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==Introduction==
 
==Introduction==
 
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Vending machines operate 24 hours per day, seven days a week using large amounts of energy throughout those hours of operation. In addition to consuming 2,500 to 4,400 kilowatt-hours (kWh) of energy per year, they add to cooling loads in the spaces they occupy. At average electricity costs of about US$0.08/kWh, annual operating costs can range from $200 to $350. <br />
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Vending machines operate 24 hours per day, seven days a week using large amounts of energy throughout those hours of operation. In addition to consuming 2,500 to 4,400 kilowatt-hours (kWh) of energy per year. At average electricity costs of about 7.5 cents / kWh <ref> EnergyShop (2010), ''Residential Electricity Rates'', http://www.energyshop.com/es/prices/ON/eleON.cfm?ldc_id=348& </ref>, annual operating costs can range from $200 to $350. <br />
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New, efficient vending machines are available that can greatly reduce operating costs through the use of motion sensors.  These sensors allow the machines to function only when a person is present in front of the sensor.  The compressors run only enough to maintain a suitable temperature throughout the workday, but the lights and other components remain off in order to minimize overall energy consumption.  <ref> E Source Companies LLC (2009), ''Vending Machine Energy Savings'', http://www.mge.com/business/saving/madison/pa_50.html </ref>
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New, efficient vending machines are available that can greatly reduce operating costs through the use of infrared motion sensors.  These sensors allow the machines to function only when a person is present in front of the sensor.  The compressors run only enough to maintain a suitable temperature throughout the workday, but the lights and other components remain off in order to minimize overall energy consumption.  <ref> E Source Companies LLC (2009), ''Vending Machine Energy Savings'', http://www.mge.com/business/saving/madison/pa_50.html </ref>
 
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== Economic Value ==
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Vending machines account for a significant portion of annual energy use and are often overlooked when considering saving energy and money.  Each machine can use up to 400 W at a rate of approximately 7.5 cents / kWh <ref> EnergyShop (2010), ''Residential Electricity Rates'', http://www.energyshop.com/es/prices/ON/eleON.cfm?ldc_id=348& </ref> can result in a cost of about $300 per annum to operate the machine.
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Studies have shown that the addition of motion sensors can reduce the overall annual operating cost by 30 to 50%.  This could potentially save $ 150 per machine per year in electricity.  Popular brands of motion sensors / controllers cost approximately $150, resulting in a payback period of approximately 1.2 to 1.4 years.  <ref> State Energy Office (2005), ''Vending Machines – Utility Savings Initiative (USI) Fact Sheet'', http://www.p2pays.org/energy/Vending.pdf </ref>
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== Emission Reductions ==  
 
== Emission Reductions ==  
  
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