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Climate change

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{{topic header| default.png |Climate change}}
'''Climate change''' due to human influence {{W|Climate change}} is accepted as scientific consensus (see [[Science a significant and lasting change in the Earth's climate over an extended period. In this article we discuss the impact of a rise in the average temperature of climate the Earth's atmosphere and oceans from the 19th century to the present. <ref>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_warming</ref> Climate change]]. It is expected to have devastating far greater negative effects on vulnerable communities[[developing countries]] than on developed countries due to numerous factors including exposure to extreme weather and infrastructure considerations.
== The science of climate change ==
{{main|Science of climate change}}
 
Although the existence of the greenhouse effect has been largely understood since 1896<ref>[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Svante_Arrhenius#Greenhouse_effect]</ref>, there are still a tiny minority of scientists who remain critical of specifics written in some reports of the IPCC{{w|Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change}} and other organisations. These so-called climate change skeptics{{w|Climate change skeptics}} are generally misinformed or are deliberately attempting to create doubt and uncertainty about the science.
Certain politicians, lobbyists and economists refer to disinformation from climate change 'skeptics' for their own advantage, portraying an image that climate change does not exist, poses but a minor problem, or may even be beneficial so as to be able to prevent action to reduce greenhouse gases (mostly resulting from the burning of fossil fuels). The GWPF in the UK is an example of a political lobbying group, which is secretly funded by fossil fuel interests.[http://www.theguardian.com/environment/climate-consensus-97-per-cent/2014/oct/08/gwpf-funder-leach-relying-on-unreliable-sources-of-info Guardian article on the secret funding of the GWPF]
 
== The impact of climate change ==
[[File:Natural disasters caused by climate change.png|thumb|right|200px|Natural disasters caused or aggrevated by global warming]]
Although climate change itself has been proven, uncertainties still exist regarding predicting the effects. The IPCC is highly confident that impacts will increase as greenhouse gases and associated positive feedback effects kick in (e.g. methane release from melting permafrost, changing albedo), though their severity and the timescales may differ to some extent. Examples of impacts include:
{{main|Science * Increasing heat stresses as global temperatures rise. While some regions such as Canada may benefit to some degree from rising temperatures, the overall effects on the ability of climate change}}the planet to support life will be negative. As temperatures rise, many equatorial regions will become hostile to life;* Changing weather patterns, especially more extreme weather events and changing rainfall patterns, specifically increasing or decreasing precipitation levels. Increasing floods and drought periods will have a generally negative effect on [[farming]]<ref>www.knmi.nl/africa_scenarios/brochure_Afrika.pdf</ref><ref>http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/Water/images/precipitation_intensity_map.png Precipitation changes</ref><ref>http://climatelab.org/@api/deki/files/462/=Desertification_map.png</ref><ref>One solution is to grow more resilient crops, i.e. more resistant to changes in rainfall and disease</ref>;* Natural disasters (ie mud slides, hurricanes, ...) are expected to increase in their severity. Death toll in 2003 = 150,000 people <ref>[http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2003/12/61562 150000 people killed by global warming up to 2003]</ref><ref>http://climatelab.org/climate_change_security</ref>:* Sea level rise<ref>Sea level rise: 2m rise expected by the year 2100, 6.5m by 2200</ref> will contaminate a very large percentage of the planets' agricultural fields with sea salt and make them no longer suitable for continued food production.<ref>Earth under water documentary</ref> In addition, many low-lying islands and coastlines will need to be abandoned, forcing many people to move.* Increasing ocean acidity. As the pH of water decreases due to the input of carbonic acid (resulting from CO2 dissolving in water), life forms which rely on a chalk shell will find it increasingly impossible to survive. This will have negative effects on many ocean ecosystems, especially coral reefs which are the most bio-diverse of any ecosystem on the planet.
Climate change skeptics{{wp sup|Climate change skeptics}} are a very small and decreasing minority of scientists (and a relatively large number of economists). The relative importance of ==Historic changes in the earth's climate change as opposed to directly addressing poverty is also open to debate.==
The positive contribution that term "climate skeptics can make includes critical analysis change" is often used to describe the impact of technologies and strategies human- this applies when it caused pollution on the earth's climate, but is important to understand that climate change is considered analysis rather than polemicalso caused by natural phenomena.
Note that [[Appropedia]] is focused on solutions and has only basic and especially relevant information on climate science. See [[Wikipedia:Climate science]] as a starting point for climate science information.History of Ice Ages
The earth's climate is subject to large fluctuations. The climate is dominated by ices ages<ref>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_glaciation</ref>, which reduce the earth's surface temperature and cover large parts of the surface in ice sheets. There have only been five ice ages to date, that have lasted from 30 million up to 300 million years. The most recent one occurred during to "Quaternary", which started about 2.5 million years ago and is still lasting. In between ice ages, the poles are not covered by glaciers and the temperature is higher. The climate is quite stable in these periods, however during ice ages strong variations occur. These variations are called glacial (cold) and interglacial (hot) periods<ref>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_glaciation</ref>. Glacial and interglacial periods alternate every 5,000-15,000 years. The current interglacial period started 14,000 years ago.
== What do we do? Climate change mitigation ==
{{main|Measures to stop global warming}}
The main focus of Appropedia content about climate change is finding ways Several options are available to reduce the negative impacts of a changing climate change. Most of these (the most efficient ones) are lifestyle changes (i.e. stop the burning of fossil fuels, stop eating meat etc.) and can be put in place today. We also do not need to wait for any specific technology to became available. Rather, the essential technology is already here today. Politicians often portray a different picture but it is rarely based in reality. Selected options include:
While technology is advancing and technologies such as [[thin film solar photovoltaics]]* Reducing the release of greenhouse gases{{wp supW|thin film solar photovoltaicsGreenhouse gas}} (GHG's) into the atmosphere (ie through energy efficiency, ...)* Prevent carbon dioxide from being released into the atmosphere (ie through carbon capture and storage (CCS), [[biochar]], ...). With [[Carbon sequestration]]/CCS, after combusting a fuel, the CO<sub>2</sub> is stored in a cavity underground.* Remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, e.g. copper indium gallium diselenide{{wp sup|copper indium gallium diselenide}}) offer great hopethrough geo-engineering [[ocean fertilisation]], planting extra [[trees]], ... However* Shield some of the planet from the sun, the rate or reflect a proportion of progress is uncertainsunlight back into space (i.e. by painting roads, parking spaces and as climate [[White roofs|roofs]] white, spraying sulphate aerosols into the stratosphere, ...)<ref>Note: this direct temperature reduction does not reduce carbon levels, so [[ocean acidification]] from higher carbon dioxide is still a problem</ref>* [[Climate change is already happeningmitigation]]: build [[heat tolerant houses]] ([[passive solar]] with suitable [[insulation]]), action is needed now[[flood control]] barriers, without waiting ...* Grin and bear it: put up with the inconveniences and the expected loss of biodiversity and increases in certain types of [[natural disasters]] and wait for these new technologiesextinction.
The logical place IPCC already considers a 2°C temperature rise to start is in the area where potential gains are greatest and costs are lowestbe almost inevitable. This is '''[[energy efficiency]]'''In addition, and it offers cost savings in many areas. Thus also advises the use of most important, pressing actions to be taken can be taken immediately without economic penaltyother measures, with suitable planning. Financial planning is an important aspect yet stays critical of this, as investment now may be required to gain long term benefits; it may be important to have programs such as [[light bulbgeoengineering]] exchanges or loans for energy efficiency measures (perhaps paid off through electricity bills<ref> If the energy company benefits from people using more energy, there may be a conflict of interestoptions, so different reward models need due to be explored; when the energy company is a government-owned corporation, this may give more flexibility to apply a different model in order to encourage uptake. (See [[Incentives for sustainability]] and [[Incentives to pollute]]risks involved.</ref>)
Another measure is [[renewable energy]], which is more attractive in some locations than others (e.g. [[solar]] and [[biodiesel]] may be the most cost effective sources of electricity in a sunny isolated location, and [[solar hot water]] is perhaps the most cost-effective form of renewable energy in most locations{{fact}}). At this stage the majority of the population in [[developed countries]] have access to renewable energy through "green energy" offered by electricity companies (which may or may not be truly "green", to varying degrees). The cost premium for such energy is very modest compared with most people's overall living costs (and modest compared with the money that most people spend on luxuries or entertainment). == Climate change chain reactions ==
[[Simple living]] offers various ways of reducing impact as well. To have The change in temperature and weather has a serious huge impact, these need to be actions on wildlife which appeal can become dangerous if the change stays the same.Even the minor change of temperature can lead to a large number earlier hatching of insects or melting of people, snow which may be very difficult without changes at the community levelprotects snow rabbits from their natural hunters. These include promotion of behavior changes, effects cause problems like insect overpopulation or too less surviving rabbits to reproduce sustainably.The insects are dangerous because they consume crops and other plans and changing infrastructure in ways that encourage lower-energy behaviorhuge amounts they are even able to consume a whole field of possible food. Building of [[cycleways]] rather than highways, making communities more walkable, making [[public transport]] a more attractive option, Because this problem is getting bigger and even endangers species and introducing congestion charges (as in London) are supported by if it goes on like this many sustainability advocates species will die out and organizationseven our own food capacity may shrink exponentionally.
Ensuring that buyers of houses and other buildings have access to all appropriate information about energy costs, livability (which improves with good [[passive solar]] design) and environmental impact, could make a big difference to == Climate Change on the building industry, and ensure that sustainability is taken more seriously by more builders. Ocean ==
Note that Earth is called the cost balance may appear different if [[externalities]] are accounted for - eblue planet because approximately 72 percent of it is covered by oceans.g. deaths due The oceans influence the weather on local to vehiclesglobal scales, including emissions; improved health from cycling and walking acting to reduce health costs and improve productivity; and possibly even social cohesion as a result while changes in climate can fundamentally alter many properties of people mingling on cycle, foot, and public transport, instead of traveling by carthe oceans.
=== Ocean conveyor system ===
 
The thermohaline circulation also called the great ocean conveyor belt or global ocean conveyor belt, is a large scale ocean circulation that distributes vast quantities of heat and moisture around on a planetary scale.
 
=== Gulf stream ===
 
Gulf stream has the length of 10.000 km. It is one of the largest and fastest ocean current on earth. Originating from the tip of Florida, at 2 <sup>m</sup>/<sub>s</sub>, it brings 100.000.000 <sup>m<sup>3</sup></sup>/<sub>s</sub> water towards Europe.
 
=== Sea level rise ===
 
As water gets warmer, it takes up more space. Each drop of water only expands by a little bit, but when you multiply this expansion over the entire depth of the ocean, it all adds up and causes sea level to rise. But that's not the only cause of the rise of sea level. The rise of sea level also caused by the melting of glaciers and polar ice caps and ice loss from Greenland and West Antarctica.
 
=== Ocean acidification ===
 
Ocean acidification is the ongoing decrease on ocean pH cause by human CO<sub>2</sub> Emission.
Ocean pH has decreased by about 30% already and if we continue emitting CO2 at the same rate by 2100 ocean acidity will increase by about 150%, a rate that has not been experienced for at least 400,000 years. Such a monumental alteration in basic ocean chemistry is likely to have wide implications for ocean life, especially for those organisms that require calcium carbonate to build shells or skeletons.
 
== Impact of climate change on species ==
 
Through rising temperatures resulting in a shift of climate zones forces species to adapt to the new climatic conditions. By a rapidly increased temperature the risk for especially plants not to find areas with suitable living conditions early enough is higher. Observations of several species conclude that they are moving their ranges polewards to keep up with changing climate.
 
 
==Notes==
<small><references/></small>
==See also==
*[[Flooding]]
*[[Sea level rise]]
*[[Measures to stop global warming]]
== Interwiki links ==
== External Links ==
*[http://www.ourfutureplanetskepticalscience.orgcom/topic-climate-change OurFuturePlanet - Climate ChangeSkeptical Science==Notes==<small><references[http://en.wikipedia.org/><wiki/small>Timeline_of_glaciation]
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