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CCAT pedal powered TV

14,599 bytes added, 03:44, 10 June 2014
Evaluation Criteria
{{305inprogress|May 15, 2010}}
 
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[[image:DSC00118bc.jpg]]
== ''' CCAT pedal powered TV''' ==
== Background ==
In 1978 a group of students collaborated to create the 'Campus Center for Appropriate Technologies''ED: CHANGE NAME (USING THE MOVE TAB) TO [[CCAT pedal powered TV]] TO MATCH THE NAMING CONVENTION) at [http://www.'''humboldt.edu Humboldt State University.] (HSU) in Arcata, California. CCAT provides many services to the student community at HSU, a few examples are: *providing information about [[appropriate technologies]]*offering a hands on learning experiences and *demonstrating different uses of appropriate technologies in a residential setting
== ''' CCAT pedal powered TV''' ==
== Background =='''ED: MORE LEAD IN... SUCH AS BACKGROUND ON With the help of students and the support of the community CCAT IS NEEDEDwas able to acquire the Buck house on the campus of HSU. PUT THIS IN YOUR OWN WORDS. WATCH SPELLING. DETAILED INFORMATION SHOULD GO IN LITERATURE REVIEW, THIS SHOULD BE AN OVERVIEWSince then CCAT has been used as the testing ground for alternative building and energy practices.'''
The pedal powered tv/vcr was designed and built by Bart Orlando for display at [[CCAT]]'s pedal powered lab in 1998This project serves as a great educational tool that spans across all age ranges. The components include a Schwinn recumbent exercise bike, is equipped with a 1800 rpm - 24v permanent magnet generator voltage and amperage meter so more advanced students can calculate power output, while younger students can learn how much energy is needed to power an everyday device like a Panasonic 12v-color tv with a 13" screenT.V. The generator is driven by a fan belt which wraps around When we first approached the outer circumference or the bike's 15"diameter - 40lb flywheel and the 4" diameter pulley on the drive shaft of project in February 2010 the generatorT. The generator is mounted on the underside of a wooden pedistle that the front end of the bike rests uponV. The relative sizes of the flywheel and pulley determine the range was not functioning properly. We suspected this was as result of no voltage regulation in the generator can deliver, which is between 0 - 20 voltsinitial design. The exact output voltage is determined by how fast one pedals. The optimum voltage Therefore, based on ease of pedaling effort seems we decided to be approximately 15 volts while pedaling at 90 rpm. There is no battery used in this design a new system. Electricity flows directly from the generator to the panasonic tv/vcr, which has been operated this way for five years without damage to its circuitry (11 years as of 2009).Taken from Bart Orlando[http://www.humboldt.edu/~ccat/pedalpower/inventions/frames_final_htm..htm]
== '''Opportunity Definition ''' ==
 
[[File:800px-Begining stagesbc.jpg|thumb|right|CCAT pedal power design beginning stages, testing pm dc generator using original pedestal/motor mount built in 1998 by Bart Orlando - Click on image to read our testing observations]]
[[Image:Ccat2bc.jpg|thumb|right|CCAT pedal power design mid stages]]
'''Who: '''
This project is was designed to help us as students learn creative uses for appropriate technology, but also is designed to be a powerful an educational tool for CCAT. The people involved with the project will be by John Hackett, Thorin Somers, Bart Orlando, and our various other resources of informationothers.
'''What:'''
This project entails not only fixing the , suggested by CCAT, was a renovation of their existing "pedal powered TV/VCR but also diagnosing what " The objective was to redesign and update it with more current technologies. Improvements were made to the problem design of the electronics, as well as transportability, and resilience. Because educational value is vital to CCAT, we made the design more transparent. Now others can visually see all of the components and how the roles they play in the system. We redesigned the physical structure, making it a complete unit equipped with locking casters. This allows it to improve be moved easily but be stable when in the projectlocked position. Mechanically we first diagnosed the causes of the previous system failure and integrated new technologies to promote a longer lasting system.
'''Why:'''
We believe that the pedal powered bike The Pedal Powered TV can be a powerful educational tool for future generations that shows humans power to innovate demonstrate how electricity is generated and create new technologieshow that can run a common appliance, the TV. Secondly we believe this The project could be useful in a also has practical sense for an alternate way to create applications such as: *entertainment*emergency communication*alternative energy generation for a the home.
'''When:'''
Time is nowWe began working on this project in February 2010 and we finished in May 2010.
'''Where:'''
The research and design of this project is to be was primarily done on campus at its current location of CCAT and also off campus the Campus Center for Appropriate Technology at designated working stationsHumboldt State University in Arcata, CA, USA. This project is primarily designed as a demonstration tool for micro-scale electricity generation. It can be made in all locations that have access to bicycles, TV's and basic electronics.
==Literature Review==
This is section presents a review of the available literature that is pertinent to the comprehensive pedal powered TV/VCR system at [[CCAT]].
===Pedal Power Basics===
Pedal The basics behind pedal power is start from the transfer energy you create by pedaling your bicycle. Most of energy from a human source through the time we use of a foot pedal and crank system. This technology is most commonly used for transportation and has been used this motion to propel bicycles for over a hundred yearscreate energy to transport ourselves where we want to go. Less Other uses less commonly pedal power is used to power agricultural and thought of include: *powering hand tools and even to generate *water pumping*other applications that require electricity. generation <ref>http://www.alternative-energy-news.info/technology/human-powered/pedal-power/</ref>
"The pedal powered TV/VCR was designed and built by Bart Orlando for display at CCAT'''ED: ANY THING COPY AND PASTED WITHOUT QUOTES IS PLAGIARISMs pedal powered lab in 1998. PUT THESE IN YOUR OWN WORDS!''The components include:*a modified Schwinn recumbent exercise bike*1800 rpm - 24V permanent magnet generator*Panasonic 12V color TV with 13" screen  The generator is driven by a fan belt which wraps around the outer circumference or the bike's 15" diameter - 40lb flywheel and the 4" diameter pulley on the drive shaft of the generator. The generator is mounted on the underside of a wooden pedestal that the front end of the bike rests upon. The relative sizes of the flywheel and pulley determine the range of voltage the generator can deliver (up to 20V). The exact output voltage is determined by how fast one pedals. The optimum voltage, based on ease of pedaling effort seems to be approximately 15 volts while pedaling at 90 rpm. There is no battery used in this system. Electricity flows directly from the generator to the Panasonic TV/VCR.
===Pedal Power Concerns===
There are three main concerns we have with the design of this system:
# There is no natural voltage regulation, forcing you to carefully control your pedaling speed
# Devices that do not draw power evenly may exceed your generating capacity when they need a burst of power
# The power stops when the pedaling stops.[<ref>http://www.los-gatos.ca.us/davidbu/pedgen/ultimate_pedal_tv.html]</ref>
===Types Applications of pedal power===Some applications include pedal powered laptops, pedal powered grinders and pedal powered water wells. Some third world development projects currently transform used bicycles into pedal powered tools for sustainable development. The articles on this page are about the many wonderful applications for pedal power technology. [[<ref>http://www.uwsp.edu/cnr/wcee/keep/Resources/Teaching_Resources/HandsonResources/PedalPower.htm]]</ref>
====Type 1====
Direct Power: no electricity is used. Power is created from pedaling which is given to devices directly through a mechanical connection. Some commonly used examples of this is a pedal powered blender or washing machine. Advantage= the most efficient, Disadvantage= not all devices can be mechanically driven. [[http://www.ecofriend.org/entry/eco-diys-pedal-powered-blender-lets-the-world-know-what-you-re-cooking-for-dinner/]]
====Type 2Direct Power====Generator With direct power no electricity is used. Power: is created from pedaling powers a generator which creates electricity that once converted is given to the proper current (AC vs.DC)can be used to power everyday electrical devicesdirectly through a mechanical connection. Examples Some commonly used examples of this type of system is the CCAT a pedal powered TV, or the pedal powered laptop's created at MIT. Advantage= versatility for a wider range of electronic devices, Disadvantage= less efficient due to energy loss in generator, wiring, etc, and the voltage must be properly regulated or it can cause damage to devices. blender<ref>http://webwww.mitappropedia.eduorg/newsofficeCCAT_pedal_electric_blender</2007ref> or washing machine.<ref>http:/energy-laptop-1108/www.htmlappropedia.org/CCAT_pedal_washing_machine</ref>
====Type 3====Battery Power: pedaling powers a generator which creates electricity, but instead of powering devices directly the power created becomes stored in a battery for later use. Examples includes David Butchers pedal powered system which provides constant light in his home after only 15 minutes of pedaling. Advantage= devices can be used without pedaling, Disadvantage= least *The most efficient of all 3 types mentioned mainly due to a low return by the battery.<ref>http://www.los-gatos.ca.us/davidbu/pedgen/village_lighting.html</ref>
'''EDDisadvantage*Not all devices can be mechanically driven <ref>http:USE THE REF FORMAT AS I SHOW ABOVE//www.'''ecofriend.org/entry/eco-diys-pedal-powered-blender-lets-the-world-know-what-you-re-cooking-for-dinner/</ref>
====Generator Power====
Pedaling powers a generator which creates electricity that can be used to power everyday electrical devices. Examples of this type of system are the CCAT pedal powered TV, and the pedal powered laptop's created at MIT.<ref>http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2007/energy-laptop-1108.html</ref>
Advantage*Can power more than just mechanical devices so it has versatility and ability to power electronic devices Disadvantage*Less efficient due to energy loss in generator, wiring, etc, and the voltage must be properly regulated or it can cause damage to devices ====Battery Charging== Criteria =='''EDIn this application pedaling powers a generator which in turn charges a battery, storing the energy for later use. Examples includes David Butchers pedal powered system which provides constant light in his home after only 15 minutes of pedaling. <ref>http: INTRODUCE THIS CRITERIA SECTION//www.'''los-gatos.ca.us/davidbu/pedgen/village_lighting.html</ref> Advantage*Devices can be used without pedaling  Disadvantage*Least efficient of all 3 types mentioned mainly due to losses associated with converting energy between mechanical, electrical to chemical == Evaluation Criteria == This section includes all possible aspects thought up by the group members for this project as well as the directors of CCAT. These criteria were chosen to evaluate the project based on ease of use, educational capacity, and transportability. These criteria will help us to determine how much time, money, and effort should be invested in each aspect of the system based on its importance to our client (CCAT).  {| class="wikitablesortable"
|-
! Criteria
! constriantsConstraints! Our wieght Weight (0-10 rating)
|-
| maintainabilitypedal power a device| must be able to maintain functionality on less then .5 hrs a weekpower at least one electronic device | 710
|-
| safety
| must be able to function with out without possible injury to users or on lookersobservers| 9|-| educational value| must be able to provide an understanding of the functionality and use of the device, within a two minute viewing span
| 9
|-
| effectiveness
| must be able to power a device for the full duration of it's '''ED: WATCH APOSTROPHES.''' its intended function
| 8
|-
| storage abilitymaintainability| must be able to be stored and maintain function in functionality on less than .5 human labor hrs a moist environment such as [[Humboldt County]]week| 67
|-
| ease of use
| must be suitable from an age range of 12 years an and above with out without adult supervision
| 7
|-
| transportabilitystorability| must be able to be transported for educational outreach| 2|-| pedal power stored and maintain function in a device| must be able to power at least one electronic device moist environment such as [[Humboldt County, California]]| 86
|-
| social justice
| 50 % of materials must come from a recycled source
| 5
|-
| educational value
| must be able to provide an understanding of the functionality and use of the device, within a two minute viewing span
| 10
|-
| aesthetics
|-
| noise level
| must not exceed 90 70 dB (level at which hearing is impairedloud conversation) '''ED: SO DANGEROUS LEVELS ARE OKAY?'''
| 5
|-
| transportability
| must be able to be transported for educational outreach
| 2
|}
 
'''ED: WATCH SPELLING AND CONSISTENT CAPITALIZATION.'''
== Budget ==
| Locking Casters
| Ace Hardware
| $50-10010.49
| $62.94
|-
| various screws & washers
| Ace Hardware
| $40.10-80.35
| $66.54
|-
| 1
| 2'*6 ' wood
| CCAT
| $Donation
|-
| 1
| 2'*4 ' wood
| CCAT
| $Donation
| $Donation
|-
| 12 ft| 2'*6 8' fish netting
| Englund Marine
| $153.50 per foot
| $7.60
|-
| 1
| Boom boxskyworth 12 15inch LCD TV DVD combo| Thrift Store[http://roadtrucker.com/refurbish/refurbished-skyworth-12-volt-lcd-tv-dvd-player.htm roadtrucker.com]| $5-10179.00| ~$10179.00
|-
| 1
| voltage stabilizer and adapter
| [http://www.amperordirect.com/pc/b-amperor/voltage-stabilizer-amperor-P2090-D1000.html amperordirect.com]
| $82.00
| $82.00
|-
| 1
| 12 pack Pepsi "for replacing generator bearing"
| Industrial Electric
| $5.00
| $5.00
|-
| 1
| crouzet low/high voltage control relay
| [http://www.alliedelec.com/search/productdetail.aspx?SKU=7930701 alliedelec.com]
| $113.59
| $113.59
|-
| combined total cost
|
| | | | ~$140516.67
|}
'''ED: MAKE THESE EXACT VALUES.'''
==Proposed time lineProject timeline==   
{| class="wikitable"
|-
! objective
|-
| march March 1
| budget completion
|-
| march March 20| complete research |-| March 30
| complete purchasing of materials
|-
| march 30April 10 |complete testing/ begin building process
|-
| April 1016
| project wrap up
|-
| April 1620
| Turn in optional draft
|-
| April 20 28
| Finish Analysis + appropedia Page
|}
== '''Design''' ==
===Designing interpretive materials==='''Structure'''According to ______ interpretive materials for composting should include..[[image:DSC00137bc.jpg|thumb|right|Front Frame Structure]][[image:DSC00132bc.jpg|thumb|right|Safety Netting Staple Gunned]]
==References==<referencesWhen we began designing the structure there were several things that we wanted to accomplish: transparency, simplicity, mobility, and strength. To make it transparent we mounted the permanent magnet motor and all the related circuitry right out in the open, rather then being hidden under a wooden platform like it was in the old design. To simplify the design we decided to make it a single mobile unit. Previously the structural design consisted of several peices: the front of the exercise bike would sit on a platform where the motor was mounted, a large block was put in the back to level it, and a small table was needed for the T.V. to sit on. To make it a single unit we combined the table that the TV needed to rest upon with the platform needed to mount the motor, we then added wheels to the back of the bike to level it. Rather than bolt the exercise bike directly to the platform we decided to hold it in place with friction from tiny blocks this way the bike can easily break away from the platform/>TV stand into two smaller parts for transportation in community outreach. We used a total of 6 locking casters each with load bearing of 150 pounds, thus giving us mobility and strength. Also to promote durability and strength we used 2x4 and 2x6 wood screwed together with 2" decking screws.
'''Electrical'''
[[Image:Pedal_powered_dvd_player_visio_Drawingzz_5-9-2010.jpg|thumb|right|wire diagram for CCAT pedal power project]]
[[image:DSC00144bc.jpg|thumb|right|Attaching Signage and meter bracket]]
The electrical design of the original project was already very simple and we wanted to keep it that way so people could easily understand it. When researching other systems we found that many people use batteries for pedal power but we decided to not use one in our system because of the efficiency loss and the fact that they require maintenance. Without a battery our design needed two things to work: first, a way to stabilize the wide range of volts being produced by the motor to a solid 12 volts before reaching the TV, and second without a constant power source such as a battery we needed protection so that if a person was not pedaling fast enough the system would shut off before low voltage damage occurred to the TV. After a bit of research we found two specific products available on the internet that each solved one of our problems. The voltage surge protector from Amperor is designed to take a range of volts from 10-24 and even them out to a solid 12. The second part is a relay that will not complete the circuit and allow power to the surge protector until the person pedals the minimum 10 volts, at which point it clicks on. If the peddler falls below the 10 volt threshold the relay will break the circuit to avoid damage to the components.
== '''Construction''' ==
Some of the basic tools used include: measuring tape, saw, drill, bolts & screws, sockets, volt meter, and paint. To build the stand we measured the highest and widest points of the flywheel and pedals and then built a box around those measurements. Once a box was built we attached a top sheet made of lumber grade A plywood stained with mineral oil. The rest of the stand was painted with an exterior oil based paint. To attach casters to the stand we simply marked them, drilled holes and then bolted them in. Attaching casters to the rear was more difficult however, and for this we took u bolts that went around the bike through a piece of 2x6 (so the casters had a flat surface to mount to) and then bolted into the casters. Once all 6 casters were in place we centered and mounted the generator, then mounted the DC receptacle and meters. With the generator in place we then had to create belt tension between the pulley and the flywheel by pulling the bike back. Once the belt was at proper tension we simply attached small strips of plywood to the stand, that act as holding blocks for the front leg of the bike.
== '''Testing''' ==
[[image:DSC00113bc.jpg|thumb|right|Testing Of Electrical Wiring And Electronic Components]]
[[image:DSC00100bc.jpg|thumb|right|And More Testing Of Electrical Wiring And Electronic Components]]
'''Structural Tests'''- To test the strength of the caster assembly we slowly applied weight until we had 250 pounds seated on the bike, which we considered the recommended maximum rider weight. A heavier person could use our bike only if a block was placed under the back wheels to support the weight on the block instead of the wheels.
'''Electrical Tests'''- To test our electrical circuitry we used a basic volt meter, to test for continuity, test voltage, and amperage. Originally, our design had no relay and just the stabilizer. However, after a bit of testing with just the voltage stabilizer alone we found that when a person stopped pedaling and dropped below the products recommended 10 volt input, the stabilizer would very slowly release its voltage down to zero due to a small capacitor inside the stabilizer that allows it perform its function. This test told us that we needed some sort of low voltage protection because LCD TV's are very sensitive to low voltages, and as warned by the manufacturer could cause unrepairable damage. We decided to use a relay that we placed after the stabilizer in our diagram. Once it was wired we began testing, initial readings from the volt meter showed that the voltage was stabilized when no appliances (load) was being used. However, when the TV was plugged in and the system was under load we began to see the LED power light on the TV begin to flash, leading us to believe that it was receiving fluctuating power or something else was wrong. Next, we decided to test what would happen if the stabilizer came after the relay and plugged directly into the TV. Initially, we received similar results to our first test, the voltage was regulated when not under load, but that voltage would slowly dissipate when pedaling stopped before the relay would break the circuit. Because of what we were seeing we became skeptical to test the system under load because of the low voltage the TV might receive. However, after spending a bit of time talking to the manufactures of all these products and experts from various electrical fields, we received a resounding answer that the system will function much differently when under load and that the extra voltage we were seeing would be dissipated in nano-seconds. This test proved successful at powering the TV without flux, and when the person stopped pedaling no obvious damage was occurring to the TV.
== '''Maintenance''' ==
We intended for the design to be virtually maintenance free and for the most part it is. However, there are several things that should be done to keep the pedal powered TV in top condition: First, the entire unit especially the TV should receive regular dusting. Second, bearings in the generator and casters will wear over time so a check to make sure there is no noise and they are all running smoothly. Also, inspect the belt for wear and proper tension and replace if necessary. Sadly, the relay we purchased has a set life but should last for years to come, but eventually will die and need to be replaced. Otherwise this project is fairly self sufficient and will require very little upkeep.
==Project set backs & possible solutions==
While working on the CCAT pedal powered TV project we encountered a few challenging set backs that could be looked at in the future for possible upgrades to the existing design. Listed are some of the problems we encountered but where not able to address due to budget and time constraints.
===Possible upgrade to back wheel design===
During are attempts to come up with a solution to making the pedal powered TV and bike more mobile for CCAT's needs we ran into some issues with strength of our design. Our first design in-tailed using pre measured blocks of 2*6 plywood with u-bolts that would connect the bike to the caster wheels. The U-bolts we had decided to use on the first attempt where 3.5" long. To be able to make these work we had to counter drill a whole into the blocks of wood therefor lowering the strength of the wood. As a possible solution to this set back we decided to use longer square shaped U-bolts and one solid 24" 2*6 block of wood. This still showed signs of stress on the block of wood which could potentially fail.
One possible solution to this problem would be to instead of adding casters for mobility in our design there is the possibility on our machine to add a straight shaft with two wagon wheels through the back of the frame which is 4" hollow aluminum tubing. This could be potentially stronger than the current design.
===Addition of an AC inverter===
[[Image:Ccat pedalbc.jpg|thumb|right|Thorin and Bart Working on some wiring]]
The addition of an AC inverter would allow the project to have more versatility for everyday users. Currently the design only generates DC power, which limits the users in the electrical appliances available to them. Inverters can cost as little as 20 USD, but unfortunately we ran out of money in our budget for this addition.
== '''A Word From Bart Orlando''' ==  YEAH! This project made great progress this semester and thanks to the skilled efforts of John Hackett, Thorin Somer and yours truly, a break through in pedal power has been achieved. This system demonstrates how to power a flat screen TV/DVD player (or power a laptop computer via a micro inverter) ...'''WITHOUT USING A BATTERY OR CAPACITOR'''... to stabilize the generator's electrical output. This system encourages exercise and provides a source of emergency power for electronic telecommunications equipment so that news and information can be exchanged with the outside world in the event of a local disaster. This system can charge cell phones and keep laptops charged while sending or receiving emails or accessing on line news sites. Future tests could determine if it is also capable of powering a dc satellite dish internet up-link and a laptop at the same time.This system requires ~30% less pedaling effort than the previous TV/VCR system. As electronic components become more efficient, pedal power will be validated as a legitimate source of energy for powering systems of this scale. Such systems could be incorporated into Health Clubs that offer spinner bikes. Alternately, if pedal power were fed into the grid via a grid-inter-tie, the health club would be functioning as a human power plant. I hear the first such human power plant has been built in Hong Kong and not only the exercise bikes but every type of weight lifting machine and every treadmill have been replaced with machines that provide the same exercise but channel the energy of a workout into generating electricity. Even the stairways generate power as people walk up and down them. Perhaps one day people will actually be paid to exercise in this way because the cost of dealing with chronic illness from lack of exercise exacts a much greater financial burden on society ($500 billion/year in the U.S. alone). You can check out other projects that I worked on with HSU engineering students at the following web sites: [[Projects with Bart]] Pedal Powered Innovations[http://www.humboldt.edu/~ccat/pedalpower/inventions/frames_final_htm..htm] == '''Special thanks''' == This section is for all the people who have helped with us get through this project. Without these sources of information who knows where we would be. Frank H- electrical assistance [http://maps.google.com/maps/place?um=1&ie=UTF-8&q=Industrial+Electric+arcata&fb=1&gl=us&hq=Industrial+Electric&hnear=arcata&cid=15284599334911488872 Industrial Electric]- diagnosis & maintenance of generator Bart Orlando- project overseer and mentor CCAT- for letting us work pass closing time ==References==<references/> [[Category:CCAT]][[Category:Engr305Appropriate Technology]][[Category:CCAT pedal powered innovations|P]][[Category:CCAT active project]]

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