== Community participation in development ==
In recent years development work has shifted from a top-down approach to a bottom-up approach. While sometimes this is rhetoric, there is also a recognition that participation (and preferably initiation) by the community is essential to an effective project.
This approach is more costly and time-consuming, but is also more cost-effective as it gives much better and longer-lasting results.
==Participatory rural appraisal==
:<tt>In [[Turkmenistan]]'s Karra Kum desert, one of the themes to emerge from early participatory video work was a strong local desire for electricity to improve people's lifestyles and enable them to stay in the desert. Participatory video is again being used as a tool for documenting the challenges and decision-making processes involved in the community-led installation of solar power within different shepherding villages. The solar panels are neither sold nor given to the communities; instead, villagers decided that each family should exchange one ewe and one female lamb for their solar lighting system - these animals become the collective property of the village and are used as a "community action fund"...</tt><ref>from [http://www.comminit.com The Communication Initiative]'s newsletter, ''Environment & Communication - DB Click'', October 31 2006. For more, see [http://www.comminit.com/experiences/pds2006/experiences-3896.html Programme Experiences: Solar Power = Community Power - Turkmenistan], 2006</ref>
== External links ==
*[[Deep-democracy]]*[ [Wikipedia: Participation (decision making)]] *[[Wikipedia:Orangi Pilot Project]] *[http://www.worldbank.org/wbi/sourcebook/sbhome.htm The World Bank Participation Sourcebook]
*[http://www.scn.org/cmp/modules/a-mod.htm Communities Empowerment]
*[http://www.how-matters.org/2010/09/13/spotting-community-ownership/ Spotting Community Ownership on how-matters.org]=
=References== <references/ >
[[Category:Principles of development]]