The use of batteries do not have a very large impact as long as they are treated properly. Many battery manufacturers warn that "most of the problems with rechargeable batteries
can be traced to misuse" <ref>Batteries Wholesale (2005)</ref>
<ref>Lankey, R.L. and McMichael, F.C. (2000)</ref> A misuse that results in a leak most commonly occurs from: (1) overuse, i.e. being forced to overdraw the energy storage capacity, (2) being heated above the
batteries threshold or (3) corrosion of the shell from water vapor in the air over long time periods.
Another contribution to the life cycle of rechargable batteries that is worth noting includes the charger and its components (Table 3).