
 
 
 
'''Surface runoff''' is water that flows when heavy rains do not soak (infiltrate) soil; excess water from rain, meltwater, or other sources flowing over the land. This is a major component of the water cycle.<ref>Robert E. Horton, ''The Horton Papers'' (1933)</ref><ref>Keith Beven, ''Robert E. Horton's perceptual model of infiltration processes'', Hydrological Processes, Wiley Intersciences DOI 10:1002 hyp 5740 (2004)</ref> Runoff that occurs on surfaces before reaching a Channel (geography)|channel is also called a Nonpoint source pollution|nonpoint source. Such sources often contain man-made contaminants, the runoff is called nonpoint source pollution. When runoff flows along the ground, it can pick up Soil contamination|soil contaminants including, but not limited to petroleum, pesticides, or fertilizers that become discharge (hydrology)|discharge or nonpoint source pollution.<ref>L. Davis Mackenzie and Susan J. Masten, ''Principles of Environmental Engineering and Science'' ISBN 0-07-235053-9</ref><ref> Adapted for this section, including citations herein, from open source CCL 2.0 main article at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stormwater</ref> At a policy level, political groups aggregate at such policy making entities as will hear their claims. Thus, in democratic jurisdictions with relatively open access to citizen participation, agricultural interests, developers, fish and wildlife groups, and environmentalists will compete for policy maker attention and for implementation of their preferred policy options. <ref>http://www.waterboards.ca.gov/waterrights/water_issues/programs/instream_flows/docs/not_wdm070111.pdf</ref>
 
=== Wastewater ===
 
{{Main|Wastewater}}
 
Wastewater is water which has been discharged from human use; "water that has been adversely affected" by anthropogenic influence. <ref> Section adapted from main topic Wikipedia article at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wastewater CCL 2.0 Originating editor TakuyaMurata</ref> The primary sources are discharge from the following sources:
 
* domestic residences,
 
* commercial properties,
 
* industry,
 
* agriculture
 
Potential contaminants exist in varying concentrations and new ones are found on an ongoing basis}. Sewage is technically wastewater contaminated with fecal and similar animal waste byproducts, but is frequently used as a synonym for waste water. Origination includes cesspool and sewage outfall pipes, some of which are unpermitted .
 
=== Water treatment policy ===
Water treatment is usually a matter of implementation however it is subject to multiple overlapping jurisdictional constraints which limit the governmental autonomy <ref> Poulantzas, Nicos. Political Power and Social Classes. London:New Left Books></ref>exercised by these bodies. For instance, levels of chloramines with their resulting toxic trihalomethane by product are subject to Federal guidelines even though water management implementing those policy constraints are carried out by local water boards. <ref>http://www.ccwa.com/chloramines.htm</ref>
==Structural constraints on policy makers ==
<ref>http://www.megalaw.com/ca/top/cawater.php</ref>
Additionally**The '''Water Quality Control Policy for the Enclosed Bays and Estuaries of California''' is published by the [[California State Water Resources Control Board]] as guidelines to prevent water quality degradation. The policy is revised as needed.<ref name="swrcb">State Water Resources Control Board ''Water Quality Control Policy for the Enclosed Bays and Estuaries of California'' (1974) State of California</ref>
* Public Health Departments conduct water sampling for bacterial and viral contaminants
* Water districts control service to residential, commercial, industrial and institutional water consumers
 
==Appendix: Water resource legislation==
* In US Recovery Act <ref>http://www.nationalaglawcenter.org/assets/crs/R40216.pdf</ref>
* England Wales
* Australia
* North Caroline (US)
 
== References ==
{{Reflist}}
 
== External links ==
* [http://www.blm.gov/nstc/WaterLaws/california.html]
* [http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/drinking/public/water_quality.html U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Healthy Water - Water Quality] - Information on water quality, water testing, and understanding consumer confidence reports on water contaminants
* [http://acwi.gov/monitoring/ U.S. National Water Quality Monitoring Council (NWQMC)] - Partnership of federal and state agencies
* [http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa U.S. Geological Survey] - National Water Quality Assessment Program
* [http://www.epa.gov/owow/monitoring U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - Water Quality Monitoring]
* [http://www.nal.usda.gov/wqic U.S. National Agricultural Library]
* [http://www.awra.org/ American Water Resources Association]
* [http://www.gemstat.org Global Water Quality online database]
* [http://www.beaches911.org/ Beaches 911 - U.S. Beach Water Quality Monitoring ]
* New Trends in Water and Environmental Engineering for Safety and Life [http://books.google.com/books?id=rsf1ScQZGHQC&pg=PA104&dq=wet+infrastructure&hl=en&ei=m1_oS9y6DpeONcnEtcYE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC8Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=wet%20infrastructure&f=false]
* The Scarcity of Water: Emerging Legal and Policy Responses [http://books.google.com/books?id=hHaJYSGVbJ0C&pg=PA17&dq=wet+infrastructure&hl=en&ei=m1_oS9y6DpeONcnEtcYE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CE0Q6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=wet%20infrastructure&f=false]
* Governance and Complexity in Water Management [http://books.google.com/books?id=jScUexgfiekC&pg=PA100&dq=%22wet+infrastructure%22&hl=en&ei=zWLoS-yeJIziNcHspfAE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CEAQ6AEwBDgK#v=onepage&q=%22wet%20infrastructure%22&f=false]
 
 
<!---Water resource policy--->
 
 
 
[{{Under construction}}
 
[[Category:Water quality]]
[[Category:Water supply]]
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