Subject matter and geographic jurisdiction are distinguishable.<ref>Black's Law Dictionary</ref> Jurisdiction is limited by geographic political boundaries as well the limits imposed by enabling legislation.
In some cases, legislation targets specific types of land uses (wilderness,agricultural,urban-residential, urban-commercial, etc.) A second level of jurisdictional limitation exists in terms of the subject matter which any given agency is authorized to control such as flood control, water supply and sanitation, etc. This creates a situation where regulatory authority is fragmented and thus policy analysis at a higher level is in demand in order to coordinate and identify gaps.
===Overlapping jurisdictions and conflict of laws===