In some cases, legislation targets specific types of land uses (wilderness,agricultural,urban-residential, urban-commercial, etc.) A second level of jurisdictional limitation exists in terms of the subject matter which any given agency is authorized to control such as flood control, water supply and sanitation, etc. This creates a situation where regulatory authority is fragmented and thus policy analysis at a higher level is in demand in order to coordinate and identify gaps.
In typically water challenged province in a developed nation, the number of water regulatory agencies at the provincial level alone is substantial, not counting county, city and special districts:
* Environmental Protection Agency (State/EPA)
* Public Health Departments conduct water sampling for bacterial and viral contaminants
* Water districts control service to residential, commercial, industrial and institutional water consumers
===Flood and contamination control===