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Water resource policy

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{{Under construction}}  Abstract[[File: WorldWaterAvailability.png]]This article seeks to delineate a focus on is about water resource policy, its institutions and policy making processes rather than implementation or hydrology, irrigation, geography, fisheries management, implementation, the management structure of specific water projects or the purchase, ownership and conveyance of water law|water rightsits institutions. Water resource management is This has influence on the implementation of policy and is usually carried out over smaller political, spatial, and geographical domains than policy. Policy is a cause of management practices, but best management practices are identified, evaluated, modified and disseminated by policy making bodies. These policy issues may be subdivided by various means, processes but broadly concern either the identification, annexation, procurement, maintenance, protection, preservation, expansion of water supply and protection of its quantitative degradation through evaporative loss, water main breakage, waste or constraining qualitative degradation through direct pollution. "Supply isn't just about water production, it this article is also about distribution infrastructure" <ref> TakaDu p. 9 </ref> Technical issues of the world's aging water infrastructure also includes origination and dissemination of best practices restricted to deal with metering, control systems, and pressure management.Much of policy discussion involves management a synchronic picuture of competing interests in supply and polluting uses by these structures and between different user classes, with some commentators projecting resource wars as demand exceeds supply throughout most of does not examine the globe. <ref> Halcrow p. 27 & etc</ref> User classes dynamic diachronic process of interest to policy decision making institutions and policy advocates include domestic, industrial, mining and agricultural facilities.<ref>http://www.ecolex.org/ecolex/ledge/view/RecordDetails;document_Law%20on%20Water%20Resources%20Development%20(Law%20No.%2011%20of%201974)The corresponding article on this topic at general-use websites such as wikipedia may address a broader scope..html?DIDPFDSIjsessionid=7DA28E1500FB24F295BD6F41E7070924?id=LEX-FAOC001336&index=documents</ref>
[[Water resource management]] is the ''implementation'' of policy and is usually carried out over different, more subdivided political, spatial, and geographical domains than policy. It includes policy for "regions, catchments, shared or transboundary water resources, and inter-basin transfers,Policy is a cause of management practices, but best management practices are identified, evaluated, modified and disseminated by policy making bodies"<ref>http://www.gwptoolbox.org/index.php?option=com_tool&id=1</ref>. These policy issues may be subdivided by various means, but broadly concern either the identification, annexation, procurement, maintenance, protection, preservation, expansion of water supply and protection of its quantitative degradation through evaporative loss, water main breakage, waste or constraining qualitative degradation through direct pollution. "Supply isn't just about water production, it is also about distribution infrastructure" <ref> TakaDu p. 9 </ref> Technical issues of the world's aging water infrastructure also includes origination and dissemination of best practices to deal with metering, control systems, and pressure management.Much of policy discussion involves management of competing interests in supply and polluting uses by and between different user classes, with some commentators projecting resource wars as demand exceeds supply throughout most of the globe. <ref> Halcrow p. 27 & etc</ref> User classes of interest to policy making institutions and policy advocates include domestic, industrial, mining and agricultural facilities.<ref>http://www.ecolex.org/ecolex/ledge/view/RecordDetails;document_Law%20on%20Water%20Resources%20Development%20(Law%20No.%2011%20of%201974)..html?DIDPFDSIjsessionid=7DA28E1500FB24F295BD6F41E7070924?id=LEX-FAOC001336&index=documents</ref>
==Increasing interest in analysis of policy systems==
Water resource policy issues are receiving increasing attention. <ref> name= Halcrow http://www.futurewecreate.com/includes/0614Global%20Water%20Security%20PSC%2019%20Oct%20rev1.pdf</ref>It is widely believed that water policy is entering a period of more or less permanent crisis,<ref>http://www.gwp.org/Global/The%20Challenge/Resource%20material/IWRM%20at%20a%20glance.pdf</ref> at least in some regions, and the chilling spectre of worldwide crisis at some point in the future.<ref>http://www.voanews.com/english/news/usa/arts/Fight-for-Water-Hits-Crisis-Levels-Worldwide-118423974.html</ref>Given the complexity of international law, national sovereignty and forecasted water shortages, attention is increasingly focused on various approaches to this complex subject matter.<ref>http://www.cabdirect.org/abstracts/20023193561.html</ref> Organizations such as the Global Water Policy Project have sprung up to promote awareness and prod government and NGO's into heightened awareness of the problems.<ref>http://www.globalwaterpolicy.org</ref>
Various jurisdictions at all levels from international down to small water districts regulate water resources to protect drinkability and agricultural uses from water pollution. Advanced industrial countries typically develope stringent rules which are disseminated worldwide through aid agencies and international agencies such as various departments of the United Nations. Within the developed nations, some localities have more highly developed water regulatory policy analysis, making and implementation bodies in place, due either to general social and ideological concerns or familiarity with specific, often problematic water quality problems.
===Water resource management in higher education===
Oregon State University offers a degree program in Water Resources Policy and Management (WRPM) <ref>http://oregonstate.edu/gradwater/degreeprograms/wrpm.php</ref>
==Global water resource policy objectives (overview)==
==Institutional participants==
=== Multilateral/UN United Nations water programs === 
A few high points in multilateral initiatives are as follows:
<ref>http://www.unep.org/law/</ref>
* At Earth Summit 2002 governments established targets for 2015 to improve access to safe drinking water. <ref>http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/monitoring/globalassess/en/ Global Water Supply and Sanitation Assessment 2000 Report </ref> * In 2007 the World Bank developed a report series on Environment and Development <ref>World Bank|Series on Environment and Development.|http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTWAT/Resources/Env_Flows_Water_v1.pdf</ref>which thereafter (2009)reported on Environmental Flows in Water Resources Policies, Plans, and Projects<ref>Environmental Flows in Water Resources Policies, Plans, and Projects|World Bank|Series on Environment and Development.|http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTWAT/Resources/Env_Flows_Water_v1.pdf</ref> 
=== Bilateral ===
Treaties between nations may enumerate rights and responsibilities. For instance, a treaty between Poland and Germany, "An Agreement to establish cooperation on water resources management" provides:
<ref>http://www.ecolex.org/ecolex/ledge/view/SearchResults;DIDPFDSIjsessionid=7DA28E1500FB24F295BD6F41E7070924?index=courtdecisions&indexHitsParam=treaties%3A406&indexHitsParam=documents%3A9769&indexHitsParam=courtdecisions%3A256&indexHitsParam=literature%3A2486&query=water&sortField=score</ref>
=== NonUN-profit consultative NGO policy advocacy organizations ===
Non governmental organizations may have consultative status at the UN. One such NGO is the World Water Council, an "international multi-stakeholder platform" established in 1996 to act "at all levels, including the highest decision-making level...[in] protection, development, planning, management and use of water in all its dimensions...for the benefit of all life on earth." It was an outgrowth of the 1992 at the UN's International Conference on Environment and Development in Dublin and at the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit. The Council itself is mow based in the City of Marseilles.<ref name="worldwatercouncil"/> Their website explains its' multi-stakeholder basis as due to the fact that "authority for managing the world's fresh water resources is fragmented amongst the world's nations, hundreds of thousands of local governments, and countless non-governmental and private organizations, as well as a large number of international bodies."
Subsequently, in 1994, the International Water Resources Association (IWRA) organized a special session on the topic in its Eighth World Water Congress held in Cairo in November 1994, leading to creation of the World Water Council. <ref>Ibid</ref>
===Independent multi-lateral NGO===
====Global Water Partnership====
 
The Global Water Partnership (GWP) is a network of Country and Regional Water Partnerships with a Secretariat in Stockholm. It was established "to support countries in the sustainable management and development of their water resources" but in practice is helping to formulate national policies to direct that management.Their mandate includes poverty reduction consistent with Millennium Development Goals. <ref>http://www.gwptoolbox.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=7&Itemid=5</ref>
=== Business water resource policy initiatives ===
* need to harmonize public/private sectors<ref> Halcrow p 28</ref>
== Issues of concern to Structural constraints on policy makers ==
===Surface Operational water and sewage discharge === Such regulatory bodies as exist cover designated regions <ref>http://www.swrcb.ca.gov/waterboards_map.shtml</ref> and regulate piped waste water discharges to surface water which include riparian and ocean ecosystemsmanagement implements policy. These systems of review bodies policies are charged with maintenance maintaining a healthy aquifer for purposes implemented by organizational entities created by government exercise of wilderness ecology (wildlife habitat,drinking water, agricultural irrigation and fisheries. Another area the police power of regulatory attention, which may or may not be housed within the same regulatory structurestate. However, includes storm water discharge which tend all such entities are subject to carry fertilizer residue and bacterial contamination from domestic and wild animalsconstraints upon their autonomy. <ref>http://wwwPoulantzas, Nicos.swrcbPolitical Power and Social Classes.caNLB, 1973 (orig.gov/water_issues/programs/ciwqs/who_is_regulated1968).shtml</ref> They have These constraints originate in the authority to make orders which are binding upon private actors such as international corporations <ref>http://www.dailybreeze.com/news/ci_17612147</ref> legitimacy demands of their constituents and do not hesitate to exercise also the police powers of the state. conflicting constraints originating from Water agencies have statutory mandate which in many hurisdictions is resilient to pressure from constituents global and lawmakers in which they on occasion stand their ground despite heated opposition from agricultural interests<ref>http://www.montereyherald.com/local/ci_18314090?nclick_check=1</ref>On the other handregional international entities, the Boards enjoy strong support from environmental concerns national government and state or provincial policy instruments such as Greenpeacetreaties, laws,Heal the Ocean regulations and Channelkeeperscontracts.<ref>http://www^ Habermas, J.facebookand Derrida, J.com/notes/heal-“February 15, Or What Binds Europeans Together: A Plea for a Common Foreign Policy, beginning in theCore of Europe” in ‘’The Derrida-ocean/hilaryHabermas Reader’’ ed. Thomassen L. The University of Chicago Press: Chicago Ill. Pp. 270-spoke-to-regional-water-quality-control-board-today/10150089482817928277. P.302</ref>===Overlapping jurisdictions===In typically These factors affect ownership and control of water challenged province in a developed nation, resources all the number of water regulatory agencies at way down to the provincial level alone is substantial, not counting county, city of municipalities and special districts:* Environmental Protection Agency (State/EPA) * Coastal Commission * Coastal Conservancy * Department for flood control and allocation of Fish & Game * Department of Water Resources * Environmental Resources Evaluation System (CERES) * Ocean water rights in accordance with local water law. In many localities, structural limitations on policy making and Coastal Environmental Access Network (OCEAN) * Resources Agency Wetlands Information System *State Water Resources Control Board resulting implementation snarls lead to failed policies. <ref>httpCollapse of an Industry://wwwNuclear Power and the Contradictions of U.megalawS.com/ca/top/cawaterPolicy (Cornell Studies in Political Economy)John L.phpCampbell</ref>Additionally, * Public Health Departments conduct water sampling for bacterial and viral contaminants* Water districts control service to residential, commercial, industrial and institutional water consumers === Regulatory scope===Jurisdictions may have saltwater, freshwater, or both concerns.  ====Freshwater====
Surface water and groundwater have often been studied and managed as separate resources, although they are interrelated.<ref name="circ1139">United States Geological Survey (USGS). Denver, CO. [http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/circ1139/ "Ground Water and Surface Water: A Single Resource."] USGS Circular 1139. 1998.</ref> There are three recognized classifications of groundwater which jurisdictions may distinguish: subterranean streams, underflow of surface waters, and percolating groundwater.<ref>http://www.blm.gov/nstc/WaterLaws/california.html</ref>==Jurisdictional limitations===
Sites Subject matter and geographic jurisdiction are distinguishable.<ref>Black's Law Dictionary</ref> Jurisdiction is limited by geographic political boundaries as well the limits imposed by enabling legislation. In some cases, legislation targets specific types of land uses (wilderness,agricultural,urban-residential, urban-commercial, etc.) A second level of jurisdictional limitation exists in terms of the subject matter which any given agency is authorized to control such as flood control, water supply and sanitation, etc. This creates a situation where regulatory authority is fragmented and thus policy makers' concern include:analysis at a higher level is in demand in order to coordinate and identify gaps.
*residential*construction,*industrial,*municipal activities,*discharges from irrigated agriculture;* dredge and fill activities;===== Policy consistency requirements =====
* Consistency with national regulations
* and several Consistency with the interests of other activities with lawful authorized users who engage in permitted or unpermitted practices that could which may utilize excessive water or degrade water quality.
====Saltwater ====
{{Main article|Environmental_impact_of_shipping}}
Ballast water, fuel/oil leaks and trash originating from ships is a growing concern in terms of water pollution in addition to other concerns. Of special concern are:
* cruise ships
* tankers
* bulk cargo carriers
Ballast water may contain toxins, invasive plants, animals, viruses, and bacteria.
===Overlapping jurisdictions and conflict of laws===
In typically water challenged province in a developed nation, the number of water regulatory agencies at the provincial level alone is substantial, not counting county, city and special districts:
* Environmental Protection Agency (State/EPA)
===== Jurisidictional problems =====
Overlapping jurisdictions may pass legislation which creates conflict of laws. For interest, recent changes in California law intended to reduce air quality problems from shipping has been interfered with by Federal legal changes intended to reduce the cost of shipping. <ref> www.santabarbaraindependent.com|July 2, 2011</ref>
===Programmatic subdivisions== Example of various overlapping water agencies=====
The agencies categorize their work into the following programs or similar ones.* Coastal Commission
* BiosolidsCoastal Conservancy
* Dredge/Fill WetlandsDepartment of Fish & Game
* Irrigated LandsDepartment of Water Resources
* Land Disposal Environmental Resources Evaluation System (landfills, waste piles, etc.CERES)
* National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Ocean and Coastal Environmental Access Network (NPDES) (surface waterOCEAN)
* Recycled WaterResources Agency Wetlands Information System
* Sanitary Sewer Overflows (SSO)State Water Resources Control Board
* Storm water<ref>http://www.megalaw.com/ca/top/cawater.php</ref>
* Timber Harvest<ref>The '''Water Quality Control Policy for the Enclosed Bays and Estuaries of California''' is published by the California State Water Resources Control Board as guidelines to prevent water quality degradation. </ref><ref name="swrcb">State Water Resources Control Board ''Water Quality Control Policy for the Enclosed Bays and Estuaries of California'' (1974) State of California</ref>
* Riparian Public Health Departments conduct water sampling for bacterial and ocean going vessel pollutionviral contaminants
==Structural constraints on policy makers == Operational water management implements policy. These policies are implemented by organizational entities created by government exercise of the police power of the state. However, all such entities are subject to constraints upon their autonomy.<ref>Poulantzas, Nicos. Political Power and Social Classes. NLB, 1973 (orig. 1968).</ref> These constraints originate in the legitimacy demands of their constituents and also the conflicting constraints originating from global and regional international entities, national government and state or provincial policy instruments such as treaties, laws, regulations and contracts.<ref>^ Habermas, J. and Derrida, J. “February 15, Or What Binds Europeans Together: A Plea for a Common Foreign Policy, beginning in the Core of Europe” in ‘’The Derrida-Habermas Reader’’ ed. Thomassen L. The University of Chicago Press: Chicago Ill. Pp. 270-277. P.302</ref> These factors affect ownership and control of water resources all the way down to the level of municipalities and special * Water districts for flood control and allocation of water rights in accordance with local water law. In many localities, structural limitations on policy making and resulting implementation snarls lead service to failed policies. <ref>Collapse of an Industry: Nuclear Power and the Contradictions of U.S. Policy (Cornell Studies in Political Economy)John L. Campbell</ref> ==Jurisdiction== Subject matter and geographic jurisdiction are distinguishable.<ref>Black's Law Dictionary</ref> Jurisdiction may be conceptualized geographically (wildernessresidential,agricultural, urban) or in terms of subject matter such as flood controlcommercial, water supply industrial and sanitation.  ===Subject matter jurisdiction: flood control==={{Main article|Flood control}}Water can become a natural disaster in the form of coastal or inland manifestions. These include tsunami, hurricane,cyclone, rogue wave and storm surge or floods originating from terrestrial institutional water - bursting dams, rivers overflowing their banks. Planning and prevention of floods is a part of water resource policy which is separated from ordinary water resource management designed to allocate supply and provide for sanitation. == Subject matter jurisdiction: water quality issues == Water quality issues or sanitation concerns reuse or water recycling and pollution control which in turn breaks out into stormwater and wastewater.  === Water treatment policy ===Water treatment is usually a matter of implementation however it is subject to multiple overlapping jurisdictional constraints which limit the governmental autonomy <ref> Poulantzas, Nicos. Political Power and Social Classes. London:New Left Books></ref>exercised by these bodies. For instance, levels of chloramines with their resulting toxic trihalomethane by product are subject to Federal guidelines even though water management implementing those policy constraints are carried out by local water boards. <ref>http://www.ccwa.com/chloramines.htm</ref> === Stormwater runoff control policy === {{Main|Stormwater runoff}} '''Surface runoff''' is water that flows when heavy rains do not soak (infiltrate) soil; excess water from rain, meltwater, or other sources flowing over the land. This is a major component of the water cycle.<ref>Robert E. Horton, ''The Horton Papers'' (1933)</ref><ref>Keith Beven, ''Robert E. Horton's perceptual model of infiltration processes'', Hydrological Processes, Wiley Intersciences DOI 10:1002 hyp 5740 (2004)</ref> Runoff that occurs on surfaces before reaching a Channel (geography)|channel is also called a Nonpoint source pollution|nonpoint source. Such sources often contain man-made contaminants, the runoff is called nonpoint source pollution. When runoff flows along the ground, it can pick up Soil contamination|soil contaminants including, but not limited to petroleum, pesticides, or fertilizers that become discharge (hydrology)|discharge or nonpoint source pollution.<ref>L. Davis Mackenzie and Susan J. Masten, ''Principles of Environmental Engineering and Science'' ISBN 0-07-235053-9</ref><ref> Adapted for this section, including citations herein, from open source CCL 2.0 main article at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stormwater</ref> At a policy level, political groups aggregate at such policy making entities as will hear their claims. Thus, in democratic jurisdictions with relatively open access to citizen participation, agricultural interests, developers, fish and wildlife groups, and environmentalists will compete for policy maker attention and for implementation of their preferred policy options. <ref>http://www.waterboards.ca.gov/waterrights/water_issues/programs/instream_flows/docs/not_wdm070111.pdf</ref> === Wastewater ===consumers
{{Main|Wastewater}}==== NGO to government difficulties ====
Wastewater Government secrecy is water which has been discharged an ongoing problem as bureacratic ineptitude and illicit, privately profitable arrangements are shielded from human use; "water that has been adversely affected" by anthropogenic influencepublic view. <ref> Section adapted from main topic Wikipedia article at http://enIn some nations there are provisions for press and other NGO access but costly lawsuits may be required to exercise these rights.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wastewater CCL 2.0 Originating editor TakuyaMurata</ref> The primary sources are discharge from the following sources:
* domestic residences,=====Typical information access issue =====
* commercial propertiesAs reported on the non partisan Civil Society Institute website,a 2005 Congressional study on water supply impact of American production is apparently being suppressed as it has become the target of a Freedom of Information Action (FOIA) litigation filed by the Civil Society Institute (CSI) vs the Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu.
* industry<ref>Website of the Civil Society Institute|June 23,2011|http://www.civilsocietyinstitute.org/media/062311release.cfm</ref>
* agriculture==See also==[[International Rivers]]
Potential contaminants exist in varying concentrations and new ones are found on an ongoing basis}. Sewage is technically wastewater contaminated with fecal and similar animal waste byproducts, but is frequently used as a synonym for waste water. Origination includes cesspool and sewage outfall pipes, some of which are unpermitted .[[Organizations]]
== References ==
{{Reflist}}
== External links ==* [http://www.blm.gov/nstc/WaterLaws/california.html]* [http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/drinking/public/water_quality.html U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Healthy Water - Water Quality] - Information on water quality, water testing, and understanding consumer confidence reports on water contaminants* [http://acwi.gov/monitoring/ U.S. National Water Quality Monitoring Council (NWQMC)] - Partnership of federal and state agencies* [httpCategory://water.usgs.gov/nawqa U.S. Geological SurveyOrganizations] - National Water Quality Assessment Program* [http://www.epa.gov/owow/monitoring U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - Water Quality Monitoring]* [http://www.nal.usda.gov/wqic U.S. National Agricultural Library]* [httpCategory://www.awra.org/ American Water Resources Association]* [http://www.gemstat.org Global Water Quality online database]* [http://www.beaches911.org/ Beaches 911 - U.S. Beach Water Quality Monitoring ]* New Trends in Water and Environmental Engineering for Safety and Life [http://books.google.com/books?id=rsf1ScQZGHQC&pg=PA104&dq=wet+infrastructure&hl=en&ei=m1_oS9y6DpeONcnEtcYE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC8Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=wet%20infrastructure&f=false]* The Scarcity of Water: Emerging Legal and Policy Responses [http://books.google.com/books?id=hHaJYSGVbJ0C&pg=PA17&dq=wet+infrastructure&hl=en&ei=m1_oS9y6DpeONcnEtcYE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CE0Q6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=wet%20infrastructure&f=false]* Governance and Complexity in Water Management [http://books.google.com/books?id=jScUexgfiekC&pg=PA100&dq=%22wet+infrastructure%22&hl=en&ei=zWLoS-yeJIziNcHspfAE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CEAQ6AEwBDgK#v=onepage&q=%22wet%20infrastructure%22&f=false]  <!---Water resource policy--->   [{{Under construction}}  <!--- Categories --->{{DEFAULTSORT:Water resource policy}}Category:Aquatic ecologyCategory:AquifersCategory:Environmental scienceCategory:SewerageCategory:Water managementCategory:Water conservationCategory:Water development and sustainabilityCategory:Water treatmentCategory:Water]Category:Water and the environmentCategory:Water chemistryCategory:Water pollutionCategory:Water supply<!---Category:Water supply and sanitation--->
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