Get our free book (in Spanish or English) on rainwater now - To Catch the Rain.

Abuse filter log

Abuse Filter navigation (Home | Recent filter changes | Examine past edits | Abuse log)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Details for log entry 6,105

18:47, 11 July 2012: RichardF (talk | Contributions) triggered filter 20, performing the action "edit" on User:RichardF/Sandbox. Actions taken: Warn; Filter description: Page blanking (examine)

Changes made in edit

{{Infobox person <!-- for more information see [[:Template:Infobox person/doc]] -->
 
| name        = Rachel Carson
 
| image        = Rachel-Carson.jpg
 
| imagesize    = 200px
 
| caption      = Rachel Carson, 1940 <br />Fish & Wildlife Service employee photo
 
| pseudonym    =
 
| birth_name  = Rachel Louise Carson
 
| birth_date  = {{birth date|1907|5|27|mf=y}}
 
| birth_place  = Springdale, Pennsylvania, U.S.
 
| death_date  = {{death date and age|1964|4|14|1907|5|27|mf=y}}
 
| death_place  = Silver Spring, Maryland, U.S.
 
| occupation  = [Marine biologist, writer and environmentalist
 
| nationality  = American
 
| alma_mater  = Chatham University,<br>Johns Hopkins University
 
| period      = 1937–1964
 
| genre        = Nature writing
 
| subject      = Marine biology, ecology, pesticides
 
| movement    =
 
| notableworks = ''The Sea Around Us'' (1951) <br>''Silent Spring'' (1962)
 
| influences  =
 
| influenced  =
 
| website      =
 
}}
 
  
'''Rachel Louise Carson''' (May 27, 1907&nbsp;– April 14, 1964) was an American [[marine biology|marine biologist]] and [[conservation movement|conservationist]] whose book ''Silent Spring'' and other writings are credited with advancing the global [[environmental movement]].
 
 
Carson began her career as a biologist in the [[United States Fish and Wildlife Service|U.S. Bureau of Fisheries]], and became a full-time nature writer in the 1950s.  Her widely praised 1951 bestseller ''[[The Sea Around Us]]'' won her a U.S. [[National Book Award]],<ref name=nba1952/> recognition as a gifted writer, and financial security. Her next book, ''[[The Edge of the Sea]]'', and the reissued version of her first book, ''[[Under the Sea Wind]]'', were also bestsellers. That so-called sea trilogy explores the whole of ocean life from the shores to the surface to the depths.
 
 
Late in the 1950s Carson turned her attention to conservation, especially environmental problems she believed were caused by synthetic [[pesticide]]s. The result was ''[[Silent Spring]]'' (1962), which brought environmental concerns to an unprecedented share of the American people. Although Silent Spring met with fierce opposition by chemical companies, it spurred a reversal in national pesticide policy, which led to a nationwide ban on [[DDT]] and other pesticides, and it inspired a [[grassroots]] environmental movement that led to the creation of the [[United States Environmental Protection Agency|U.S. Environmental Protection Agency]]. Carson was posthumously awarded the [[Presidential Medal of Freedom]] by [[Jimmy Carter]].
 
 
==Life and work==
 
<!--[[File:RachelCarsonHomestead.jpg|thumb|left|Carson's childhood home now is preserved as the [[Rachel Carson Homestead]]]]-->
 
 
===Early life and education===
 
 
Rachel Carson was born on May 27, 1907, on a small family farm near [[Springdale, Pennsylvania]], just up the [[Allegheny River]] from [[Pittsburgh]]. An avid reader, she also spent a lot of time exploring around her family's 65 acre farm. She began writing stories (often involving animals) at age eight, and had her first story published at age eleven. She especially enjoyed the ''[[St. Nicholas Magazine]]'' (which carried her first published stories), the works of [[Beatrix Potter]], and the novels of [[Gene Stratton Porter]], and in her teen years, [[Herman Melville]], [[Joseph Conrad]] and [[Robert Louis Stevenson]].  The natural world, particularly the ocean, was the common thread of her favorite literature.  Carson attended Springdale's small school through tenth grade, then completed high school in nearby [[Parnassus, Pennsylvania]], graduating in 1925 at the top of her class of forty-five students.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=7–24}}</ref>
 
 
At the Pennsylvania College for Women (today known as [[Chatham University]]), as in high school, Carson was somewhat of a loner. She originally studied English, but switched her major to biology in January 1928, though she continued contributing to the school's student newspaper and literary supplement. Though admitted to graduate standing at [[Johns Hopkins University]] in 1928, she was forced to remain at the Pennsylvania College for Women for her senior year due to financial difficulties; she graduated ''[[magna cum laude]]'' in 1929. After a summer course at the [[Marine Biological Laboratory]], she continued her studies in [[zoology]] and [[genetics]] at Johns Hopkins in the fall of 1929.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=27–62}}</ref>
 
 
After her first year of graduate school, Carson became a part-time student, taking an assistantship in [[Raymond Pearl]]'s laboratory, where she worked with rats and ''[[Drosophila]]'', to earn money for tuition. After false starts with [[pit vipers]] and [[squirrel]]s, she completed a dissertation project on the embryonic development of the [[pronephros]] in fish. She earned a master's degree in zoology in June 1932. She had intended to continue for a doctorate, but in 1934 Carson was forced to leave Johns Hopkins to search for a full-time teaching position to help support her family. In 1935, her father died suddenly, leaving Carson to care for her aging mother and making the financial situation even more critical. At the urging of her undergraduate biology mentor Mary Scott Skinker, she settled for a temporary position with the [[U.S. Bureau of Fisheries]], writing radio copy for a series of weekly educational broadcasts entitled "Romance Under the Waters". The series of fifty-two seven-minute programs focused on aquatic life and was intended to generate public interest in fish biology and in the work of the bureau—a task the several writers before Carson had not managed. Carson also began submitting articles on marine life in the [[Chesapeake Bay]], based on her research for the series, to local newspapers and magazines.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=63–79}}</ref>
 
 
Carson's supervisor, pleased with the success of the radio series, asked her to write the introduction to a public brochure about the fisheries bureau; he also worked to secure her the first full-time position that became available. Sitting for the [[American civil service|civil service]] exam, she outscored all other applicants and in 1936 became only the second woman to be hired by the Bureau of Fisheries for a full-time, professional position, as a junior aquatic biologist.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=79–82}}</ref>
 
 
===Early career and publications===
 
 
At the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries, Carson's main responsibilities were to analyze and report field data on fish populations, and to write brochures and other literature for the public. Using her research and consultations with marine biologists as starting points, she also wrote a steady stream of articles for ''[[The Baltimore Sun]]'' and other newspapers. However, her family responsibilities further increased in January 1937 when her older sister died, leaving Carson as the                  sole breadwinner for her mother and two nieces.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=82–5}}</ref>
 
 
In July 1937, the ''[[Atlantic Monthly]]'' accepted a revised version of an essay, "The World of Waters", that she had originally written for her first fisheries bureau brochure; her supervisor had deemed it too good for that purpose. The essay, published as "Undersea", was a vivid narrative of a journey along the ocean floor. It marked a major turning point in Carson's writing career. Publishing house [[Simon & Schuster]], impressed by "Undersea", contacted Carson and suggested that she expand it into book form. Several years of writing resulted in ''[[Under the Sea Wind]]'' (1941), which received excellent reviews but sold poorly. In the meantime, Carson's article-writing success continued—her features appeared in ''Sun Magazine'', ''[[Nature (journal)|Nature]]'', and ''[[Collier's Weekly|Collier's]]''.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=85–113}}</ref>
 
 
Carson attempted to leave the Bureau (by then transformed into the [[Fish and Wildlife Service]]) in 1945, but few jobs for naturalists were available as most money for science was focused on technical fields in the wake of the [[Manhattan Project]]. In mid-1945, Carson first encountered the subject of [[DDT]], a revolutionary new pesticide (lauded as the "insect bomb" after the [[atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki]]) that was only beginning to undergo tests for safety and ecological effects. DDT was but one of Carson's many writing interests at the time, and editors found the subject unappealing; she published nothing on DDT until 1962.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=114–120}}</ref>
 
 
Carson rose within the Fish and Wildlife Service, supervising a small writing staff by 1945 and becoming chief editor of publications in 1949.  Though her position provided increasing opportunities for fieldwork and freedom in choosing her writing projects, it also entailed increasingly tedious administrative responsibilities. By 1948, Carson was working on material for a second book and had made the conscious decision to begin a transition to writing full-time. That year, she took on a literary agent, [[Marie Rodell]]; they formed a close professional relationship that would last the rest of Carson's career.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=121–160}}</ref>
 
 
[[Oxford University Press]] expressed interest in Carson's book proposal for a life history of the ocean, spurring her to complete the manuscript of what would become ''[[The Sea Around Us]]'' by early 1950.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=163–4}}. <br>• An apocryphal story holds that the book was rejected by over twenty publishers before Oxford University Press. In fact, it may have only been sent to one other publisher before being accepted, though Rodell and Carson worked extensively to place chapters and excerpts in periodicals.</ref> Chapters appeared in ''[[Science Digest]]'' and the ''[[Yale Review]]''—the latter chapter, "The Birth of an Island", winning the [[American Association for the Advancement of Science]]'s George Westinghouse Science Writing Prize. Nine chapters were serialized in ''[[The New Yorker]]'' beginning June 1951 and the book was published July 2, 1951, by [[Oxford University Press]].<!-- source is our article on the book --> ''The Sea Around Us'' remained on the [[New York Times Best Seller List]] for 86 weeks, was abridged by ''[[Reader's Digest]]'', won the 1952 [[National Book Award for Nonfiction]]<ref name=nba1952>[http://www.nationalbook.org/nba1952.html "National Book Awards – 1952"]. [[National Book Foundation]]. Retrieved March 19, 2012. <br>(With acceptance speech by Carson and essay by Neil Baldwin from the Awards 50-year anniversary publications.)</ref> and the [[Burroughs Medal]], and resulted in Carson's being awarded two honorary doctorates. She also licensed a documentary film based on it. ''The Sea'''s success led to the republication of ''Under the Sea Wind'', which became a bestseller itself. With success came financial security, and Carson was able to give up her job in 1952 to concentrate on writing full time.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=164–241}}</ref>
 
 
Carson was inundated with speaking engagements, [[fan mail]] and other correspondence regarding ''The Sea Around Us'', along with work on the documentary script that she had secured the right to review.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=206–234}}</ref>  She was very unhappy with the final version of the script by writer, director and producer [[Irwin Allen]]; she found it untrue to the atmosphere of the book and scientifically embarrassing, describing it as "a cross between a believe-it-or-not and a breezy travelogue."<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=215–6, 238–9}}.  Quotation from a letter to Carson's film agent Shirley Collier, November 9, 1952.  Quoted in Lear, 239.</ref> She discovered, however, that her right to review the script did not extend to any control over its content. Allen proceeded in spite of Carson's objections to produce a very successful documentary. It won the 1953 [[Oscar for Best Documentary]], but Carson was so embittered by the experience that she never again sold film rights to her work.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=239–240}}</ref>
 
 
===Relationship with Dorothy Freeman===
 
 
Carson moved with her mother to [[Southport Island, Maine]], in 1953, and in July of that year met Dorothy Freeman (1898–1978) — the beginning of an extremely close relationship that would last the rest of Carson's life. The nature of the relationship between Carson and Freeman has been the subject of speculation. Carson met Freeman, a summer resident of the island along with her husband, after Freeman had written to Carson to welcome her. Freeman had read ''The Sea Around Us'', a gift from her son, and was excited to have the prominent author as a neighbor. Carson's biographer, Linda Lear, writes that "Carson sorely needed a devoted friend and kindred spirit who would listen to her without advising and accept her wholly, the writer as well as the woman."<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|p=248}}</ref>  She found this in Freeman. The two women had a number of common interests, nature chief among them, and began exchanging letters regularly while apart. They would share summers for the remainder of Carson's life, and meet whenever else their schedules permitted.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=243–288}}</ref>
 
 
Though Lear does not explicitly describe the relationship as romantic, others (such as the encyclopedia ''[[glbtq.com|glbtq]]''<ref name="letters_with_Freeman">Caryn E. Neumann, [http://www.glbtq.com/social-sciences/carson_r.html "Carson, Rachel (1907–1964)"], ''glbtq: an encyclopedia of gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, & queer culture''; retrieved February 22, 2007</ref>) have noted that Carson and Freeman realized the letters could be interpreted as [[lesbian]], even though ''"the expression of their love was limited almost wholly to letters and very occasional farewell kisses or holding of hands"''.<ref>{{cite journal|author=Montefiore, Janet|title='The fact that possesses my imagination': Rachel Carson, Science and Writing|journal=Women: A Cultural Review|volume=12|issue=1|page=48|year=2001}}</ref> Freeman shared parts of Carson's letters with her husband to help him understand the relationship, but much of their correspondence was carefully guarded.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=255–6}}</ref>
 
 
Shortly before Carson's death, she and Freeman destroyed hundreds of letters. The surviving correspondence was published in 1995 as ''Always, Rachel: The Letters of Rachel Carson and Dorothy Freeman, 1952–1964: An Intimate Portrait of a Remarkable Friendship'', edited by Freeman's granddaughter. According to one reviewer, the pair "fit Carolyn Heilbrun's characterization of a strong female friendship, where what matters is 'not whether friends are homosexual or heterosexual, lovers or not, but whether they share the wonderful energy of work in the public sphere'".<ref>{{cite journal|author=Tjossem, Sarah F.|title=Review of ''Always Rachel: The Letters of Rachel Carson and Dorothy Freeman, 1952–1964''|journal=Isis|volume=86|issue=4|pages=687–8|year=1995|doi=10.1086/357392}} quoting from: {{cite book|author=Heilbrun, Carolyn|title=Writing a Woman's Life|publisher=Ballantine|year=1988|isbn=0-345-36256-X|page=108}}</ref>
 
 
===''The Edge of the Sea'' and transition to conservation work===
 
 
Early in 1953 Carson began library and field research on the ecology and organisms of the Atlantic shore.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=223–244}}</ref> In 1955, she completed the third volume of her sea trilogy, ''[[The Edge of the Sea]]'', which focuses on life in [[coastal]] ecosystems (particularly along the [[Eastern Seaboard]]). It appeared in ''The New Yorker'' in two condensed installments shortly before its October 26 book release by [[Houghton Mifflin]] (again a new publisher). By this time, Carson's reputation for clear and poetical prose was well established; ''The Edge of the Sea'' received highly favorable reviews, if not quite as enthusiastic as for ''The Sea Around Us''.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=261–276}}</ref>
 
 
Through 1955 and 1956, Carson worked on a number of projects—including the script for an ''[[Omnibus (US TV series)|Omnibus]]'' episode, "Something About the Sky"—and wrote articles for popular magazines. Her plan for the next book was to address [[evolution]], but the publication of [[Julian Huxley]]'s ''Evolution in Action''—and her own difficulty in finding a clear and compelling approach to the topic—led her to abandon the project. Instead, her interests were turning to conservation. She considered an environment-themed book project tentatively entitled ''Remembrance of the Earth'' and became involved with [[The Nature Conservancy]] and other conservation groups. She also made plans to buy and preserve from development an area in Maine she and Freeman called the "Lost Woods".<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=276–300}}</ref>
 
 
Early in 1957, family tragedy struck a third time when one of the nieces she had cared for in the 1940s died at the age of 31, leaving a five-year-old orphan son, Roger Christie. Carson took on that responsibility, adopting the boy, alongside continuing to care for her aging mother; this took a considerable toll on Carson. She moved to [[Silver Spring, Maryland|Silver Spring]], [[Maryland]], to care for Roger, and much of 1957 was spent putting their new living situation in order and focusing on specific environmental threats.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=300–9}}</ref>
 
 
By fall 1957, Carson was closely following federal proposals for widespread pesticide spraying; the [[USDA]] planned to eradicate [[Red imported fire ant|fire ants]], and other spraying programs involving [[chlorinated hydrocarbons]] and [[organophosphates]] were on the rise.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=305–313}}</ref> For the rest of her life, Carson's main professional focus would be the dangers of pesticide overuse.
 
 
===''Silent Spring''===
 
:''Main article: Silent Spring{{w|Silent Spring}}''
 
:''See also: Timeline of environmental events{{w|Timeline of environmental events}}, DDT{{w|DDT}} and Merchants of Doubt{{w|Merchants of Doubt}}''
 
 
''[[Silent Spring]]'' is a book written by Rachel Carson and published by [[Houghton Mifflin]] on 27 September 1962.<ref name=McLaughlin>{{cite web |author=McLaughlin, Dorothy |title=Fooling with Nature: ''Silent Spring'' Revisited |work=Frontline |publisher=PBS  |url=http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/nature/disrupt/sspring.html |accessdate=August 24, 2010}}</ref> The book is widely credited with helping launch the [[environmental movement]].<ref>Josie Glausiusz. (2007), Better Planet: Can A Maligned Pesticide Save Lives? ''Discover Magazine''. Page 34.</ref> In 1994 an edition of ''Silent Spring'' was published in which vice president [[Al Gore]] wrote the introduction.
 
 
====Research and writing====
 
 
Starting in the mid-1940s, Carson had become concerned about the use of synthetic pesticides, many of which had been developed through the [[military funding of science]] since [[World War II]].  It was the USDA's 1957 [[fire ant]] eradication program, however, that prompted Carson to devote her research, and her next book, to pesticides and environmental poisons.  The fire ant program involved aerial spraying of [[DDT]] and other pesticides (mixed with [[fuel oil]]), including the spraying of private land.  Landowners in Long Island filed a suit to have the spraying stopped, and many in affected regions followed the case closely. Though the suit was lost, the [[Supreme Court of the United States|Supreme Court]] granted petitioners the right to gain injunctions against potential environmental damage in the future; this laid the basis for later successful environmental actions.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://ellsworthmaine.com/site/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=12535&Itemid=47 |title=Obituary of Marjorie Spock |publisher=Ellsworthmaine.com |date=January 30, 2008 |accessdate=March 16, 2009}}{{dead link|date=November 2011}}</ref>
 
 
The Washington, D.C. chapter of the [[Audubon Society]] also actively opposed such spraying programs, and recruited Carson to help make public the government's exact spraying practices and the related research.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=312–7}}</ref> Carson began the four-year project of what would become ''[[Silent Spring]]'' by gathering examples of environmental damage attributed to DDT.  She also attempted to enlist others to join the cause: essayist [[E. B. White]], and a number of journalists and scientists.  By 1958, Carson had arranged a book deal, with plans to co-write with ''[[Newsweek]]'' science journalist Edwin Diamond.  However, when ''The New Yorker'' commissioned a long and well-paid article on the topic from Carson, she began considering writing more than simply the introduction and conclusion as planned; soon it was a solo project.  (Diamond would later write one of the harshest critiques of ''Silent Spring''.)<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=317–327}}</ref>
 
 
As her research progressed, Carson found a sizable community of scientists who were documenting the physiological and environmental effects of pesticides.  She also took advantage of her personal connections with many government scientists, who supplied her with confidential information.  From reading the scientific literature and interviewing scientists, Carson found two scientific camps when it came to pesticides: those who dismissed the possible danger of pesticide spraying barring conclusive proof, and those who were open to the possibility of harm and willing to consider alternative methods such as [[biological pest control]].<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=327–336}}</ref>
 
 
By 1959, the [[USDA]]'s [[Agricultural Research Service]] responded to the criticism by Carson and others with a public service film, ''Fire Ants on Trial''; Carson characterized it as "flagrant [[propaganda]]" that ignored the dangers that spraying pesticides (especially [[dieldrin]] and [[heptachlor]]) posed to humans and wildlife.  That spring, Carson wrote a letter, published in ''[[The Washington Post]]'', that attributed the recent decline in bird populations—in her words, the "silencing of birds"—to pesticide overuse.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=342–6}}</ref>  That was also the year of the "Great Cranberry Scandal": the 1957, 1958, and 1959 crops of U.S. [[cranberry|cranberries]] were found to contain high levels of the herbicide [[aminotriazole]] (which caused cancer in laboratory rats) and the sale of all cranberry products was halted.  Carson attended the ensuing FDA hearings on revising pesticide regulations; she came away discouraged by the aggressive tactics of the chemical industry representatives, which included expert testimony that was firmly contradicted by the bulk of the scientific literature she had been studying.  She also wondered about the possible "financial inducements behind certain pesticide programs".<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=358–361}}</ref>
 
 
Research at the [[United States National Library of Medicine|Library of Medicine]] of the [[National Institutes of Health]] brought Carson into contact with medical researchers investigating the gamut of cancer-causing chemicals.  Of particular significance was the work of [[National Cancer Institute]] researcher and founding director of the environmental cancer section [[Wilhelm Hueper]], who classified many pesticides as carcinogens.  Carson and her research assistant Jeanne Davis, with the help of NIH librarian Dorothy Algire, found evidence to support the pesticide-cancer connection; to Carson the evidence for the toxicity of a wide array of synthetic pesticides was clear-cut, though such conclusions were very controversial beyond the small community of scientists studying pesticide [[carcinogenesis]].<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=355–8}}</ref>
 
 
By 1960, Carson had more than enough research material, and the writing was progressing rapidly.  In addition to the thorough literature search, she had investigated hundreds of individual incidents of pesticide exposure and the human sickness and ecological damage that resulted.  However, in January, a duodenal ulcer followed by several infections kept her bedridden for weeks, greatly delaying the completion of ''Silent Spring''.  As she was nearing full recovery in March (just as she was completing drafts of the two cancer chapters of her book), she discovered cysts in her left breast, one of which necessitated a [[mastectomy]].  Though her doctor described the procedure as precautionary and recommended no further treatment, by December Carson discovered that the tumor was in fact [[malignant]] and the cancer had [[metastasized]].<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=360–8}}</ref>  Her research was also delayed by revision work for a new edition of ''The Sea Around Us'', and by a collaborative photo essay with [[Erich Hartmann (photographer)|Erich Hartmann]].<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=372–3}}.  The photo essay, "The Sea", was published in ''Johns Hopkins Magazine'', May/June 1961; Carson provided the captions for Hartmann's photographs.</ref>  Most of the research and writing was done by the fall of 1960, except for the discussion of recent research on [[biological controls]] and investigations of a handful of new pesticides.  However, further health troubles slowed the final revisions in 1961 and early 1962.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=376–7}}</ref>
 
 
It was difficult finding a title for the book; "Silent Spring" was initially suggested as a title for the chapter on birds.  By August 1961, Carson finally agreed to the suggestion of her literary agent Marie Rodell: ''Silent Spring'' would be a metaphorical title for the entire book—suggesting a bleak future for the whole natural world—rather than a literal chapter title about the absence of birdsong.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=375, 377–8, 386–7, 389}}</ref>  With Carson's approval, editor Paul Brooks at [[Houghton Mifflin]] arranged for illustrations by Louis and Lois Darling, who also designed the cover.  The final writing was the first chapter, "A Fable for Tomorrow", which was intended to provide a gentler introduction to what might otherwise be a forbiddingly serious topic.  By mid-1962, Brooks and Carson had largely finished the editing, and were laying the groundwork for promoting the book by sending the manuscript out to select individuals for final suggestions.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=390–7}}</ref>
 
 
====Argument====
 
 
As biographer Mark Hamilton Lytle writes, Carson "quite self-consciously decided to write a book calling into question the [[paradigm]] of [[scientific progress]] that defined [[postwar]] American culture."  The overriding theme of ''Silent Spring'' is the powerful—and often negative—effect humans have on the natural world.<ref>{{harvnb|Lytle|2007|pp=166–7}}</ref>
 
 
Carson's main argument is that [[pesticide]]s have detrimental effects on the environment; they are more properly termed "[[biocide]]s", she argues, because their effects are rarely limited to the target pests.  DDT is a prime example, but other synthetic pesticides come under scrutiny as well—many of which are subject to [[bioaccumulation]].  Carson also accuses the [[chemical industry]] of intentionally spreading [[disinformation]] and public officials of accepting industry claims uncritically.  Most of the book is devoted to pesticides' effects on natural ecosystems, but four chapters also detail cases of human pesticide poisoning, cancer, and other illnesses attributed to pesticides.<ref>{{harvnb|Lytle|2007|pp=166–172}}</ref>  About DDT and cancer, the subject of so much subsequent debate, Carson says only a little:
 
{{quote|In laboratory tests on animal subjects, DDT has produced suspicious liver tumors. Scientists of the Food and Drug Administration who reported the discovery of these tumors were uncertain how to classify them, but felt there was some "justification for considering them low grade hepatic cell carcinomas." Dr. Hueper [author of ''Occupational Tumors and Allied Diseases''] now gives DDT the definite rating of a "chemical carcinogen."<ref>Carson, ''Silent Spring'', 225</ref>|Rachel Carson|''Silent Spring'', p. 225}}
 
Carson predicts increased consequences in the future, especially as targeted pests develop [[resistance to pesticides]] while weakened ecosystems fall prey to unanticipated [[invasive species]]. The book closes with a call for a [[biotic material|biotic]] approach to pest control as an alternative to chemical pesticides.<ref>{{harvnb|Lytle|2007|pp=169, 173}}</ref>
 
 
====Promotion and reception====
 
 
Carson and the others involved with publication of ''Silent Spring'' expected fierce criticism.  They were particularly concerned about the possibility of being sued for [[libel]].  Carson was also undergoing [[radiation therapy]] to combat her spreading cancer, and expected to have little energy to devote to defending her work and responding to critics.  In preparation for the anticipated attacks, Carson and her agent attempted to amass as many prominent supporters as possible before the book's release.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=397–400}}</ref>
 
 
Most of the book's scientific chapters were reviewed by scientists with relevant expertise, among whom Carson found strong support.  Carson attended the White House Conference on Conservation in May, 1962; Houghton Mifflin distributed proof copies of ''Silent Spring'' to many of the delegates, and promoted the upcoming ''New Yorker'' serialization.  Among many others, Carson also sent a proof copy to Supreme Court Justice [[William O. Douglas]], a long-time environmental advocate who had argued against the court's rejection of the Long Island pesticide spraying case (and who had provided Carson with some of the material included in her chapter on herbicides).<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=375, 377, 400–7}}.  Douglas's dissenting opinion on the rejection of the case, ''Robert Cushman Murphy et al., v. Butler et al., from the Second Circuit Court of Appeals, is from March 28, 1960.</ref>
 
 
Though ''Silent Spring'' had generated a fairly high level of interest based on pre-publication promotion, this became much more intense with the serialization in ''The New Yorker'', which began in the June 16, 1962 issue.  This brought the book to the attention of the chemical industry and its lobbyists, as well as a wide swath of the American populace.  Around that time Carson also learned that ''Silent Spring'' had been selected as the [[Book-of-the-Month]] for October; as she put it, this would "carry it to farms and hamlets all over that country that don't know what a bookstore looks like—much less ''The New Yorker''."<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=407–8}}.  Quotation (p. 408) from a June 13, 1962 letter from Carson to Dorothy Freeman.</ref>  Other publicity included a positive editorial in ''[[The New York Times]]'' and excerpts of the serialized version in ''Audubon Magazine'', with another round of publicity in July and August as chemical companies responded.  The story of the birth defect-causing drug [[thalidomide]] broke just before the book's publication as well, inviting comparisons between Carson and [[Frances Oldham Kelsey]], the [[Food and Drug Administration]] reviewer who had blocked the drug's sale in the United States.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=409–413}}</ref>
 
 
<!--[[File:Silent Spring Book-of-the-Month-Club edition.JPG|thumb|The [[Book-of-the-Month Club]] edition of ''[[Silent Spring]]'', including an endorsement by [[William O. Douglas]], had a first print run of 150,000 copies, two-and-a-half times the combined size of the two conventional printings of the initial release <ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=416, 419}}</ref>]]
 
-->
 
In the weeks leading up to the September 27 publication there was strong opposition to ''Silent Spring''.  [[DuPont]] (a main manufacturer of DDT and [[2,4-D]]) and [[Velsicol Chemical Company]] (exclusive manufacturer of [[chlordane]] and [[heptachlor]]) were among the first to respond.  DuPont compiled an extensive report on the book's press coverage and estimated impact on public opinion.  Velsicol threatened legal action against Houghton Mifflin as well as ''The New Yorker'' and ''Audubon Magazine'' unless the planned ''Silent Spring'' features were canceled.  Chemical industry representatives and lobbyists also lodged a range of non-specific complaints, some anonymously.  Chemical companies and associated organizations produced a number of their own brochures and articles promoting and defending pesticide use.  However, Carson's and the publishers' lawyers were confident in the vetting process ''Silent Spring'' had undergone.  The magazine and book publications proceeded as planned, as did the large Book-of-the-Month printing (which included a pamphlet endorsing the book by William O. Douglas).<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=412–420}}</ref>
 
 
[[American Cyanamid]] biochemist [[Robert White-Stevens]] and former Cyanamid chemist [[Thomas Jukes]] were among the most aggressive critics, especially of Carson's analysis of DDT.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=433–4}}</ref>  According to White-Stevens, "If man were to follow the teachings of Miss Carson, we would return to the Dark Ages, and the insects and diseases and vermin would once again inherit the earth."<ref name="frontline_Cyanamid">[http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/nature/disrupt/sspring.html Fooling with nature: special reports: Silent Spring revisited:]. Retrieved September 23, 2007.</ref>  Others went further, attacking Carson's scientific credentials (because her training was in marine biology rather than biochemistry) and her personal character.  White-Stevens labeled her "a fanatic defender of the cult of the balance of nature",<ref>Quoted in {{harvnb|Lear|1997|p=434}}</ref> while former Secretary of Agriculture [[Ezra Taft Benson]]—in a letter to [[Dwight D. Eisenhower]]—reportedly concluded that because she was unmarried despite being physically attractive, she was "probably a Communist".<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=429–430}}.  Benson's supposed comments were widely repeated at the time, but have not been directly confirmed.</ref>
 
 
Many critics repeatedly asserted that she was calling for the elimination of all pesticides.  Yet Carson had made it clear she was not advocating the banning or complete withdrawal of helpful pesticides, but was instead encouraging responsible and carefully managed use with an awareness of the chemicals' impact on the entire ecosystem.<ref>{{harvnb|Murphy|2005|9}}</ref> In fact, she concludes her section on DDT in ''Silent Spring'' not by urging a total ban, but with advice for spraying as little as possible to limit the development of resistance.<ref>Carson, ''Silent Spring'', 275</ref>
 
 
The academic community—including prominent defenders such as [[H. J. Muller]], [[Loren Eisley]], [[Clarence Cottam]], and [[Frank Egler]]—by and large backed the book's scientific claims; public opinion soon turned Carson's way as well.  The chemical industry campaign backfired, as the controversy greatly increased public awareness of potential pesticide dangers, as well as ''Silent Spring'' book sales.  Pesticide use became a major public issue, especially after the ''[[CBS Reports]]'' TV special "The Silent Spring of Rachel Carson" that aired April 3, 1963.  The program included segments of Carson reading from ''Silent Spring'' and interviews with a number of other experts, mostly critics (including White-Stevens); according to biographer Linda Lear, "in juxtaposition to the wild-eyed, loud-voiced Dr. Robert White-Stevens in white lab coat, Carson appeared anything but the hysterical alarmist that her critics contended."<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=437–449}}; quotation from 449.</ref>  Reactions from the estimated audience of ten to fifteen million were overwhelmingly positive, and the program spurred a congressional review of pesticide dangers and the public release of a pesticide report by the [[President's Science Advisory Committee]].<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=449–450}}</ref>  Within a year or so of publication, the attacks on the book and on Carson had largely lost momentum.<ref name="time100">[http://www.time.com/time/time100/scientist/profile/carson03.html The Time 100: Scientists and Thinkers], accessed September 23, 2007</ref><ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|p=461}}</ref>
 
 
In one of her last public appearances, Carson had testified before President Kennedy's Science Advisory Committee.  The committee issued its report on May 15, 1963, largely backing Carson's scientific claims.<ref name="nwhp_bio">[http://web.archive.org/web/20051208074458/http://www.nwhp.org/tlp/biographies/carson/carson-bio.html 2003 National Women's History Month Honorees: Rachel Carlson]. Retrieved September 23, 2007.</ref>  Following the report's release, she also testified before a Senate subcommittee to make policy recommendations.  Though Carson received hundreds of other speaking invitations, she was unable to accept the great majority of them.  Her health was steadily declining as her cancer outpaced the radiation therapy, with only brief periods of remission.  She spoke as much as she was physically able, however, including a notable appearance on ''[[Today (NBC program)|The Today Show]]'' and speeches at several dinners held in her honor.  In late 1963, she received a flurry of awards and honors: the [[Audubon Medal]] (from the [[National Audubon Society]]), the [[Cullum Medal]] (from the [[American Geographical Society]]), and induction into the [[American Academy of Arts and Letters]].<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=451–461, 469–473}}</ref>
 
 
=== Death ===
 
 
Weakened from breast cancer and her treatment regimen, Carson became ill with a respiratory virus in January 1964.  Her condition worsened, and in February, doctors found that she had severe [[anemia]] from her radiation treatments and in March discovered that the cancer had reached her liver.  She died of a [[myocardial infarction|heart attack]] on April 14, 1964.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=476–480}}</ref>
 
 
She was interred at Parklawn Memorial Park and Menorah Gardens in [[Rockville, Maryland]].
 
 
==Legacy==
 
 
===Collected papers and posthumous publications===
 
 
Carson bequeathed her manuscripts and papers to [[Yale University]], to take advantage of the new state-of-the-art preservations facilities of the [[Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library]].  Her longtime agent and literary executor [[Marie Rodell]] spent nearly two years organizing and cataloging Carson's papers and correspondence, distributing all the letters to their senders so that only what each correspondent approved of would be submitted to the archive.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=467–8, 477, 482–3}}  See also the Beinecke [http://hdl.handle.net/10079/fa/beinecke.carson finding aid for the Rachel Carson Papers].</ref>
 
 
In 1965, Rodell arranged for the publication of an essay Carson had intended to expand into a book: ''A Sense of Wonder''.  The essay, which was combined with photographs by [[Charles Pratt II|Charles Pratt]] and others, exhorts parents to help their children experience the "lasting pleasures of contact with the natural world", which "are available to anyone who will place himself under the influence of earth, sea and sky and their amazing life."<ref name="Murphy 25">Murphy, 25; quotations from ''A Sense of Wonder'', 95.  The essay was originally published in 1956 in ''Woman's Home Companion''.</ref>
 
 
In addition to the letters in ''Always Rachel'', in 1998 a volume of Carson's previously unpublished work was published as ''Lost Woods: The Discovered Writing of Rachel Carson'', edited by Linda Lear.  All of Carson's books remain in print.<ref name="Murphy 25"/>
 
 
===Grassroots environmentalism and the EPA===
 
 
Carson's work had a powerful impact on the environmental movement.  ''Silent Spring'', in particular, was a rallying point for the fledgling social movement in the 1960s.  According to environmental engineer and Carson scholar H. Patricia Hynes, "''Silent Spring'' altered the balance of power in the world.  No one since would be able to sell pollution as the necessary underside of progress so easily or uncritically."<ref>{{harvnb|Hynes|1989|p=3}}</ref>  Carson's work, and the activism it inspired, are at least partly responsible for the [[deep ecology]] movement, and the overall strength of the grassroots environmental movement since the 1960s.  It was also influential on the rise of [[ecofeminism]] and on many feminist scientists.<ref>{{harvnb|Hynes|1989|pp=8–9}}</ref>
 
 
Carson's most direct legacy in the environmental movement was the campaign to ban the use of DDT in the United States (and related efforts to ban or limit its use throughout the world).  Though environmental concerns about DDT had been considered by government agencies as early as Carson's testimony before the President's Science Advisory Committee, the 1967 formation of the [[Environmental Defense Fund]] was the first major milestone in the campaign against DDT.  The organization brought lawsuits against the government to "establish a citizen's right to a clean environment", and the arguments employed against DDT largely mirrored Carson's.  By 1972, the Environmental Defense Fund and other activist groups had succeeded in securing a phase-out of DDT use in the United States (except in emergency cases).<ref>{{harvnb|Hynes|1989|pp=46–7}}</ref>
 
 
The creation of the [[United States Environmental Protection Agency|Environmental Protection Agency]] by the Nixon administration in 1970 addressed another concern that Carson had brought to light.  Until then, the same agency (the [[USDA]]) was responsible both for regulating pesticides and promoting the concerns of the agriculture industry; Carson saw this as a [[conflict of interest]], since the agency was not responsible for effects on wildlife or other environmental concerns beyond farm policy.  Fifteen years after its creation, one journalist described the EPA as "the extended shadow of ''Silent Spring''".  Much of the agency's early work, such as enforcement of the 1972 [[Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act]], was directly related to Carson's work.<ref>{{harvnb|Hynes|1989|pp=47–8, 148–163}}</ref>
 
 
===Science, nature, DDT, and food production===
 
 
Carson came into her own during a time in America when the majority of the population believed all science was inherently good. Carson came to challenge the idea that it was "man against nature" as explained by historian Thomas Dunlap. "Americans assumed that science was good, that chemicals were necessary, that their use would be governed by experts, that these experts could be trusted, and that the side-effects of chemical use would be negligible." <ref>(Lutts, 1985)</ref> An excellent example of this is the widespread use of [[DDT]] after World War II. "DDT was hailed as the success story of World War II. During the war, the chemical helped to exterminate lice and insect-borne disease, and saved much-needed food crops. When the war ended, the United States sought to become the top food supplier and the Department of Agriculture saw DDT as a means to achieve that end." <ref>(Gottlieb, R. ''Forcing the Spring''. Washington D.C.: Island Press)</ref> It is clear that financial superiority was the top priority after the war. These companies did not want people to start believing her; which would therefore lower or stop their production.  The chemical companies, government and many of its scientists believed it would be ok to allow the people of the United States, and therefore the world (since at this time other countries looked to see what the USA was conducting) that the unmitigated use of DDT was not only the safest, but the most prudent way of gaining that superiority. Carson's works challenged these institutions and the assumptions they encouraged.
 
 
Rachel Carson believed the modern environmental movement of the time overused pesticides. She deplored the "culture of American abundance" as incurred by the capitalist economy whose expanding nature led to the destruction of many wildlife habitats. <ref>(Lear, Rachel Carson Witness for Nature, 1997)</ref> Carson did not take the use of chemicals such as DDT at face value like most of the public. This is not to say that she did not want to enhance the life of the American people, or humans as a whole, but she did not support the destruction of the environment to attain that goal.
 
:"Because it is more comfortable to believe in pleasant things, most of us continue today to believe that in our country there will always be plenty. . . This is the comfortable dream of the average American. But it is a fallacious dream. It is a dangerous dream. . . Only so long as we are vigilant to cherish and safeguard [our resources] against waste, against over exploitation, and against destruction will our country continue strong and free." <ref>(Kline, B. First Along the River. Maryland: Rowma & Littlefield.)</ref>
 
This quote exemplifies the mindset of the average American who was looking to attain the "American Dream." This also illustrates why the people allowed the use of DDT without learning what it was doing to their environment as the quotes explains that it is more comfortable to believe in pleasant things as long as we are able to prosper.  Carson also disliked the idea that Americans were ok with a "quick fix":
 
:"One great trouble — I suppose it is the fault of the American public as a whole — is this desire for the quick and easy way of doing something, without any consideration of the consequences. Even if the consequences are strongly implied or known, there is still a great temptation to go ahead and get the job done and let the future take care of itself. Maybe we will come up with a pill to take care of it, or something like that!" <ref>(Lutts, R. (1985. Chemical Fallout: Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, Radioactive Fallout, and the Environmental Movement, ''Environmental Review'', 210-225.)</ref>
 
Carson believed that this idea of the quick fix is what allowed the Americans to get into the Environmental predicament that had found themselves in. By allowing "the future to worry about itself " as Carson said, it freed scientists up to only come up with results as opposed to the best or the safest results. They were reacting after the fact and trying to fix the problem, instead of working to prevent the problem before it starts. Rachel Carson was significant in the history of the contemporary American environmental movement because through her writing and different publications she was able to change the mindset of the everyday American person. Although her job seems like it was simple and a quick fix, it took a lot of struggle on Carson’s part to get her point across. She was able to point out that the quick fix for something was not the only way to accomplish a goal and usually was not the best. In the case of DDT, the quick fix was harming the environment more than it was helping; with the help of Carson’s writing the public was able to see this error in the scientific world.
 
 
===Criticisms of environmentalism and DDT restrictions===
 
 
Carson and the environmental movement were—and continue to be—criticized by some [[conservatives]] and [[libertarians]] as well as chemical industry trade groups, who argue that restrictions placed on pesticides, specifically DDT, have caused tens of millions of needless deaths and hampered agriculture (and, implicitly, that Carson bears responsibility for inciting such restrictions).<ref>{{harvnb|Lytle|2007|p=217}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|last=Baum|first=Rudy M.|date=June 4, 2007|title=Rachel Carson|journal=Chemical and Engineering News|publisher=American Chemical Society|volume=85|issue=23|page=5|url=http://pubs.acs.org/isubscribe/journals/cen/85/i23/html/8523editor.html}}</ref><ref name="Conservative criticism of Carson">Examples of recent criticism include:<br />(a) Rich Karlgaard, "[http://www.forbes.com/sites/digitalrules/2007/05/18/but-her-heart-was-good/ But Her Heart Was Good]", Forbes.com, May 18, 2007.  Accessed September 23, 2007.<br />(b) Keith Lockitch, "[http://capmag.com/article.asp?ID=4965 Rachel Carson's Genocide]", ''Capitalism Magazine'', May 23, 2007.  Accessed May 24, 2007<br />(c) [[David Roberts (journalist)|David Roberts]], "[http://gristmill.grist.org/story/2007/5/23/17433/0674 My one and only post on the Rachel Carson nonsense]" Grist.com, May 24, 2007.  Accessed September 23, 2007.<br />(d) Paul Driessen, "[http://www.washingtontimes.com/commentary/20070428-100957-5274r.htm Forty Years of Perverse 'Responsibility,']", ''The Washington Times'', April 29, 2007.  Accessed May 30, 2007.<br />(e) Iain Murray, "[http://article.nationalreview.com/?q=MjhkYTlmYjljMmJlMzU5Y2IxOGM3ZWM3YzZkNzFiNGE ''Silent'' Alarmism: A Centennial We Could Do Without]", ''National Review'', May 31, 2007.  Accessed May 31, 2007.</ref> In the 1980s, the policies of the [[Reagan Administration]] emphasized economic growth at the expense of environmental regulation, rolling back many of the environmental policies adopted in response to Carson and her work.<ref>{{harvnb|Lytle|2007|pp=217–220}}; Jeffrey K. Stine, "Natural Resources and Environmental Policy" in ''The Reagan Presidency: Pragmatic Conservatism and Its Legacies'', edited by W. Elliott Browlee and Hugh Davis Graham.  Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press, 2003.  ISBN 0-7006-1268-8</ref>
 
 
Carson's vocal expressions of concern about the [[DDT#Effects on human health|human health effects]] and [[DDT#Environmental impact|environmental impact]] of DDT has come under the most intense fire. Political scientist Charles Rubin was one of the most vociferous critics in the 1980s and 1990s, though he accused her merely of selective use of source and fanaticism (rather than the more severe criticism Carson received upon ''Silent Spring'''s release).
 
 
In the 2000s, however, criticism of the real and alleged ban(s) of DDT her work prompted became much more intense.<ref name="quig"/><ref name="Erik">Erik M. Conway, Naomi Oreskes, ''Merchants of Doubt'', 2010, p.217</ref> The conservative magazine ''[[Human Events]]'' gave ''Silent Spring'' an honorable mention for the "Ten Most Harmful Books of the 19th and 20th Centuries".<ref name="most_harmful">[http://www.humanevents.com/article.php?id=7591 Ten Most Harmful Books of the 19th and 20th Centuries]. Retrieved August 24, 2007.</ref>  In 2009 the [[libertarianism|libertarian]] think tank [[Competitive Enterprise Institute]] set up a website Rachelwaswrong.org, asserting "Millions of people around the world suffer the painful and often deadly effects of malaria because one person sounded a false alarm. That person is Rachel Carson."<ref name="Erik" /> A 2012 review article in [[Nature (journal)|Nature]] by Rob Dunn<ref name="dunn_2012">Dunn, R. (2012) [http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v485/n7400/full/485578a.html ''In retrospect: Silent Spring''], [[Nature (journal)|Nature]] '''485'''(7400), 578-579.</ref> commemorating the 50th anniversary of [[Silent Spring]] prompted a response in a letter written by [[Anthony Trewavas]] and co-signed by 10 others, including [[Chris J. Leaver|Christopher Leaver]], [[Bruce Ames]], [[Richard Tren|Richard Tren]] and [[Peter Lachmann]], who quote estimates of 60 to 80 million deaths "as a result of misguided fears based on poorly understood evidence".<ref name="trewavas_2012">[[Anthony Trewavas|Trewavas, T.]], [[Chris J. Leaver|Leaver, C.]], [[Bruce Ames|Ames, B.]], [[Peter Lachmann|Lachmann, P.]], [[Richard Tren|Tren, R.]], Meiners, R., [[Henry I. Miller|Miller, H.I.]], ''et al.'' (2012) [http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v486/n7404/full/486473a.html ''Environment: Carson no 'beacon of reason' on DDT''], [[Nature (journal)|Nature]] '''486'''(7404), 473.</ref>
 
 
Biographer Mark Hamilton Lytle believes these estimates unrealistic, even assuming that Carson can be "blamed" for worldwide DDT policies.<ref>{{harvnb|Lytle|2007|pp=220–8}}</ref> [[John Quiggin]] and Tim Lambert have written that "the most striking feature of the claim against Carson is the ease with which it can be refuted." DDT was never banned for anti-malarial use,<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.eac.int/health/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=95%3Aclassification-system&catid=15%3Adiseases&Itemid=32 |title=Malaria Prevention and Control |publisher=East African Community Health}}</ref> (its ban for agricultural use in the United States in 1972 did not apply outside the US or to anti-malaria spraying;<ref>Erik M. Conway, Naomi Oreskes, ''Merchants of Doubt'', 2010, p.226</ref> the international treaty that banned most uses of DDT and other organochlorine pesticides — the 2001 [[Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants]] — included an exemption for DDT for the use of malaria control until affordable substitutes could be found.<ref name="quig"/>)  Mass outdoor spraying of DDT was abandoned in poor countries subject to malaria, such as Sri Lanka, in the 1970s and 1980s, not because of government prohibitions, but because the DDT had lost its ability to kill the mosquitoes.<ref name="quig">{{cite journal |author=John Quiggin, Tim Lambert |title=Rehabilitating Carson |journal=Prospect |issue=146 |pages= |date=24 May 2008 |url=http://www.prospectmagazine.co.uk/2008/05/rehabilitatingcarson/}}</ref> (Because of insects very short breeding cycle and large number of offspring, the most resistant insects that survive and pass on their genetic traits to their offspring replace the pesticide-slain insects relatively rapidly. Agricultural spraying of pesticides produces [[pesticide resistance|resistance]] to the pesticide in seven to ten years.<ref>Erik M. Conway, Naomi Oreskes, ''Merchants of Doubt'', 2010, p.223-4</ref>)
 
 
Other defenders point out Carson never actually called for an outright ban on DDT, and part of the argument she made in ''Silent Spring'' was that even if DDT and other insecticides had ''no'' environmental side effects, their indiscriminate overuse was counter-productive because it would created insect resistance to the pesticide(s), making them (the pesticides) useless in eliminating the target insect populations:
 
 
{{quote|No responsible person contends that insect-borne disease should be ignored. The question that has now urgently presented itself is whether it is either wise or responsible to attack the problem by methods that are rapidly making it worse. The world has heard much of the triumphant war against disease through the control of insect vectors of infection, but it has heard little of the other side of the story—the defeats, the short-lived triumphs that now strongly support the alarming view that the insect enemy has been made actually stronger by our efforts. Even worse, we may have destroyed our very means of fighting.<ref>''Silent Spring'', p. 266</ref>|Rachel Carson|''Silent Spring'', p. 266}}
 
Carson further noted that "Malaria programmes are threatened by resistance among mosquitoes"<ref>''Silent Spring'', p. 267</ref> and emphasized the advice given by the director of Holland's Plant Protection Service: "Practical advice should be 'Spray as little as you possibly can' rather than 'Spray to the limit of your capacity'…Pressure on the pest population should always be as slight as possible." <ref>''Silent Spring'', p. 275</ref>
 
 
Consequently, some experts have argued that restrictions placed on the agricultural use of DDT have increased its effectiveness as a tool for battling malaria. According to pro-DDT advocate [[Amir Attaran]] the result of the 2004 [[Stockholm Convention]] banning DDT's use in agriculture ''"is arguably better than the status quo ... For the first time, there is now an insecticide which is restricted to vector control only, meaning that the selection of resistant mosquitoes will be slower than before."''<ref>[http://www.malaria.org/DDTpage.html Malaria Foundation International]. Retrieved March 15, 2006.</ref> But though Carson's legacy has been closely tied to DDT, [[Roger Bate]] of the DDT advocacy organization [[Africa Fighting Malaria]] warns that "A lot of people have used Carson to push their own agendas. We just have to be a little careful when you're talking about someone who died in 1964."<ref>[http://www.pbs.org/moyers/journal/09212007/profile2.html Rachel Carson and DDT], ''[[Bill Moyers Journal]]'', September 21, 2007. Retrieved September 29, 2007.</ref>
 
 
===Posthumous honors===
 
<!--[[File:Gordocarson.jpg|right|thumb|A ''[[Gordo (comic strip)|Gordo]]'' Sunday cartoon marking the passing of Rachel Carson in 1964]]-->
 
A variety of groups ranging from government institutions to environmental and conservation organizations to scholarly societies have celebrated Carson's life and work since her death.  Perhaps most significantly, on June 9, 1980, Carson was awarded the [[Presidential Medal of Freedom]], the highest civilian honor in the United States<ref>[http://web.archive.org/web/20071018025824/www.medaloffreedom.com/Chronological.htm Chronological List of Medal of Freedom Awards], archived October 18, 2007. Retrieved August 1, 2009.</ref>  A 17¢ [[Great Americans series]] [[postage stamp]] was issued in her honor the following year; several other countries have since issued Carson postage as well.<ref>[http://www.planetpatriot.net/stamps2/carson_rachel_stamps.html Marshall Is 2000], [http://stamp-search.com/images/pal9901sh16enviro.jpg Palau 1998], [http://stamp-search.com/images/zam0004sh4-milnm1950-00.jpg Zambia 2000]<br/></ref>
 
 
<!--[[File:HAER PBG 9thStreet 361504pv.jpg|thumb|The Rachel Carson Bridge in Pittsburgh]]-->
 
Carson's birthplace and childhood home in [[Springdale, Pennsylvania]]&nbsp;— now known as the [[Rachel Carson Homestead]]—became a [[National Register of Historic Places]] site, and the [[nonprofit]] Rachel Carson Homestead Association was created in 1975 to manage it.<ref>[http://www.rachelcarsonhomestead.org/ Rachel Carson Homestead]. Retrieved September 7, 2007.</ref>  Her [[Rachel Carson House (Colesville, Maryland)|home]] in [[Colesville, Maryland]] where she wrote ''Silent Spring'' was named a [[National Historic Landmark]] in 1991.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://mht.maryland.gov/nr/NRDetail.aspx?HDID=1094&FROM=NRNHLList.aspx|title=Maryland Historical Trust|date=June 8, 2008|work= National Register of Historic Places: Properties in Montgomery County|publisher=Maryland Historical Trust}}</ref>  Near [[Pittsburgh]], a 35.7 mi hiking trail, maintained by the Rachel Carson Trails Conservancy, was dedicated to Carson in 1975.<ref>[http://www.rachelcarsontrails.org/rct Rachel Carson Trail]. Retrieved September 26, 2007.</ref>  A Pittsburgh bridge was also renamed in Carson's honor as the [[Rachel Carson Bridge]].<ref name="bridge">Jerome L. Sherman, [http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/06113/684423-85.stm "Environmentalist Rachel Carson's legacy remembered on Earth Day"], ''Pittsburgh Post-Gazette'', April 23, 2006. Retrieved September 23, 2007.</ref> The [[Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection]] State Office Building in [[Harrisburg]] is named in her honor. An elementary school in [[Gaithersburg, Maryland|Gaithersburg]], [[Montgomery County, Maryland]], was named in her honor,<ref>[http://www.montgomeryschoolsmd.org/schools/rachelcarsones/index.shtm Rachel Carson Elementary School]. Retrieved February 22, 2008.</ref> as was a [[Rachel Carson Middle School]] in [[Herndon, Virginia]],<ref>[http://www.fcps.edu/RachelCarsonMS/ Rachel Carson Middle School]. Retrieved February 28, 2008.</ref> and another elementary school in [[Sammamish, Washington]].<ref>[http://www.lwsd.org/school/carson/Pages/default.aspx/ Rachel Carson Elementary]. Retrieved 15 June 2011.</ref>
 
 
The ceremonial auditorium on the third floor of U.S. EPA's main headquarters, the [[Ariel Rios Building]], is named after Rachel Carson. The Rachel Carson room is just a few feet away from the EPA administrator's office and has been the site of numerous important announcements, including the Clean Air Interstate Rule, since the Agency moved to Ariel Rios in 2001.<ref>[http://yosemite.epa.gov/opa/admpress.nsf/6427a6b7538955c585257359003f0230/1a5d6d4953c0627985256fbf006a9578!OpenDocument&Start=9.4&Count=5&Expand=9.4 CAIR News Advisory]. REtrieved August 18, 2009.</ref>
 
 
A number of [[conservation area]]s have been named for Carson as well.  Between 1964 and 1990, 650 acres near [[Brookeville, Maryland|Brookeville]] in [[Montgomery County, Maryland]] were acquired and set aside as the Rachel Carson Conservation Park, administered by the [[Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission]].<ref>[http://www.montgomeryparks.org/park_of_the_day/may/parkday_may12.shtm MNCPPC: Rachel Carson Conservation Park]. Retrieved August 26, 2007.</ref>  In 1969, the Coastal Maine National Wildlife Refuge became the [[Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge]]; expansions will bring the size of the refuge to about 9,125 acres.<ref>[http://www.fws.gov/northeast/rachelcarson/index.html Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge]. Retrieved September 11, 2007.</ref> In 1985, [[North Carolina]] renamed one of its [[estuarine]] reserves in honor of Carson, in [[Beaufort, North Carolina|Beaufort]].<ref>[http://nerrs.noaa.gov/NorthCarolina/welcome.html Rachel Carson Estuarine Research Reserve]{{dead link|date=November 2011}}. Retrieved October 12, 2007.</ref>
 
 
Carson is also a frequent namesake for prizes awarded by philanthropic, educational and scholarly institutions.  The [[Rachel Carson Prize (environmentalist award)|Rachel Carson Prize]], founded in [[Stavanger]], [[Norway]] in 1991, is awarded to women who have made a contribution in the field of environmental protection.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://rachelcarsonprisen.no/eng/The-Prize/What-is-the-Rachel-Carson-Prize|title=What is the Rachel Carson Prize?|publisher=Rachel Carson-prisen|accessdate=March 15, 2010}}</ref> The [[American Society for Environmental History]] has awarded the Rachel Carson Prize for Best Dissertation since 1993.<ref>[http://www.aseh.net/awards/list-of-award-recipients-and-comments Award Recipients&nbsp;– American Society for Environmental History]{{dead link|date=November 2011}}. Retrieved September 11, 2007.</ref>  Since 1998, the [[Society for Social Studies of Science]] has awarded an annual [[Rachel Carson Prize (academic book prize)|Rachel Carson Book Prize]] for "a book length work of social or political relevance in the area of science and technology studies."<ref>[http://www.4sonline.org/carson.htm Rachel Carson Book Prize, 4S]. Retrieved September 11, 2007.</ref>
 
 
====Centennial events====
 
<!--[[File:Rachel Carson 100th birthday crowd.jpg|thumb|The celebration of the 100th anniversary of Carson's birth in [[Springdale, Pennsylvania]]]]-->
 
 
2007 was the centennial of Carson's birth.  On [[Earth Day]] (April 22, 2007), ''Courage for the Earth: Writers, Scientists, and Activists Celebrate the Life and Writing of Rachel Carson'' was released as "a centennial appreciation of Rachel Carson's brave life and transformative writing", thirteen essays by prominent environmental writers and scientists.<ref>[http://www.houghtonmifflinbooks.com/catalog/titledetail.cfm?titleNumber=694257 Houghton Mifflin Trade and Reference Division, ''Courage for the Earth'' release information]. Retrieved September 23, 2007.</ref>  Democratic Senator [[Benjamin L. Cardin]] of [[Maryland]] had intended to submit a resolution celebrating Carson for her "legacy of scientific rigor coupled with poetic sensibility" on the 100th anniversary of her birth. The resolution was blocked by Republican Senator [[Tom Coburn]] of [[Oklahoma]],<ref>{{cite news |author=David A. Fahrenthold |title=Bill to honor Rachel Carson Blocked |url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/05/22/AR2007052201574.html |publisher=Washington Post |date=May 23, 2007 }}</ref> who said that "The junk science and stigma surrounding DDT—the cheapest and most effective insecticide on the planet—have finally been jettisoned."<ref>{{cite news |author=Stephen Moore |title=Doctor Tom's DDT Victory |url=http://coburn.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?FuseAction=LatestNews.NewsStories&ContentRecord_id=c7d00e46-802a-23ad-49b7-d4ec2599d64c |publisher=The Wall Street Journal |date=September 19, 2006 }}</ref>  The [[Rachel Carson Homestead Association]] held a May 27 birthday party and sustainable feast at her birthplace and home in [[Springdale, Pennsylvania]], and the first Rachel Carson Legacy Conference in Pittsburgh with E.O. Wilson as keynote speaker.  Both Rachel's Sustainable Feast and the conference continue as annual events.
 
 
==List of works==
 
 
*''[[Under the Sea Wind]]'', 1941, Simon & Schuster, Penguin Group, 1996, ISBN 0-14-025380-7
 
*{{cite web |title=Fishes of the Middle West |year=1943 |format=PDF |publisher=United States Government Printing Office |url=http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/usfwspubs/6/}}
 
*{{cite web |title=Fish and Shellfish of the Middle Atlantic Coast |year=1945 |format=PDF |publisher=United States Government Printing Office |url=http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/usfwspubs/3/}}
 
*{{cite web |title=Chincoteague: A National Wildlife Refuge |year=1947 |format=PDF |publisher=United States Government Printing Office |url=http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/usfwspubs/1/}}
 
*{{cite web |title=Mattamuskeet: A National Wildlife Refuge |year=1947 |format=PDF |publisher=United States Government Printing Office |url=http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/usfwspubs/5/}}
 
*{{cite web |title=Parker River: A National Wildlife Refuge |year=1947 |format=PDF |publisher=United States Government Printing Office |url=http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/usfwspubs/4/}}
 
*{{cite web |title=Bear River: A National Wildlife Refuge |year=1950 |format=PDF |publisher=United States Government Printing Office |url=http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/usfwspubs/2/}} (with Vanez T. Wilson)
 
*''[[The Sea Around Us]]'', Oxford University Press, 1951; Oxford University Press, 1991, ISBN 0-19-506997-8
 
*''[[The Edge of the Sea]]'', Houghton Mifflin 1955; Mariner Books, 1998, ISBN 0-395-92496-0
 
*''[[Silent Spring]]'', Houghton Mifflin, 1962; Mariner Books, 2002, ISBN 0-618-24906-0
 
**''Silent Spring'' initially appeared serialized in three parts in the June 16, June 23, and June 30, 1962 issues of ''[[The New Yorker]]'' magazine
 
*''The Sense of Wonder'', 1965, HarperCollins, 1998: ISBN 0-06-757520-X published posthumously
 
*''Always, Rachel: The Letters of Rachel Carson and Dorothy Freeman 1952–1964 An Intimate Portrait of a Remarkable Friendship'', Beacon Press, 1995, ISBN 0-8070-7010-6 edited by Martha Freeman (granddaughter of Dorothy Freeman)
 
*''Lost Woods: The Discovered Writing of Rachel Carson'', Beacon Press, 1998, ISBN 0-8070-8547-2
 
*''Bedrock: Writers on the Wonders of Geology'', edited by Lauret E. Savoy, [[Eldridge M. Moores]], and Judith E. Moores, [[Trinity University (Texas)#Trinity University Press|Trinity University Press]], 2006, ISBN 1-59534-022-X
 
 
==See also==
 
* [[Environmentalism]]{{w|Environmentalism}}
 
<!--* [[Environmental toxicology]]
 
* [[Rachel Carson House (Colesville, Maryland)]]
 
* [[Rachel Carson Homestead]]
 
* [[Rachel Carson Greenway]] (three trails in Central Maryland)
 
* [[Rachel Carson Trail]]
 
* [[Women and the environment through history]]-->
 
 
==References==
 
{{reflist|2}}
 
 
===Citations===
 
*{{cite book |last=Hynes |first=H. Patricia |title=The Recurring Silent Spring |publisher=Pergamon Press |location=New York |year=1989 |isbn=0-08-037117-5 |series=Athene series |url=http://books.google.com/?id=MNjaAAAAMAAJ |ref=harv}}
 
*{{cite book |last=Lear |first=Linda |title=Rachel Carson: Witness for Nature |publisher=Henry Holt |location=New York |year=1997 |isbn=0-8050-3428-5 |url=http://books.google.com/?id=2kDGQgAACAAJ |ref=harv}}
 
*{{cite book |last=Lytle |first=Mark Hamilton |title=The Gentle Subversive: Rachel Carson, Silent Spring, and the Rise of the Environmental Movement |publisher=Oxford University Press |location=New York |year=2007 |isbn=0-19-517246-9 |url=http://books.google.com/?id=SOSD4PFchmsC |ref=harv}}
 
*{{cite book |last=Murphy |first=Priscilla Coit |title=What a Book Can Do: The Publication and Reception of Silent Spring |publisher=University of Massachusetts Press |location=Amherst |year=2005 |isbn=978-1-55849-582-1 |url=http://books.google.com/?id=MFWFjvY90PgC |ref=harv}}
 
*{{cite book |last=Kline |first=B |title=First Along the River. Maryland |publisher=Rowma & Littlefield |ref=harv}}
 
*{{cite book |last=Lutts |first=R |title= Chemical fallout: Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, Radioactive Fallout, and the Environmental Movement. |publisher= Environmental Review |year=1985 |ref=harv}}
 
*{{cite book |last=gottlieb |first=R |title=Forging the Spring. |publisher=Island Press |location=Washington D.C. |ref=harv}}
 
 
==Further reading==
 
 
*{{cite book |author=Brooks, Paul |title=The House of Life: Rachel Carson at Work |publisher=Houghton Mifflin |year=1972 |isbn=0-395-13517-6 |url=http://books.google.com/?id=VIkcZTSh7skC }}  This book is a personal memoir by Carson's [[Houghton Mifflin]] editor and close friend Paul Brooks.
 
*{{cite book |author=Jezer, Marty |authorlink=Martin Jezer |title=Rachel Carson: Biologist and Author |publisher=Chelsea House Publications |year=1988 |isbn=1-55546-646-X |url=http://books.google.com/?id=pBwVPwAACAAJ |series=American women of achievement}}
 
*{{cite book |editor=Matthiessen, Peter |title=Courage for the Earth: Writers, Scientists, and Activists Celebrate the Life and Writing of Rachel Carson |publisher=Mariner Books |year=2007 |isbn=0-618-87276-0 |url=http://books.google.com/?id=VNXapJVwbC0C |editor-link=Peter Matthiessen }}
 
*{{cite book |author1=Moore, Kathleen Dean |author2=Sideris, Lisa H. |title=Rachel Carson: Legacy and Challenge |publisher=[[SUNY Press]] |location=[[Albany, New York]] |year=2008 |isbn=0-7914-7471-2 |url=http://books.google.com/?id=awR4kJrhQK0C }}
 
*{{cite book |author=Quaratiello, Arlene |title=Rachel Carson: A Biography |publisher=Prometheus|location=[[Amherst, New York]] |year=2010 |isbn=978-1-61614-187-5  |url=http://www.amazon.com/Rachel-Carson-Biography-Arlene-Quaratiello/dp/1616141875/ref=sr_1_3?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1278211359&sr=8-3}}
 
*{{cite journal |author=Sideris, Lisa H. |title=Fact and Fiction, Fear and Wonder: The Legacy of Rachel Carson |journal=Soundings |volume=91 |issue=3-4 |pages=335–69 |date=Fall–Winter 2009 |jstor=41179228}}
 
 
==External links==
 
* Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to [http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Special:Search/Rachel_Carson '''''Rachel Carson''''']
 
* Wikimedia Commons has media related to [http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Rachel_Carson '''''Rachel Carson''''']
 
*[http://hdl.handle.net/10079/fa/beinecke.carson Rachel Carson Papers]. Yale Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University.
 
*[http://www.mindfully.org/Pesticide/Rachel-Carson-Silent-Spring.htm ''New York Times'' obituary]
 
*[http://www.rachelcarson.org/ RachelCarson.org]—website by Carson biographer Linda Lear
 
*[http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,990622,00.html ''Time'', Mar. 29, 1999, Environmentalist RACHEL CARSON]
 
*[http://www.pbs.org/moyers/journal/09212007/profile.html Revisiting Rachel Carson]—Bill Moyer's Journal, PBS.org, 9-21-2007
 
*[http://www.pbs.org/moyers/journal/09212007/profile3.html "A Sense of Wonder"] – two-act play about Carson, written and performed by Kaiulani Lee, based on posthumous work of the same name
 
*[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=isoJxPZH1LQ YouTube Clip of Bill Moyers television on Lee's one woman show]
 
* [http://www.montgomeryparks.org/PPSD/ParkTrails/trails_MAPS/Rachel_Carson_Greenway_trails.shtm The Rachel Carson Greenway Trail] in Montgomery County, Maryland
 
* [http://books.google.com/books?id=diEDAAAAMBAJ&pg=RA1-PA14&dq=popular+science+1951+why+our+winters&hl=en&ei=9ALETJujGcf_nAe9r73xCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=popular%20science%201951%20why%20our%20winters&f=true "Why Our Winters Are Getting Warmer", November 1951, ''Popular Science''] - early article by Rachel Carson about how the ocean currents affected climate (excerpt from her 1951 book, ''The Sea Around Us'').
 
*[http://moviemorlocks.com/2011/02/20/rachel-l-carson-as-interpreted-by-irwin-allen/ (Rachel L. Carson as Interpreted by Irwin Allen – TCM Movie Morlocks on THE SEA AROUND US)]
 
 
'''Carson-related organizations'''
 
*[http://www.rachelcarsonhomestead.org/ The Rachel Carson Homestead]
 
*[http://www.silentspring.org/ Silent Spring Institute]
 
*[http://www.rachelcarsontrails.org/ Rachel Carson Trails Conservancy]
 
*[http://www.chatham.edu/rci/ Rachel Carson Institute]
 
 
{{Persondata <!-- Metadata: see [[Wikipedia:Persondata]] -->
 
|NAME= Carson, Rachel Louise
 
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES=
 
|SHORT DESCRIPTION= American zoologist, marine biologist, writer and activist
 
|DATE OF BIRTH= May 27, 1907
 
|PLACE OF BIRTH= [[Springdale, Pennsylvania]], U.S
 
|DATE OF DEATH= April 14, 1964
 
|PLACE OF DEATH= [[Silver Spring, Maryland]], U.S.
 
}}
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:Carson, Rachel}}
 
[[Category:Appropriate technology advocates]]
 
[[Category:Sustainability advocates]]
 

Action parameters

VariableValue
Edit count of the user (user_editcount)
9669
Name of the user account (user_name)
RichardF
Time email address was confirmed (user_emailconfirm)
Age of the user account (user_age)
156139349
Groups (including implicit) the user is in (user_groups)
sysop * user autoconfirmed
Page ID (page_id)
33509
Page namespace (page_namespace)
2
Page title (without namespace) (page_title)
RichardF/Sandbox
Full page title (page_prefixedtitle)
User:RichardF/Sandbox
Create protection of the page (page_restrictions_create)
Edit protection level of the page (page_restrictions_edit)
Move protection level of the page (page_restrictions_move)
Upload protection of the file (page_restrictions_upload)
Last ten users to contribute to the page (page_recent_contributors)
RichardF
Action (action)
edit
Edit summary/reason (summary)
Whether or not the edit is marked as minor (no more in use) (minor_edit)
Old page wikitext, before the edit (no more in use) (old_wikitext)
{{Infobox person <!-- for more information see [[:Template:Infobox person/doc]] --> | name = Rachel Carson | image = Rachel-Carson.jpg | imagesize = 200px | caption = Rachel Carson, 1940 <br />Fish & Wildlife Service employee photo | pseudonym = | birth_name = Rachel Louise Carson | birth_date = {{birth date|1907|5|27|mf=y}} | birth_place = Springdale, Pennsylvania, U.S. | death_date = {{death date and age|1964|4|14|1907|5|27|mf=y}} | death_place = Silver Spring, Maryland, U.S. | occupation = [Marine biologist, writer and environmentalist | nationality = American | alma_mater = Chatham University,<br>Johns Hopkins University | period = 1937–1964 | genre = Nature writing | subject = Marine biology, ecology, pesticides | movement = | notableworks = ''The Sea Around Us'' (1951) <br>''Silent Spring'' (1962) | influences = | influenced = | website = }} '''Rachel Louise Carson''' (May 27, 1907&nbsp;– April 14, 1964) was an American [[marine biology|marine biologist]] and [[conservation movement|conservationist]] whose book ''Silent Spring'' and other writings are credited with advancing the global [[environmental movement]]. Carson began her career as a biologist in the [[United States Fish and Wildlife Service|U.S. Bureau of Fisheries]], and became a full-time nature writer in the 1950s. Her widely praised 1951 bestseller ''[[The Sea Around Us]]'' won her a U.S. [[National Book Award]],<ref name=nba1952/> recognition as a gifted writer, and financial security. Her next book, ''[[The Edge of the Sea]]'', and the reissued version of her first book, ''[[Under the Sea Wind]]'', were also bestsellers. That so-called sea trilogy explores the whole of ocean life from the shores to the surface to the depths. Late in the 1950s Carson turned her attention to conservation, especially environmental problems she believed were caused by synthetic [[pesticide]]s. The result was ''[[Silent Spring]]'' (1962), which brought environmental concerns to an unprecedented share of the American people. Although Silent Spring met with fierce opposition by chemical companies, it spurred a reversal in national pesticide policy, which led to a nationwide ban on [[DDT]] and other pesticides, and it inspired a [[grassroots]] environmental movement that led to the creation of the [[United States Environmental Protection Agency|U.S. Environmental Protection Agency]]. Carson was posthumously awarded the [[Presidential Medal of Freedom]] by [[Jimmy Carter]]. ==Life and work== <!--[[File:RachelCarsonHomestead.jpg|thumb|left|Carson's childhood home now is preserved as the [[Rachel Carson Homestead]]]]--> ===Early life and education=== Rachel Carson was born on May 27, 1907, on a small family farm near [[Springdale, Pennsylvania]], just up the [[Allegheny River]] from [[Pittsburgh]]. An avid reader, she also spent a lot of time exploring around her family's 65 acre farm. She began writing stories (often involving animals) at age eight, and had her first story published at age eleven. She especially enjoyed the ''[[St. Nicholas Magazine]]'' (which carried her first published stories), the works of [[Beatrix Potter]], and the novels of [[Gene Stratton Porter]], and in her teen years, [[Herman Melville]], [[Joseph Conrad]] and [[Robert Louis Stevenson]]. The natural world, particularly the ocean, was the common thread of her favorite literature. Carson attended Springdale's small school through tenth grade, then completed high school in nearby [[Parnassus, Pennsylvania]], graduating in 1925 at the top of her class of forty-five students.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=7–24}}</ref> At the Pennsylvania College for Women (today known as [[Chatham University]]), as in high school, Carson was somewhat of a loner. She originally studied English, but switched her major to biology in January 1928, though she continued contributing to the school's student newspaper and literary supplement. Though admitted to graduate standing at [[Johns Hopkins University]] in 1928, she was forced to remain at the Pennsylvania College for Women for her senior year due to financial difficulties; she graduated ''[[magna cum laude]]'' in 1929. After a summer course at the [[Marine Biological Laboratory]], she continued her studies in [[zoology]] and [[genetics]] at Johns Hopkins in the fall of 1929.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=27–62}}</ref> After her first year of graduate school, Carson became a part-time student, taking an assistantship in [[Raymond Pearl]]'s laboratory, where she worked with rats and ''[[Drosophila]]'', to earn money for tuition. After false starts with [[pit vipers]] and [[squirrel]]s, she completed a dissertation project on the embryonic development of the [[pronephros]] in fish. She earned a master's degree in zoology in June 1932. She had intended to continue for a doctorate, but in 1934 Carson was forced to leave Johns Hopkins to search for a full-time teaching position to help support her family. In 1935, her father died suddenly, leaving Carson to care for her aging mother and making the financial situation even more critical. At the urging of her undergraduate biology mentor Mary Scott Skinker, she settled for a temporary position with the [[U.S. Bureau of Fisheries]], writing radio copy for a series of weekly educational broadcasts entitled "Romance Under the Waters". The series of fifty-two seven-minute programs focused on aquatic life and was intended to generate public interest in fish biology and in the work of the bureau—a task the several writers before Carson had not managed. Carson also began submitting articles on marine life in the [[Chesapeake Bay]], based on her research for the series, to local newspapers and magazines.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=63–79}}</ref> Carson's supervisor, pleased with the success of the radio series, asked her to write the introduction to a public brochure about the fisheries bureau; he also worked to secure her the first full-time position that became available. Sitting for the [[American civil service|civil service]] exam, she outscored all other applicants and in 1936 became only the second woman to be hired by the Bureau of Fisheries for a full-time, professional position, as a junior aquatic biologist.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=79–82}}</ref> ===Early career and publications=== At the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries, Carson's main responsibilities were to analyze and report field data on fish populations, and to write brochures and other literature for the public. Using her research and consultations with marine biologists as starting points, she also wrote a steady stream of articles for ''[[The Baltimore Sun]]'' and other newspapers. However, her family responsibilities further increased in January 1937 when her older sister died, leaving Carson as the sole breadwinner for her mother and two nieces.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=82–5}}</ref> In July 1937, the ''[[Atlantic Monthly]]'' accepted a revised version of an essay, "The World of Waters", that she had originally written for her first fisheries bureau brochure; her supervisor had deemed it too good for that purpose. The essay, published as "Undersea", was a vivid narrative of a journey along the ocean floor. It marked a major turning point in Carson's writing career. Publishing house [[Simon & Schuster]], impressed by "Undersea", contacted Carson and suggested that she expand it into book form. Several years of writing resulted in ''[[Under the Sea Wind]]'' (1941), which received excellent reviews but sold poorly. In the meantime, Carson's article-writing success continued—her features appeared in ''Sun Magazine'', ''[[Nature (journal)|Nature]]'', and ''[[Collier's Weekly|Collier's]]''.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=85–113}}</ref> Carson attempted to leave the Bureau (by then transformed into the [[Fish and Wildlife Service]]) in 1945, but few jobs for naturalists were available as most money for science was focused on technical fields in the wake of the [[Manhattan Project]]. In mid-1945, Carson first encountered the subject of [[DDT]], a revolutionary new pesticide (lauded as the "insect bomb" after the [[atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki]]) that was only beginning to undergo tests for safety and ecological effects. DDT was but one of Carson's many writing interests at the time, and editors found the subject unappealing; she published nothing on DDT until 1962.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=114–120}}</ref> Carson rose within the Fish and Wildlife Service, supervising a small writing staff by 1945 and becoming chief editor of publications in 1949. Though her position provided increasing opportunities for fieldwork and freedom in choosing her writing projects, it also entailed increasingly tedious administrative responsibilities. By 1948, Carson was working on material for a second book and had made the conscious decision to begin a transition to writing full-time. That year, she took on a literary agent, [[Marie Rodell]]; they formed a close professional relationship that would last the rest of Carson's career.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=121–160}}</ref> [[Oxford University Press]] expressed interest in Carson's book proposal for a life history of the ocean, spurring her to complete the manuscript of what would become ''[[The Sea Around Us]]'' by early 1950.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=163–4}}. <br>• An apocryphal story holds that the book was rejected by over twenty publishers before Oxford University Press. In fact, it may have only been sent to one other publisher before being accepted, though Rodell and Carson worked extensively to place chapters and excerpts in periodicals.</ref> Chapters appeared in ''[[Science Digest]]'' and the ''[[Yale Review]]''—the latter chapter, "The Birth of an Island", winning the [[American Association for the Advancement of Science]]'s George Westinghouse Science Writing Prize. Nine chapters were serialized in ''[[The New Yorker]]'' beginning June 1951 and the book was published July 2, 1951, by [[Oxford University Press]].<!-- source is our article on the book --> ''The Sea Around Us'' remained on the [[New York Times Best Seller List]] for 86 weeks, was abridged by ''[[Reader's Digest]]'', won the 1952 [[National Book Award for Nonfiction]]<ref name=nba1952>[http://www.nationalbook.org/nba1952.html "National Book Awards – 1952"]. [[National Book Foundation]]. Retrieved March 19, 2012. <br>(With acceptance speech by Carson and essay by Neil Baldwin from the Awards 50-year anniversary publications.)</ref> and the [[Burroughs Medal]], and resulted in Carson's being awarded two honorary doctorates. She also licensed a documentary film based on it. ''The Sea'''s success led to the republication of ''Under the Sea Wind'', which became a bestseller itself. With success came financial security, and Carson was able to give up her job in 1952 to concentrate on writing full time.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=164–241}}</ref> Carson was inundated with speaking engagements, [[fan mail]] and other correspondence regarding ''The Sea Around Us'', along with work on the documentary script that she had secured the right to review.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=206–234}}</ref> She was very unhappy with the final version of the script by writer, director and producer [[Irwin Allen]]; she found it untrue to the atmosphere of the book and scientifically embarrassing, describing it as "a cross between a believe-it-or-not and a breezy travelogue."<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=215–6, 238–9}}. Quotation from a letter to Carson's film agent Shirley Collier, November 9, 1952. Quoted in Lear, 239.</ref> She discovered, however, that her right to review the script did not extend to any control over its content. Allen proceeded in spite of Carson's objections to produce a very successful documentary. It won the 1953 [[Oscar for Best Documentary]], but Carson was so embittered by the experience that she never again sold film rights to her work.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=239–240}}</ref> ===Relationship with Dorothy Freeman=== Carson moved with her mother to [[Southport Island, Maine]], in 1953, and in July of that year met Dorothy Freeman (1898–1978) — the beginning of an extremely close relationship that would last the rest of Carson's life. The nature of the relationship between Carson and Freeman has been the subject of speculation. Carson met Freeman, a summer resident of the island along with her husband, after Freeman had written to Carson to welcome her. Freeman had read ''The Sea Around Us'', a gift from her son, and was excited to have the prominent author as a neighbor. Carson's biographer, Linda Lear, writes that "Carson sorely needed a devoted friend and kindred spirit who would listen to her without advising and accept her wholly, the writer as well as the woman."<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|p=248}}</ref> She found this in Freeman. The two women had a number of common interests, nature chief among them, and began exchanging letters regularly while apart. They would share summers for the remainder of Carson's life, and meet whenever else their schedules permitted.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=243–288}}</ref> Though Lear does not explicitly describe the relationship as romantic, others (such as the encyclopedia ''[[glbtq.com|glbtq]]''<ref name="letters_with_Freeman">Caryn E. Neumann, [http://www.glbtq.com/social-sciences/carson_r.html "Carson, Rachel (1907–1964)"], ''glbtq: an encyclopedia of gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, & queer culture''; retrieved February 22, 2007</ref>) have noted that Carson and Freeman realized the letters could be interpreted as [[lesbian]], even though ''"the expression of their love was limited almost wholly to letters and very occasional farewell kisses or holding of hands"''.<ref>{{cite journal|author=Montefiore, Janet|title='The fact that possesses my imagination': Rachel Carson, Science and Writing|journal=Women: A Cultural Review|volume=12|issue=1|page=48|year=2001}}</ref> Freeman shared parts of Carson's letters with her husband to help him understand the relationship, but much of their correspondence was carefully guarded.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=255–6}}</ref> Shortly before Carson's death, she and Freeman destroyed hundreds of letters. The surviving correspondence was published in 1995 as ''Always, Rachel: The Letters of Rachel Carson and Dorothy Freeman, 1952–1964: An Intimate Portrait of a Remarkable Friendship'', edited by Freeman's granddaughter. According to one reviewer, the pair "fit Carolyn Heilbrun's characterization of a strong female friendship, where what matters is 'not whether friends are homosexual or heterosexual, lovers or not, but whether they share the wonderful energy of work in the public sphere'".<ref>{{cite journal|author=Tjossem, Sarah F.|title=Review of ''Always Rachel: The Letters of Rachel Carson and Dorothy Freeman, 1952–1964''|journal=Isis|volume=86|issue=4|pages=687–8|year=1995|doi=10.1086/357392}} quoting from: {{cite book|author=Heilbrun, Carolyn|title=Writing a Woman's Life|publisher=Ballantine|year=1988|isbn=0-345-36256-X|page=108}}</ref> ===''The Edge of the Sea'' and transition to conservation work=== Early in 1953 Carson began library and field research on the ecology and organisms of the Atlantic shore.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=223–244}}</ref> In 1955, she completed the third volume of her sea trilogy, ''[[The Edge of the Sea]]'', which focuses on life in [[coastal]] ecosystems (particularly along the [[Eastern Seaboard]]). It appeared in ''The New Yorker'' in two condensed installments shortly before its October 26 book release by [[Houghton Mifflin]] (again a new publisher). By this time, Carson's reputation for clear and poetical prose was well established; ''The Edge of the Sea'' received highly favorable reviews, if not quite as enthusiastic as for ''The Sea Around Us''.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=261–276}}</ref> Through 1955 and 1956, Carson worked on a number of projects—including the script for an ''[[Omnibus (US TV series)|Omnibus]]'' episode, "Something About the Sky"—and wrote articles for popular magazines. Her plan for the next book was to address [[evolution]], but the publication of [[Julian Huxley]]'s ''Evolution in Action''—and her own difficulty in finding a clear and compelling approach to the topic—led her to abandon the project. Instead, her interests were turning to conservation. She considered an environment-themed book project tentatively entitled ''Remembrance of the Earth'' and became involved with [[The Nature Conservancy]] and other conservation groups. She also made plans to buy and preserve from development an area in Maine she and Freeman called the "Lost Woods".<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=276–300}}</ref> Early in 1957, family tragedy struck a third time when one of the nieces she had cared for in the 1940s died at the age of 31, leaving a five-year-old orphan son, Roger Christie. Carson took on that responsibility, adopting the boy, alongside continuing to care for her aging mother; this took a considerable toll on Carson. She moved to [[Silver Spring, Maryland|Silver Spring]], [[Maryland]], to care for Roger, and much of 1957 was spent putting their new living situation in order and focusing on specific environmental threats.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=300–9}}</ref> By fall 1957, Carson was closely following federal proposals for widespread pesticide spraying; the [[USDA]] planned to eradicate [[Red imported fire ant|fire ants]], and other spraying programs involving [[chlorinated hydrocarbons]] and [[organophosphates]] were on the rise.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=305–313}}</ref> For the rest of her life, Carson's main professional focus would be the dangers of pesticide overuse. ===''Silent Spring''=== :''Main article: Silent Spring{{w|Silent Spring}}'' :''See also: Timeline of environmental events{{w|Timeline of environmental events}}, DDT{{w|DDT}} and Merchants of Doubt{{w|Merchants of Doubt}}'' ''[[Silent Spring]]'' is a book written by Rachel Carson and published by [[Houghton Mifflin]] on 27 September 1962.<ref name=McLaughlin>{{cite web |author=McLaughlin, Dorothy |title=Fooling with Nature: ''Silent Spring'' Revisited |work=Frontline |publisher=PBS |url=http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/nature/disrupt/sspring.html |accessdate=August 24, 2010}}</ref> The book is widely credited with helping launch the [[environmental movement]].<ref>Josie Glausiusz. (2007), Better Planet: Can A Maligned Pesticide Save Lives? ''Discover Magazine''. Page 34.</ref> In 1994 an edition of ''Silent Spring'' was published in which vice president [[Al Gore]] wrote the introduction. ====Research and writing==== Starting in the mid-1940s, Carson had become concerned about the use of synthetic pesticides, many of which had been developed through the [[military funding of science]] since [[World War II]]. It was the USDA's 1957 [[fire ant]] eradication program, however, that prompted Carson to devote her research, and her next book, to pesticides and environmental poisons. The fire ant program involved aerial spraying of [[DDT]] and other pesticides (mixed with [[fuel oil]]), including the spraying of private land. Landowners in Long Island filed a suit to have the spraying stopped, and many in affected regions followed the case closely. Though the suit was lost, the [[Supreme Court of the United States|Supreme Court]] granted petitioners the right to gain injunctions against potential environmental damage in the future; this laid the basis for later successful environmental actions.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://ellsworthmaine.com/site/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=12535&Itemid=47 |title=Obituary of Marjorie Spock |publisher=Ellsworthmaine.com |date=January 30, 2008 |accessdate=March 16, 2009}}{{dead link|date=November 2011}}</ref> The Washington, D.C. chapter of the [[Audubon Society]] also actively opposed such spraying programs, and recruited Carson to help make public the government's exact spraying practices and the related research.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=312–7}}</ref> Carson began the four-year project of what would become ''[[Silent Spring]]'' by gathering examples of environmental damage attributed to DDT. She also attempted to enlist others to join the cause: essayist [[E. B. White]], and a number of journalists and scientists. By 1958, Carson had arranged a book deal, with plans to co-write with ''[[Newsweek]]'' science journalist Edwin Diamond. However, when ''The New Yorker'' commissioned a long and well-paid article on the topic from Carson, she began considering writing more than simply the introduction and conclusion as planned; soon it was a solo project. (Diamond would later write one of the harshest critiques of ''Silent Spring''.)<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=317–327}}</ref> As her research progressed, Carson found a sizable community of scientists who were documenting the physiological and environmental effects of pesticides. She also took advantage of her personal connections with many government scientists, who supplied her with confidential information. From reading the scientific literature and interviewing scientists, Carson found two scientific camps when it came to pesticides: those who dismissed the possible danger of pesticide spraying barring conclusive proof, and those who were open to the possibility of harm and willing to consider alternative methods such as [[biological pest control]].<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=327–336}}</ref> By 1959, the [[USDA]]'s [[Agricultural Research Service]] responded to the criticism by Carson and others with a public service film, ''Fire Ants on Trial''; Carson characterized it as "flagrant [[propaganda]]" that ignored the dangers that spraying pesticides (especially [[dieldrin]] and [[heptachlor]]) posed to humans and wildlife. That spring, Carson wrote a letter, published in ''[[The Washington Post]]'', that attributed the recent decline in bird populations—in her words, the "silencing of birds"—to pesticide overuse.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=342–6}}</ref> That was also the year of the "Great Cranberry Scandal": the 1957, 1958, and 1959 crops of U.S. [[cranberry|cranberries]] were found to contain high levels of the herbicide [[aminotriazole]] (which caused cancer in laboratory rats) and the sale of all cranberry products was halted. Carson attended the ensuing FDA hearings on revising pesticide regulations; she came away discouraged by the aggressive tactics of the chemical industry representatives, which included expert testimony that was firmly contradicted by the bulk of the scientific literature she had been studying. She also wondered about the possible "financial inducements behind certain pesticide programs".<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=358–361}}</ref> Research at the [[United States National Library of Medicine|Library of Medicine]] of the [[National Institutes of Health]] brought Carson into contact with medical researchers investigating the gamut of cancer-causing chemicals. Of particular significance was the work of [[National Cancer Institute]] researcher and founding director of the environmental cancer section [[Wilhelm Hueper]], who classified many pesticides as carcinogens. Carson and her research assistant Jeanne Davis, with the help of NIH librarian Dorothy Algire, found evidence to support the pesticide-cancer connection; to Carson the evidence for the toxicity of a wide array of synthetic pesticides was clear-cut, though such conclusions were very controversial beyond the small community of scientists studying pesticide [[carcinogenesis]].<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=355–8}}</ref> By 1960, Carson had more than enough research material, and the writing was progressing rapidly. In addition to the thorough literature search, she had investigated hundreds of individual incidents of pesticide exposure and the human sickness and ecological damage that resulted. However, in January, a duodenal ulcer followed by several infections kept her bedridden for weeks, greatly delaying the completion of ''Silent Spring''. As she was nearing full recovery in March (just as she was completing drafts of the two cancer chapters of her book), she discovered cysts in her left breast, one of which necessitated a [[mastectomy]]. Though her doctor described the procedure as precautionary and recommended no further treatment, by December Carson discovered that the tumor was in fact [[malignant]] and the cancer had [[metastasized]].<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=360–8}}</ref> Her research was also delayed by revision work for a new edition of ''The Sea Around Us'', and by a collaborative photo essay with [[Erich Hartmann (photographer)|Erich Hartmann]].<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=372–3}}. The photo essay, "The Sea", was published in ''Johns Hopkins Magazine'', May/June 1961; Carson provided the captions for Hartmann's photographs.</ref> Most of the research and writing was done by the fall of 1960, except for the discussion of recent research on [[biological controls]] and investigations of a handful of new pesticides. However, further health troubles slowed the final revisions in 1961 and early 1962.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=376–7}}</ref> It was difficult finding a title for the book; "Silent Spring" was initially suggested as a title for the chapter on birds. By August 1961, Carson finally agreed to the suggestion of her literary agent Marie Rodell: ''Silent Spring'' would be a metaphorical title for the entire book—suggesting a bleak future for the whole natural world—rather than a literal chapter title about the absence of birdsong.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=375, 377–8, 386–7, 389}}</ref> With Carson's approval, editor Paul Brooks at [[Houghton Mifflin]] arranged for illustrations by Louis and Lois Darling, who also designed the cover. The final writing was the first chapter, "A Fable for Tomorrow", which was intended to provide a gentler introduction to what might otherwise be a forbiddingly serious topic. By mid-1962, Brooks and Carson had largely finished the editing, and were laying the groundwork for promoting the book by sending the manuscript out to select individuals for final suggestions.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=390–7}}</ref> ====Argument==== As biographer Mark Hamilton Lytle writes, Carson "quite self-consciously decided to write a book calling into question the [[paradigm]] of [[scientific progress]] that defined [[postwar]] American culture." The overriding theme of ''Silent Spring'' is the powerful—and often negative—effect humans have on the natural world.<ref>{{harvnb|Lytle|2007|pp=166–7}}</ref> Carson's main argument is that [[pesticide]]s have detrimental effects on the environment; they are more properly termed "[[biocide]]s", she argues, because their effects are rarely limited to the target pests. DDT is a prime example, but other synthetic pesticides come under scrutiny as well—many of which are subject to [[bioaccumulation]]. Carson also accuses the [[chemical industry]] of intentionally spreading [[disinformation]] and public officials of accepting industry claims uncritically. Most of the book is devoted to pesticides' effects on natural ecosystems, but four chapters also detail cases of human pesticide poisoning, cancer, and other illnesses attributed to pesticides.<ref>{{harvnb|Lytle|2007|pp=166–172}}</ref> About DDT and cancer, the subject of so much subsequent debate, Carson says only a little: {{quote|In laboratory tests on animal subjects, DDT has produced suspicious liver tumors. Scientists of the Food and Drug Administration who reported the discovery of these tumors were uncertain how to classify them, but felt there was some "justification for considering them low grade hepatic cell carcinomas." Dr. Hueper [author of ''Occupational Tumors and Allied Diseases''] now gives DDT the definite rating of a "chemical carcinogen."<ref>Carson, ''Silent Spring'', 225</ref>|Rachel Carson|''Silent Spring'', p. 225}} Carson predicts increased consequences in the future, especially as targeted pests develop [[resistance to pesticides]] while weakened ecosystems fall prey to unanticipated [[invasive species]]. The book closes with a call for a [[biotic material|biotic]] approach to pest control as an alternative to chemical pesticides.<ref>{{harvnb|Lytle|2007|pp=169, 173}}</ref> ====Promotion and reception==== Carson and the others involved with publication of ''Silent Spring'' expected fierce criticism. They were particularly concerned about the possibility of being sued for [[libel]]. Carson was also undergoing [[radiation therapy]] to combat her spreading cancer, and expected to have little energy to devote to defending her work and responding to critics. In preparation for the anticipated attacks, Carson and her agent attempted to amass as many prominent supporters as possible before the book's release.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=397–400}}</ref> Most of the book's scientific chapters were reviewed by scientists with relevant expertise, among whom Carson found strong support. Carson attended the White House Conference on Conservation in May, 1962; Houghton Mifflin distributed proof copies of ''Silent Spring'' to many of the delegates, and promoted the upcoming ''New Yorker'' serialization. Among many others, Carson also sent a proof copy to Supreme Court Justice [[William O. Douglas]], a long-time environmental advocate who had argued against the court's rejection of the Long Island pesticide spraying case (and who had provided Carson with some of the material included in her chapter on herbicides).<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=375, 377, 400–7}}. Douglas's dissenting opinion on the rejection of the case, ''Robert Cushman Murphy et al., v. Butler et al., from the Second Circuit Court of Appeals, is from March 28, 1960.</ref> Though ''Silent Spring'' had generated a fairly high level of interest based on pre-publication promotion, this became much more intense with the serialization in ''The New Yorker'', which began in the June 16, 1962 issue. This brought the book to the attention of the chemical industry and its lobbyists, as well as a wide swath of the American populace. Around that time Carson also learned that ''Silent Spring'' had been selected as the [[Book-of-the-Month]] for October; as she put it, this would "carry it to farms and hamlets all over that country that don't know what a bookstore looks like—much less ''The New Yorker''."<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=407–8}}. Quotation (p. 408) from a June 13, 1962 letter from Carson to Dorothy Freeman.</ref> Other publicity included a positive editorial in ''[[The New York Times]]'' and excerpts of the serialized version in ''Audubon Magazine'', with another round of publicity in July and August as chemical companies responded. The story of the birth defect-causing drug [[thalidomide]] broke just before the book's publication as well, inviting comparisons between Carson and [[Frances Oldham Kelsey]], the [[Food and Drug Administration]] reviewer who had blocked the drug's sale in the United States.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=409–413}}</ref> <!--[[File:Silent Spring Book-of-the-Month-Club edition.JPG|thumb|The [[Book-of-the-Month Club]] edition of ''[[Silent Spring]]'', including an endorsement by [[William O. Douglas]], had a first print run of 150,000 copies, two-and-a-half times the combined size of the two conventional printings of the initial release <ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=416, 419}}</ref>]] --> In the weeks leading up to the September 27 publication there was strong opposition to ''Silent Spring''. [[DuPont]] (a main manufacturer of DDT and [[2,4-D]]) and [[Velsicol Chemical Company]] (exclusive manufacturer of [[chlordane]] and [[heptachlor]]) were among the first to respond. DuPont compiled an extensive report on the book's press coverage and estimated impact on public opinion. Velsicol threatened legal action against Houghton Mifflin as well as ''The New Yorker'' and ''Audubon Magazine'' unless the planned ''Silent Spring'' features were canceled. Chemical industry representatives and lobbyists also lodged a range of non-specific complaints, some anonymously. Chemical companies and associated organizations produced a number of their own brochures and articles promoting and defending pesticide use. However, Carson's and the publishers' lawyers were confident in the vetting process ''Silent Spring'' had undergone. The magazine and book publications proceeded as planned, as did the large Book-of-the-Month printing (which included a pamphlet endorsing the book by William O. Douglas).<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=412–420}}</ref> [[American Cyanamid]] biochemist [[Robert White-Stevens]] and former Cyanamid chemist [[Thomas Jukes]] were among the most aggressive critics, especially of Carson's analysis of DDT.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=433–4}}</ref> According to White-Stevens, "If man were to follow the teachings of Miss Carson, we would return to the Dark Ages, and the insects and diseases and vermin would once again inherit the earth."<ref name="frontline_Cyanamid">[http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/nature/disrupt/sspring.html Fooling with nature: special reports: Silent Spring revisited:]. Retrieved September 23, 2007.</ref> Others went further, attacking Carson's scientific credentials (because her training was in marine biology rather than biochemistry) and her personal character. White-Stevens labeled her "a fanatic defender of the cult of the balance of nature",<ref>Quoted in {{harvnb|Lear|1997|p=434}}</ref> while former Secretary of Agriculture [[Ezra Taft Benson]]—in a letter to [[Dwight D. Eisenhower]]—reportedly concluded that because she was unmarried despite being physically attractive, she was "probably a Communist".<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=429–430}}. Benson's supposed comments were widely repeated at the time, but have not been directly confirmed.</ref> Many critics repeatedly asserted that she was calling for the elimination of all pesticides. Yet Carson had made it clear she was not advocating the banning or complete withdrawal of helpful pesticides, but was instead encouraging responsible and carefully managed use with an awareness of the chemicals' impact on the entire ecosystem.<ref>{{harvnb|Murphy|2005|9}}</ref> In fact, she concludes her section on DDT in ''Silent Spring'' not by urging a total ban, but with advice for spraying as little as possible to limit the development of resistance.<ref>Carson, ''Silent Spring'', 275</ref> The academic community—including prominent defenders such as [[H. J. Muller]], [[Loren Eisley]], [[Clarence Cottam]], and [[Frank Egler]]—by and large backed the book's scientific claims; public opinion soon turned Carson's way as well. The chemical industry campaign backfired, as the controversy greatly increased public awareness of potential pesticide dangers, as well as ''Silent Spring'' book sales. Pesticide use became a major public issue, especially after the ''[[CBS Reports]]'' TV special "The Silent Spring of Rachel Carson" that aired April 3, 1963. The program included segments of Carson reading from ''Silent Spring'' and interviews with a number of other experts, mostly critics (including White-Stevens); according to biographer Linda Lear, "in juxtaposition to the wild-eyed, loud-voiced Dr. Robert White-Stevens in white lab coat, Carson appeared anything but the hysterical alarmist that her critics contended."<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=437–449}}; quotation from 449.</ref> Reactions from the estimated audience of ten to fifteen million were overwhelmingly positive, and the program spurred a congressional review of pesticide dangers and the public release of a pesticide report by the [[President's Science Advisory Committee]].<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=449–450}}</ref> Within a year or so of publication, the attacks on the book and on Carson had largely lost momentum.<ref name="time100">[http://www.time.com/time/time100/scientist/profile/carson03.html The Time 100: Scientists and Thinkers], accessed September 23, 2007</ref><ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|p=461}}</ref> In one of her last public appearances, Carson had testified before President Kennedy's Science Advisory Committee. The committee issued its report on May 15, 1963, largely backing Carson's scientific claims.<ref name="nwhp_bio">[http://web.archive.org/web/20051208074458/http://www.nwhp.org/tlp/biographies/carson/carson-bio.html 2003 National Women's History Month Honorees: Rachel Carlson]. Retrieved September 23, 2007.</ref> Following the report's release, she also testified before a Senate subcommittee to make policy recommendations. Though Carson received hundreds of other speaking invitations, she was unable to accept the great majority of them. Her health was steadily declining as her cancer outpaced the radiation therapy, with only brief periods of remission. She spoke as much as she was physically able, however, including a notable appearance on ''[[Today (NBC program)|The Today Show]]'' and speeches at several dinners held in her honor. In late 1963, she received a flurry of awards and honors: the [[Audubon Medal]] (from the [[National Audubon Society]]), the [[Cullum Medal]] (from the [[American Geographical Society]]), and induction into the [[American Academy of Arts and Letters]].<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=451–461, 469–473}}</ref> === Death === Weakened from breast cancer and her treatment regimen, Carson became ill with a respiratory virus in January 1964. Her condition worsened, and in February, doctors found that she had severe [[anemia]] from her radiation treatments and in March discovered that the cancer had reached her liver. She died of a [[myocardial infarction|heart attack]] on April 14, 1964.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=476–480}}</ref> She was interred at Parklawn Memorial Park and Menorah Gardens in [[Rockville, Maryland]]. ==Legacy== ===Collected papers and posthumous publications=== Carson bequeathed her manuscripts and papers to [[Yale University]], to take advantage of the new state-of-the-art preservations facilities of the [[Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library]]. Her longtime agent and literary executor [[Marie Rodell]] spent nearly two years organizing and cataloging Carson's papers and correspondence, distributing all the letters to their senders so that only what each correspondent approved of would be submitted to the archive.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=467–8, 477, 482–3}} See also the Beinecke [http://hdl.handle.net/10079/fa/beinecke.carson finding aid for the Rachel Carson Papers].</ref> In 1965, Rodell arranged for the publication of an essay Carson had intended to expand into a book: ''A Sense of Wonder''. The essay, which was combined with photographs by [[Charles Pratt II|Charles Pratt]] and others, exhorts parents to help their children experience the "lasting pleasures of contact with the natural world", which "are available to anyone who will place himself under the influence of earth, sea and sky and their amazing life."<ref name="Murphy 25">Murphy, 25; quotations from ''A Sense of Wonder'', 95. The essay was originally published in 1956 in ''Woman's Home Companion''.</ref> In addition to the letters in ''Always Rachel'', in 1998 a volume of Carson's previously unpublished work was published as ''Lost Woods: The Discovered Writing of Rachel Carson'', edited by Linda Lear. All of Carson's books remain in print.<ref name="Murphy 25"/> ===Grassroots environmentalism and the EPA=== Carson's work had a powerful impact on the environmental movement. ''Silent Spring'', in particular, was a rallying point for the fledgling social movement in the 1960s. According to environmental engineer and Carson scholar H. Patricia Hynes, "''Silent Spring'' altered the balance of power in the world. No one since would be able to sell pollution as the necessary underside of progress so easily or uncritically."<ref>{{harvnb|Hynes|1989|p=3}}</ref> Carson's work, and the activism it inspired, are at least partly responsible for the [[deep ecology]] movement, and the overall strength of the grassroots environmental movement since the 1960s. It was also influential on the rise of [[ecofeminism]] and on many feminist scientists.<ref>{{harvnb|Hynes|1989|pp=8–9}}</ref> Carson's most direct legacy in the environmental movement was the campaign to ban the use of DDT in the United States (and related efforts to ban or limit its use throughout the world). Though environmental concerns about DDT had been considered by government agencies as early as Carson's testimony before the President's Science Advisory Committee, the 1967 formation of the [[Environmental Defense Fund]] was the first major milestone in the campaign against DDT. The organization brought lawsuits against the government to "establish a citizen's right to a clean environment", and the arguments employed against DDT largely mirrored Carson's. By 1972, the Environmental Defense Fund and other activist groups had succeeded in securing a phase-out of DDT use in the United States (except in emergency cases).<ref>{{harvnb|Hynes|1989|pp=46–7}}</ref> The creation of the [[United States Environmental Protection Agency|Environmental Protection Agency]] by the Nixon administration in 1970 addressed another concern that Carson had brought to light. Until then, the same agency (the [[USDA]]) was responsible both for regulating pesticides and promoting the concerns of the agriculture industry; Carson saw this as a [[conflict of interest]], since the agency was not responsible for effects on wildlife or other environmental concerns beyond farm policy. Fifteen years after its creation, one journalist described the EPA as "the extended shadow of ''Silent Spring''". Much of the agency's early work, such as enforcement of the 1972 [[Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act]], was directly related to Carson's work.<ref>{{harvnb|Hynes|1989|pp=47–8, 148–163}}</ref> ===Science, nature, DDT, and food production=== Carson came into her own during a time in America when the majority of the population believed all science was inherently good. Carson came to challenge the idea that it was "man against nature" as explained by historian Thomas Dunlap. "Americans assumed that science was good, that chemicals were necessary, that their use would be governed by experts, that these experts could be trusted, and that the side-effects of chemical use would be negligible." <ref>(Lutts, 1985)</ref> An excellent example of this is the widespread use of [[DDT]] after World War II. "DDT was hailed as the success story of World War II. During the war, the chemical helped to exterminate lice and insect-borne disease, and saved much-needed food crops. When the war ended, the United States sought to become the top food supplier and the Department of Agriculture saw DDT as a means to achieve that end." <ref>(Gottlieb, R. ''Forcing the Spring''. Washington D.C.: Island Press)</ref> It is clear that financial superiority was the top priority after the war. These companies did not want people to start believing her; which would therefore lower or stop their production. The chemical companies, government and many of its scientists believed it would be ok to allow the people of the United States, and therefore the world (since at this time other countries looked to see what the USA was conducting) that the unmitigated use of DDT was not only the safest, but the most prudent way of gaining that superiority. Carson's works challenged these institutions and the assumptions they encouraged. Rachel Carson believed the modern environmental movement of the time overused pesticides. She deplored the "culture of American abundance" as incurred by the capitalist economy whose expanding nature led to the destruction of many wildlife habitats. <ref>(Lear, Rachel Carson Witness for Nature, 1997)</ref> Carson did not take the use of chemicals such as DDT at face value like most of the public. This is not to say that she did not want to enhance the life of the American people, or humans as a whole, but she did not support the destruction of the environment to attain that goal. :"Because it is more comfortable to believe in pleasant things, most of us continue today to believe that in our country there will always be plenty. . . This is the comfortable dream of the average American. But it is a fallacious dream. It is a dangerous dream. . . Only so long as we are vigilant to cherish and safeguard [our resources] against waste, against over exploitation, and against destruction will our country continue strong and free." <ref>(Kline, B. First Along the River. Maryland: Rowma & Littlefield.)</ref> This quote exemplifies the mindset of the average American who was looking to attain the "American Dream." This also illustrates why the people allowed the use of DDT without learning what it was doing to their environment as the quotes explains that it is more comfortable to believe in pleasant things as long as we are able to prosper. Carson also disliked the idea that Americans were ok with a "quick fix": :"One great trouble — I suppose it is the fault of the American public as a whole — is this desire for the quick and easy way of doing something, without any consideration of the consequences. Even if the consequences are strongly implied or known, there is still a great temptation to go ahead and get the job done and let the future take care of itself. Maybe we will come up with a pill to take care of it, or something like that!" <ref>(Lutts, R. (1985. Chemical Fallout: Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, Radioactive Fallout, and the Environmental Movement, ''Environmental Review'', 210-225.)</ref> Carson believed that this idea of the quick fix is what allowed the Americans to get into the Environmental predicament that had found themselves in. By allowing "the future to worry about itself " as Carson said, it freed scientists up to only come up with results as opposed to the best or the safest results. They were reacting after the fact and trying to fix the problem, instead of working to prevent the problem before it starts. Rachel Carson was significant in the history of the contemporary American environmental movement because through her writing and different publications she was able to change the mindset of the everyday American person. Although her job seems like it was simple and a quick fix, it took a lot of struggle on Carson’s part to get her point across. She was able to point out that the quick fix for something was not the only way to accomplish a goal and usually was not the best. In the case of DDT, the quick fix was harming the environment more than it was helping; with the help of Carson’s writing the public was able to see this error in the scientific world. ===Criticisms of environmentalism and DDT restrictions=== Carson and the environmental movement were—and continue to be—criticized by some [[conservatives]] and [[libertarians]] as well as chemical industry trade groups, who argue that restrictions placed on pesticides, specifically DDT, have caused tens of millions of needless deaths and hampered agriculture (and, implicitly, that Carson bears responsibility for inciting such restrictions).<ref>{{harvnb|Lytle|2007|p=217}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|last=Baum|first=Rudy M.|date=June 4, 2007|title=Rachel Carson|journal=Chemical and Engineering News|publisher=American Chemical Society|volume=85|issue=23|page=5|url=http://pubs.acs.org/isubscribe/journals/cen/85/i23/html/8523editor.html}}</ref><ref name="Conservative criticism of Carson">Examples of recent criticism include:<br />(a) Rich Karlgaard, "[http://www.forbes.com/sites/digitalrules/2007/05/18/but-her-heart-was-good/ But Her Heart Was Good]", Forbes.com, May 18, 2007. Accessed September 23, 2007.<br />(b) Keith Lockitch, "[http://capmag.com/article.asp?ID=4965 Rachel Carson's Genocide]", ''Capitalism Magazine'', May 23, 2007. Accessed May 24, 2007<br />(c) [[David Roberts (journalist)|David Roberts]], "[http://gristmill.grist.org/story/2007/5/23/17433/0674 My one and only post on the Rachel Carson nonsense]" Grist.com, May 24, 2007. Accessed September 23, 2007.<br />(d) Paul Driessen, "[http://www.washingtontimes.com/commentary/20070428-100957-5274r.htm Forty Years of Perverse 'Responsibility,']", ''The Washington Times'', April 29, 2007. Accessed May 30, 2007.<br />(e) Iain Murray, "[http://article.nationalreview.com/?q=MjhkYTlmYjljMmJlMzU5Y2IxOGM3ZWM3YzZkNzFiNGE ''Silent'' Alarmism: A Centennial We Could Do Without]", ''National Review'', May 31, 2007. Accessed May 31, 2007.</ref> In the 1980s, the policies of the [[Reagan Administration]] emphasized economic growth at the expense of environmental regulation, rolling back many of the environmental policies adopted in response to Carson and her work.<ref>{{harvnb|Lytle|2007|pp=217–220}}; Jeffrey K. Stine, "Natural Resources and Environmental Policy" in ''The Reagan Presidency: Pragmatic Conservatism and Its Legacies'', edited by W. Elliott Browlee and Hugh Davis Graham. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press, 2003. ISBN 0-7006-1268-8</ref> Carson's vocal expressions of concern about the [[DDT#Effects on human health|human health effects]] and [[DDT#Environmental impact|environmental impact]] of DDT has come under the most intense fire. Political scientist Charles Rubin was one of the most vociferous critics in the 1980s and 1990s, though he accused her merely of selective use of source and fanaticism (rather than the more severe criticism Carson received upon ''Silent Spring'''s release). In the 2000s, however, criticism of the real and alleged ban(s) of DDT her work prompted became much more intense.<ref name="quig"/><ref name="Erik">Erik M. Conway, Naomi Oreskes, ''Merchants of Doubt'', 2010, p.217</ref> The conservative magazine ''[[Human Events]]'' gave ''Silent Spring'' an honorable mention for the "Ten Most Harmful Books of the 19th and 20th Centuries".<ref name="most_harmful">[http://www.humanevents.com/article.php?id=7591 Ten Most Harmful Books of the 19th and 20th Centuries]. Retrieved August 24, 2007.</ref> In 2009 the [[libertarianism|libertarian]] think tank [[Competitive Enterprise Institute]] set up a website Rachelwaswrong.org, asserting "Millions of people around the world suffer the painful and often deadly effects of malaria because one person sounded a false alarm. That person is Rachel Carson."<ref name="Erik" /> A 2012 review article in [[Nature (journal)|Nature]] by Rob Dunn<ref name="dunn_2012">Dunn, R. (2012) [http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v485/n7400/full/485578a.html ''In retrospect: Silent Spring''], [[Nature (journal)|Nature]] '''485'''(7400), 578-579.</ref> commemorating the 50th anniversary of [[Silent Spring]] prompted a response in a letter written by [[Anthony Trewavas]] and co-signed by 10 others, including [[Chris J. Leaver|Christopher Leaver]], [[Bruce Ames]], [[Richard Tren|Richard Tren]] and [[Peter Lachmann]], who quote estimates of 60 to 80 million deaths "as a result of misguided fears based on poorly understood evidence".<ref name="trewavas_2012">[[Anthony Trewavas|Trewavas, T.]], [[Chris J. Leaver|Leaver, C.]], [[Bruce Ames|Ames, B.]], [[Peter Lachmann|Lachmann, P.]], [[Richard Tren|Tren, R.]], Meiners, R., [[Henry I. Miller|Miller, H.I.]], ''et al.'' (2012) [http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v486/n7404/full/486473a.html ''Environment: Carson no 'beacon of reason' on DDT''], [[Nature (journal)|Nature]] '''486'''(7404), 473.</ref> Biographer Mark Hamilton Lytle believes these estimates unrealistic, even assuming that Carson can be "blamed" for worldwide DDT policies.<ref>{{harvnb|Lytle|2007|pp=220–8}}</ref> [[John Quiggin]] and Tim Lambert have written that "the most striking feature of the claim against Carson is the ease with which it can be refuted." DDT was never banned for anti-malarial use,<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.eac.int/health/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=95%3Aclassification-system&catid=15%3Adiseases&Itemid=32 |title=Malaria Prevention and Control |publisher=East African Community Health}}</ref> (its ban for agricultural use in the United States in 1972 did not apply outside the US or to anti-malaria spraying;<ref>Erik M. Conway, Naomi Oreskes, ''Merchants of Doubt'', 2010, p.226</ref> the international treaty that banned most uses of DDT and other organochlorine pesticides — the 2001 [[Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants]] — included an exemption for DDT for the use of malaria control until affordable substitutes could be found.<ref name="quig"/>) Mass outdoor spraying of DDT was abandoned in poor countries subject to malaria, such as Sri Lanka, in the 1970s and 1980s, not because of government prohibitions, but because the DDT had lost its ability to kill the mosquitoes.<ref name="quig">{{cite journal |author=John Quiggin, Tim Lambert |title=Rehabilitating Carson |journal=Prospect |issue=146 |pages= |date=24 May 2008 |url=http://www.prospectmagazine.co.uk/2008/05/rehabilitatingcarson/}}</ref> (Because of insects very short breeding cycle and large number of offspring, the most resistant insects that survive and pass on their genetic traits to their offspring replace the pesticide-slain insects relatively rapidly. Agricultural spraying of pesticides produces [[pesticide resistance|resistance]] to the pesticide in seven to ten years.<ref>Erik M. Conway, Naomi Oreskes, ''Merchants of Doubt'', 2010, p.223-4</ref>) Other defenders point out Carson never actually called for an outright ban on DDT, and part of the argument she made in ''Silent Spring'' was that even if DDT and other insecticides had ''no'' environmental side effects, their indiscriminate overuse was counter-productive because it would created insect resistance to the pesticide(s), making them (the pesticides) useless in eliminating the target insect populations: {{quote|No responsible person contends that insect-borne disease should be ignored. The question that has now urgently presented itself is whether it is either wise or responsible to attack the problem by methods that are rapidly making it worse. The world has heard much of the triumphant war against disease through the control of insect vectors of infection, but it has heard little of the other side of the story—the defeats, the short-lived triumphs that now strongly support the alarming view that the insect enemy has been made actually stronger by our efforts. Even worse, we may have destroyed our very means of fighting.<ref>''Silent Spring'', p. 266</ref>|Rachel Carson|''Silent Spring'', p. 266}} Carson further noted that "Malaria programmes are threatened by resistance among mosquitoes"<ref>''Silent Spring'', p. 267</ref> and emphasized the advice given by the director of Holland's Plant Protection Service: "Practical advice should be 'Spray as little as you possibly can' rather than 'Spray to the limit of your capacity'…Pressure on the pest population should always be as slight as possible." <ref>''Silent Spring'', p. 275</ref> Consequently, some experts have argued that restrictions placed on the agricultural use of DDT have increased its effectiveness as a tool for battling malaria. According to pro-DDT advocate [[Amir Attaran]] the result of the 2004 [[Stockholm Convention]] banning DDT's use in agriculture ''"is arguably better than the status quo ... For the first time, there is now an insecticide which is restricted to vector control only, meaning that the selection of resistant mosquitoes will be slower than before."''<ref>[http://www.malaria.org/DDTpage.html Malaria Foundation International]. Retrieved March 15, 2006.</ref> But though Carson's legacy has been closely tied to DDT, [[Roger Bate]] of the DDT advocacy organization [[Africa Fighting Malaria]] warns that "A lot of people have used Carson to push their own agendas. We just have to be a little careful when you're talking about someone who died in 1964."<ref>[http://www.pbs.org/moyers/journal/09212007/profile2.html Rachel Carson and DDT], ''[[Bill Moyers Journal]]'', September 21, 2007. Retrieved September 29, 2007.</ref> ===Posthumous honors=== <!--[[File:Gordocarson.jpg|right|thumb|A ''[[Gordo (comic strip)|Gordo]]'' Sunday cartoon marking the passing of Rachel Carson in 1964]]--> A variety of groups ranging from government institutions to environmental and conservation organizations to scholarly societies have celebrated Carson's life and work since her death. Perhaps most significantly, on June 9, 1980, Carson was awarded the [[Presidential Medal of Freedom]], the highest civilian honor in the United States<ref>[http://web.archive.org/web/20071018025824/www.medaloffreedom.com/Chronological.htm Chronological List of Medal of Freedom Awards], archived October 18, 2007. Retrieved August 1, 2009.</ref> A 17¢ [[Great Americans series]] [[postage stamp]] was issued in her honor the following year; several other countries have since issued Carson postage as well.<ref>[http://www.planetpatriot.net/stamps2/carson_rachel_stamps.html Marshall Is 2000], [http://stamp-search.com/images/pal9901sh16enviro.jpg Palau 1998], [http://stamp-search.com/images/zam0004sh4-milnm1950-00.jpg Zambia 2000]<br/></ref> <!--[[File:HAER PBG 9thStreet 361504pv.jpg|thumb|The Rachel Carson Bridge in Pittsburgh]]--> Carson's birthplace and childhood home in [[Springdale, Pennsylvania]]&nbsp;— now known as the [[Rachel Carson Homestead]]—became a [[National Register of Historic Places]] site, and the [[nonprofit]] Rachel Carson Homestead Association was created in 1975 to manage it.<ref>[http://www.rachelcarsonhomestead.org/ Rachel Carson Homestead]. Retrieved September 7, 2007.</ref> Her [[Rachel Carson House (Colesville, Maryland)|home]] in [[Colesville, Maryland]] where she wrote ''Silent Spring'' was named a [[National Historic Landmark]] in 1991.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://mht.maryland.gov/nr/NRDetail.aspx?HDID=1094&FROM=NRNHLList.aspx|title=Maryland Historical Trust|date=June 8, 2008|work= National Register of Historic Places: Properties in Montgomery County|publisher=Maryland Historical Trust}}</ref> Near [[Pittsburgh]], a 35.7 mi hiking trail, maintained by the Rachel Carson Trails Conservancy, was dedicated to Carson in 1975.<ref>[http://www.rachelcarsontrails.org/rct Rachel Carson Trail]. Retrieved September 26, 2007.</ref> A Pittsburgh bridge was also renamed in Carson's honor as the [[Rachel Carson Bridge]].<ref name="bridge">Jerome L. Sherman, [http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/06113/684423-85.stm "Environmentalist Rachel Carson's legacy remembered on Earth Day"], ''Pittsburgh Post-Gazette'', April 23, 2006. Retrieved September 23, 2007.</ref> The [[Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection]] State Office Building in [[Harrisburg]] is named in her honor. An elementary school in [[Gaithersburg, Maryland|Gaithersburg]], [[Montgomery County, Maryland]], was named in her honor,<ref>[http://www.montgomeryschoolsmd.org/schools/rachelcarsones/index.shtm Rachel Carson Elementary School]. Retrieved February 22, 2008.</ref> as was a [[Rachel Carson Middle School]] in [[Herndon, Virginia]],<ref>[http://www.fcps.edu/RachelCarsonMS/ Rachel Carson Middle School]. Retrieved February 28, 2008.</ref> and another elementary school in [[Sammamish, Washington]].<ref>[http://www.lwsd.org/school/carson/Pages/default.aspx/ Rachel Carson Elementary]. Retrieved 15 June 2011.</ref> The ceremonial auditorium on the third floor of U.S. EPA's main headquarters, the [[Ariel Rios Building]], is named after Rachel Carson. The Rachel Carson room is just a few feet away from the EPA administrator's office and has been the site of numerous important announcements, including the Clean Air Interstate Rule, since the Agency moved to Ariel Rios in 2001.<ref>[http://yosemite.epa.gov/opa/admpress.nsf/6427a6b7538955c585257359003f0230/1a5d6d4953c0627985256fbf006a9578!OpenDocument&Start=9.4&Count=5&Expand=9.4 CAIR News Advisory]. REtrieved August 18, 2009.</ref> A number of [[conservation area]]s have been named for Carson as well. Between 1964 and 1990, 650 acres near [[Brookeville, Maryland|Brookeville]] in [[Montgomery County, Maryland]] were acquired and set aside as the Rachel Carson Conservation Park, administered by the [[Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission]].<ref>[http://www.montgomeryparks.org/park_of_the_day/may/parkday_may12.shtm MNCPPC: Rachel Carson Conservation Park]. Retrieved August 26, 2007.</ref> In 1969, the Coastal Maine National Wildlife Refuge became the [[Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge]]; expansions will bring the size of the refuge to about 9,125 acres.<ref>[http://www.fws.gov/northeast/rachelcarson/index.html Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge]. Retrieved September 11, 2007.</ref> In 1985, [[North Carolina]] renamed one of its [[estuarine]] reserves in honor of Carson, in [[Beaufort, North Carolina|Beaufort]].<ref>[http://nerrs.noaa.gov/NorthCarolina/welcome.html Rachel Carson Estuarine Research Reserve]{{dead link|date=November 2011}}. Retrieved October 12, 2007.</ref> Carson is also a frequent namesake for prizes awarded by philanthropic, educational and scholarly institutions. The [[Rachel Carson Prize (environmentalist award)|Rachel Carson Prize]], founded in [[Stavanger]], [[Norway]] in 1991, is awarded to women who have made a contribution in the field of environmental protection.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://rachelcarsonprisen.no/eng/The-Prize/What-is-the-Rachel-Carson-Prize|title=What is the Rachel Carson Prize?|publisher=Rachel Carson-prisen|accessdate=March 15, 2010}}</ref> The [[American Society for Environmental History]] has awarded the Rachel Carson Prize for Best Dissertation since 1993.<ref>[http://www.aseh.net/awards/list-of-award-recipients-and-comments Award Recipients&nbsp;– American Society for Environmental History]{{dead link|date=November 2011}}. Retrieved September 11, 2007.</ref> Since 1998, the [[Society for Social Studies of Science]] has awarded an annual [[Rachel Carson Prize (academic book prize)|Rachel Carson Book Prize]] for "a book length work of social or political relevance in the area of science and technology studies."<ref>[http://www.4sonline.org/carson.htm Rachel Carson Book Prize, 4S]. Retrieved September 11, 2007.</ref> ====Centennial events==== <!--[[File:Rachel Carson 100th birthday crowd.jpg|thumb|The celebration of the 100th anniversary of Carson's birth in [[Springdale, Pennsylvania]]]]--> 2007 was the centennial of Carson's birth. On [[Earth Day]] (April 22, 2007), ''Courage for the Earth: Writers, Scientists, and Activists Celebrate the Life and Writing of Rachel Carson'' was released as "a centennial appreciation of Rachel Carson's brave life and transformative writing", thirteen essays by prominent environmental writers and scientists.<ref>[http://www.houghtonmifflinbooks.com/catalog/titledetail.cfm?titleNumber=694257 Houghton Mifflin Trade and Reference Division, ''Courage for the Earth'' release information]. Retrieved September 23, 2007.</ref> Democratic Senator [[Benjamin L. Cardin]] of [[Maryland]] had intended to submit a resolution celebrating Carson for her "legacy of scientific rigor coupled with poetic sensibility" on the 100th anniversary of her birth. The resolution was blocked by Republican Senator [[Tom Coburn]] of [[Oklahoma]],<ref>{{cite news |author=David A. Fahrenthold |title=Bill to honor Rachel Carson Blocked |url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/05/22/AR2007052201574.html |publisher=Washington Post |date=May 23, 2007 }}</ref> who said that "The junk science and stigma surrounding DDT—the cheapest and most effective insecticide on the planet—have finally been jettisoned."<ref>{{cite news |author=Stephen Moore |title=Doctor Tom's DDT Victory |url=http://coburn.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?FuseAction=LatestNews.NewsStories&ContentRecord_id=c7d00e46-802a-23ad-49b7-d4ec2599d64c |publisher=The Wall Street Journal |date=September 19, 2006 }}</ref> The [[Rachel Carson Homestead Association]] held a May 27 birthday party and sustainable feast at her birthplace and home in [[Springdale, Pennsylvania]], and the first Rachel Carson Legacy Conference in Pittsburgh with E.O. Wilson as keynote speaker. Both Rachel's Sustainable Feast and the conference continue as annual events. ==List of works== *''[[Under the Sea Wind]]'', 1941, Simon & Schuster, Penguin Group, 1996, ISBN 0-14-025380-7 *{{cite web |title=Fishes of the Middle West |year=1943 |format=PDF |publisher=United States Government Printing Office |url=http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/usfwspubs/6/}} *{{cite web |title=Fish and Shellfish of the Middle Atlantic Coast |year=1945 |format=PDF |publisher=United States Government Printing Office |url=http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/usfwspubs/3/}} *{{cite web |title=Chincoteague: A National Wildlife Refuge |year=1947 |format=PDF |publisher=United States Government Printing Office |url=http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/usfwspubs/1/}} *{{cite web |title=Mattamuskeet: A National Wildlife Refuge |year=1947 |format=PDF |publisher=United States Government Printing Office |url=http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/usfwspubs/5/}} *{{cite web |title=Parker River: A National Wildlife Refuge |year=1947 |format=PDF |publisher=United States Government Printing Office |url=http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/usfwspubs/4/}} *{{cite web |title=Bear River: A National Wildlife Refuge |year=1950 |format=PDF |publisher=United States Government Printing Office |url=http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/usfwspubs/2/}} (with Vanez T. Wilson) *''[[The Sea Around Us]]'', Oxford University Press, 1951; Oxford University Press, 1991, ISBN 0-19-506997-8 *''[[The Edge of the Sea]]'', Houghton Mifflin 1955; Mariner Books, 1998, ISBN 0-395-92496-0 *''[[Silent Spring]]'', Houghton Mifflin, 1962; Mariner Books, 2002, ISBN 0-618-24906-0 **''Silent Spring'' initially appeared serialized in three parts in the June 16, June 23, and June 30, 1962 issues of ''[[The New Yorker]]'' magazine *''The Sense of Wonder'', 1965, HarperCollins, 1998: ISBN 0-06-757520-X published posthumously *''Always, Rachel: The Letters of Rachel Carson and Dorothy Freeman 1952–1964 An Intimate Portrait of a Remarkable Friendship'', Beacon Press, 1995, ISBN 0-8070-7010-6 edited by Martha Freeman (granddaughter of Dorothy Freeman) *''Lost Woods: The Discovered Writing of Rachel Carson'', Beacon Press, 1998, ISBN 0-8070-8547-2 *''Bedrock: Writers on the Wonders of Geology'', edited by Lauret E. Savoy, [[Eldridge M. Moores]], and Judith E. Moores, [[Trinity University (Texas)#Trinity University Press|Trinity University Press]], 2006, ISBN 1-59534-022-X ==See also== * [[Environmentalism]]{{w|Environmentalism}} <!--* [[Environmental toxicology]] * [[Rachel Carson House (Colesville, Maryland)]] * [[Rachel Carson Homestead]] * [[Rachel Carson Greenway]] (three trails in Central Maryland) * [[Rachel Carson Trail]] * [[Women and the environment through history]]--> ==References== {{reflist|2}} ===Citations=== *{{cite book |last=Hynes |first=H. Patricia |title=The Recurring Silent Spring |publisher=Pergamon Press |location=New York |year=1989 |isbn=0-08-037117-5 |series=Athene series |url=http://books.google.com/?id=MNjaAAAAMAAJ |ref=harv}} *{{cite book |last=Lear |first=Linda |title=Rachel Carson: Witness for Nature |publisher=Henry Holt |location=New York |year=1997 |isbn=0-8050-3428-5 |url=http://books.google.com/?id=2kDGQgAACAAJ |ref=harv}} *{{cite book |last=Lytle |first=Mark Hamilton |title=The Gentle Subversive: Rachel Carson, Silent Spring, and the Rise of the Environmental Movement |publisher=Oxford University Press |location=New York |year=2007 |isbn=0-19-517246-9 |url=http://books.google.com/?id=SOSD4PFchmsC |ref=harv}} *{{cite book |last=Murphy |first=Priscilla Coit |title=What a Book Can Do: The Publication and Reception of Silent Spring |publisher=University of Massachusetts Press |location=Amherst |year=2005 |isbn=978-1-55849-582-1 |url=http://books.google.com/?id=MFWFjvY90PgC |ref=harv}} *{{cite book |last=Kline |first=B |title=First Along the River. Maryland |publisher=Rowma & Littlefield |ref=harv}} *{{cite book |last=Lutts |first=R |title= Chemical fallout: Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, Radioactive Fallout, and the Environmental Movement. |publisher= Environmental Review |year=1985 |ref=harv}} *{{cite book |last=gottlieb |first=R |title=Forging the Spring. |publisher=Island Press |location=Washington D.C. |ref=harv}} ==Further reading== *{{cite book |author=Brooks, Paul |title=The House of Life: Rachel Carson at Work |publisher=Houghton Mifflin |year=1972 |isbn=0-395-13517-6 |url=http://books.google.com/?id=VIkcZTSh7skC }} This book is a personal memoir by Carson's [[Houghton Mifflin]] editor and close friend Paul Brooks. *{{cite book |author=Jezer, Marty |authorlink=Martin Jezer |title=Rachel Carson: Biologist and Author |publisher=Chelsea House Publications |year=1988 |isbn=1-55546-646-X |url=http://books.google.com/?id=pBwVPwAACAAJ |series=American women of achievement}} *{{cite book |editor=Matthiessen, Peter |title=Courage for the Earth: Writers, Scientists, and Activists Celebrate the Life and Writing of Rachel Carson |publisher=Mariner Books |year=2007 |isbn=0-618-87276-0 |url=http://books.google.com/?id=VNXapJVwbC0C |editor-link=Peter Matthiessen }} *{{cite book |author1=Moore, Kathleen Dean |author2=Sideris, Lisa H. |title=Rachel Carson: Legacy and Challenge |publisher=[[SUNY Press]] |location=[[Albany, New York]] |year=2008 |isbn=0-7914-7471-2 |url=http://books.google.com/?id=awR4kJrhQK0C }} *{{cite book |author=Quaratiello, Arlene |title=Rachel Carson: A Biography |publisher=Prometheus|location=[[Amherst, New York]] |year=2010 |isbn=978-1-61614-187-5 |url=http://www.amazon.com/Rachel-Carson-Biography-Arlene-Quaratiello/dp/1616141875/ref=sr_1_3?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1278211359&sr=8-3}} *{{cite journal |author=Sideris, Lisa H. |title=Fact and Fiction, Fear and Wonder: The Legacy of Rachel Carson |journal=Soundings |volume=91 |issue=3-4 |pages=335–69 |date=Fall–Winter 2009 |jstor=41179228}} ==External links== * Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to [http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Special:Search/Rachel_Carson '''''Rachel Carson'''''] * Wikimedia Commons has media related to [http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Rachel_Carson '''''Rachel Carson'''''] *[http://hdl.handle.net/10079/fa/beinecke.carson Rachel Carson Papers]. Yale Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University. *[http://www.mindfully.org/Pesticide/Rachel-Carson-Silent-Spring.htm ''New York Times'' obituary] *[http://www.rachelcarson.org/ RachelCarson.org]—website by Carson biographer Linda Lear *[http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,990622,00.html ''Time'', Mar. 29, 1999, Environmentalist RACHEL CARSON] *[http://www.pbs.org/moyers/journal/09212007/profile.html Revisiting Rachel Carson]—Bill Moyer's Journal, PBS.org, 9-21-2007 *[http://www.pbs.org/moyers/journal/09212007/profile3.html "A Sense of Wonder"] – two-act play about Carson, written and performed by Kaiulani Lee, based on posthumous work of the same name *[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=isoJxPZH1LQ YouTube Clip of Bill Moyers television on Lee's one woman show] * [http://www.montgomeryparks.org/PPSD/ParkTrails/trails_MAPS/Rachel_Carson_Greenway_trails.shtm The Rachel Carson Greenway Trail] in Montgomery County, Maryland * [http://books.google.com/books?id=diEDAAAAMBAJ&pg=RA1-PA14&dq=popular+science+1951+why+our+winters&hl=en&ei=9ALETJujGcf_nAe9r73xCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=popular%20science%201951%20why%20our%20winters&f=true "Why Our Winters Are Getting Warmer", November 1951, ''Popular Science''] - early article by Rachel Carson about how the ocean currents affected climate (excerpt from her 1951 book, ''The Sea Around Us''). *[http://moviemorlocks.com/2011/02/20/rachel-l-carson-as-interpreted-by-irwin-allen/ (Rachel L. Carson as Interpreted by Irwin Allen – TCM Movie Morlocks on THE SEA AROUND US)] '''Carson-related organizations''' *[http://www.rachelcarsonhomestead.org/ The Rachel Carson Homestead] *[http://www.silentspring.org/ Silent Spring Institute] *[http://www.rachelcarsontrails.org/ Rachel Carson Trails Conservancy] *[http://www.chatham.edu/rci/ Rachel Carson Institute] {{Persondata <!-- Metadata: see [[Wikipedia:Persondata]] --> |NAME= Carson, Rachel Louise |ALTERNATIVE NAMES= |SHORT DESCRIPTION= American zoologist, marine biologist, writer and activist |DATE OF BIRTH= May 27, 1907 |PLACE OF BIRTH= [[Springdale, Pennsylvania]], U.S |DATE OF DEATH= April 14, 1964 |PLACE OF DEATH= [[Silver Spring, Maryland]], U.S. }} {{DEFAULTSORT:Carson, Rachel}} [[Category:Appropriate technology advocates]] [[Category:Sustainability advocates]]
New page wikitext, after the edit (new_wikitext)
Unified diff of changes made by edit (edit_diff)
@@ -1,274 +1,1 @@ -{{Infobox person <!-- for more information see [[:Template:Infobox person/doc]] --> -| name = Rachel Carson -| image = Rachel-Carson.jpg -| imagesize = 200px -| caption = Rachel Carson, 1940 <br />Fish & Wildlife Service employee photo -| pseudonym = -| birth_name = Rachel Louise Carson -| birth_date = {{birth date|1907|5|27|mf=y}} -| birth_place = Springdale, Pennsylvania, U.S. -| death_date = {{death date and age|1964|4|14|1907|5|27|mf=y}} -| death_place = Silver Spring, Maryland, U.S. -| occupation = [Marine biologist, writer and environmentalist -| nationality = American -| alma_mater = Chatham University,<br>Johns Hopkins University -| period = 1937–1964 -| genre = Nature writing -| subject = Marine biology, ecology, pesticides -| movement = -| notableworks = ''The Sea Around Us'' (1951) <br>''Silent Spring'' (1962) -| influences = -| influenced = -| website = -}} -'''Rachel Louise Carson''' (May 27, 1907&nbsp;– April 14, 1964) was an American [[marine biology|marine biologist]] and [[conservation movement|conservationist]] whose book ''Silent Spring'' and other writings are credited with advancing the global [[environmental movement]]. - -Carson began her career as a biologist in the [[United States Fish and Wildlife Service|U.S. Bureau of Fisheries]], and became a full-time nature writer in the 1950s. Her widely praised 1951 bestseller ''[[The Sea Around Us]]'' won her a U.S. [[National Book Award]],<ref name=nba1952/> recognition as a gifted writer, and financial security. Her next book, ''[[The Edge of the Sea]]'', and the reissued version of her first book, ''[[Under the Sea Wind]]'', were also bestsellers. That so-called sea trilogy explores the whole of ocean life from the shores to the surface to the depths. - -Late in the 1950s Carson turned her attention to conservation, especially environmental problems she believed were caused by synthetic [[pesticide]]s. The result was ''[[Silent Spring]]'' (1962), which brought environmental concerns to an unprecedented share of the American people. Although Silent Spring met with fierce opposition by chemical companies, it spurred a reversal in national pesticide policy, which led to a nationwide ban on [[DDT]] and other pesticides, and it inspired a [[grassroots]] environmental movement that led to the creation of the [[United States Environmental Protection Agency|U.S. Environmental Protection Agency]]. Carson was posthumously awarded the [[Presidential Medal of Freedom]] by [[Jimmy Carter]]. - -==Life and work== -<!--[[File:RachelCarsonHomestead.jpg|thumb|left|Carson's childhood home now is preserved as the [[Rachel Carson Homestead]]]]--> - -===Early life and education=== - -Rachel Carson was born on May 27, 1907, on a small family farm near [[Springdale, Pennsylvania]], just up the [[Allegheny River]] from [[Pittsburgh]]. An avid reader, she also spent a lot of time exploring around her family's 65 acre farm. She began writing stories (often involving animals) at age eight, and had her first story published at age eleven. She especially enjoyed the ''[[St. Nicholas Magazine]]'' (which carried her first published stories), the works of [[Beatrix Potter]], and the novels of [[Gene Stratton Porter]], and in her teen years, [[Herman Melville]], [[Joseph Conrad]] and [[Robert Louis Stevenson]]. The natural world, particularly the ocean, was the common thread of her favorite literature. Carson attended Springdale's small school through tenth grade, then completed high school in nearby [[Parnassus, Pennsylvania]], graduating in 1925 at the top of her class of forty-five students.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=7–24}}</ref> - -At the Pennsylvania College for Women (today known as [[Chatham University]]), as in high school, Carson was somewhat of a loner. She originally studied English, but switched her major to biology in January 1928, though she continued contributing to the school's student newspaper and literary supplement. Though admitted to graduate standing at [[Johns Hopkins University]] in 1928, she was forced to remain at the Pennsylvania College for Women for her senior year due to financial difficulties; she graduated ''[[magna cum laude]]'' in 1929. After a summer course at the [[Marine Biological Laboratory]], she continued her studies in [[zoology]] and [[genetics]] at Johns Hopkins in the fall of 1929.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=27–62}}</ref> - -After her first year of graduate school, Carson became a part-time student, taking an assistantship in [[Raymond Pearl]]'s laboratory, where she worked with rats and ''[[Drosophila]]'', to earn money for tuition. After false starts with [[pit vipers]] and [[squirrel]]s, she completed a dissertation project on the embryonic development of the [[pronephros]] in fish. She earned a master's degree in zoology in June 1932. She had intended to continue for a doctorate, but in 1934 Carson was forced to leave Johns Hopkins to search for a full-time teaching position to help support her family. In 1935, her father died suddenly, leaving Carson to care for her aging mother and making the financial situation even more critical. At the urging of her undergraduate biology mentor Mary Scott Skinker, she settled for a temporary position with the [[U.S. Bureau of Fisheries]], writing radio copy for a series of weekly educational broadcasts entitled "Romance Under the Waters". The series of fifty-two seven-minute programs focused on aquatic life and was intended to generate public interest in fish biology and in the work of the bureau—a task the several writers before Carson had not managed. Carson also began submitting articles on marine life in the [[Chesapeake Bay]], based on her research for the series, to local newspapers and magazines.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=63–79}}</ref> - -Carson's supervisor, pleased with the success of the radio series, asked her to write the introduction to a public brochure about the fisheries bureau; he also worked to secure her the first full-time position that became available. Sitting for the [[American civil service|civil service]] exam, she outscored all other applicants and in 1936 became only the second woman to be hired by the Bureau of Fisheries for a full-time, professional position, as a junior aquatic biologist.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=79–82}}</ref> - -===Early career and publications=== - -At the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries, Carson's main responsibilities were to analyze and report field data on fish populations, and to write brochures and other literature for the public. Using her research and consultations with marine biologists as starting points, she also wrote a steady stream of articles for ''[[The Baltimore Sun]]'' and other newspapers. However, her family responsibilities further increased in January 1937 when her older sister died, leaving Carson as the sole breadwinner for her mother and two nieces.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=82–5}}</ref> - -In July 1937, the ''[[Atlantic Monthly]]'' accepted a revised version of an essay, "The World of Waters", that she had originally written for her first fisheries bureau brochure; her supervisor had deemed it too good for that purpose. The essay, published as "Undersea", was a vivid narrative of a journey along the ocean floor. It marked a major turning point in Carson's writing career. Publishing house [[Simon & Schuster]], impressed by "Undersea", contacted Carson and suggested that she expand it into book form. Several years of writing resulted in ''[[Under the Sea Wind]]'' (1941), which received excellent reviews but sold poorly. In the meantime, Carson's article-writing success continued—her features appeared in ''Sun Magazine'', ''[[Nature (journal)|Nature]]'', and ''[[Collier's Weekly|Collier's]]''.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=85–113}}</ref> - -Carson attempted to leave the Bureau (by then transformed into the [[Fish and Wildlife Service]]) in 1945, but few jobs for naturalists were available as most money for science was focused on technical fields in the wake of the [[Manhattan Project]]. In mid-1945, Carson first encountered the subject of [[DDT]], a revolutionary new pesticide (lauded as the "insect bomb" after the [[atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki]]) that was only beginning to undergo tests for safety and ecological effects. DDT was but one of Carson's many writing interests at the time, and editors found the subject unappealing; she published nothing on DDT until 1962.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=114–120}}</ref> - -Carson rose within the Fish and Wildlife Service, supervising a small writing staff by 1945 and becoming chief editor of publications in 1949. Though her position provided increasing opportunities for fieldwork and freedom in choosing her writing projects, it also entailed increasingly tedious administrative responsibilities. By 1948, Carson was working on material for a second book and had made the conscious decision to begin a transition to writing full-time. That year, she took on a literary agent, [[Marie Rodell]]; they formed a close professional relationship that would last the rest of Carson's career.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=121–160}}</ref> - -[[Oxford University Press]] expressed interest in Carson's book proposal for a life history of the ocean, spurring her to complete the manuscript of what would become ''[[The Sea Around Us]]'' by early 1950.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=163–4}}. <br>• An apocryphal story holds that the book was rejected by over twenty publishers before Oxford University Press. In fact, it may have only been sent to one other publisher before being accepted, though Rodell and Carson worked extensively to place chapters and excerpts in periodicals.</ref> Chapters appeared in ''[[Science Digest]]'' and the ''[[Yale Review]]''—the latter chapter, "The Birth of an Island", winning the [[American Association for the Advancement of Science]]'s George Westinghouse Science Writing Prize. Nine chapters were serialized in ''[[The New Yorker]]'' beginning June 1951 and the book was published July 2, 1951, by [[Oxford University Press]].<!-- source is our article on the book --> ''The Sea Around Us'' remained on the [[New York Times Best Seller List]] for 86 weeks, was abridged by ''[[Reader's Digest]]'', won the 1952 [[National Book Award for Nonfiction]]<ref name=nba1952>[http://www.nationalbook.org/nba1952.html "National Book Awards – 1952"]. [[National Book Foundation]]. Retrieved March 19, 2012. <br>(With acceptance speech by Carson and essay by Neil Baldwin from the Awards 50-year anniversary publications.)</ref> and the [[Burroughs Medal]], and resulted in Carson's being awarded two honorary doctorates. She also licensed a documentary film based on it. ''The Sea'''s success led to the republication of ''Under the Sea Wind'', which became a bestseller itself. With success came financial security, and Carson was able to give up her job in 1952 to concentrate on writing full time.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=164–241}}</ref> - -Carson was inundated with speaking engagements, [[fan mail]] and other correspondence regarding ''The Sea Around Us'', along with work on the documentary script that she had secured the right to review.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=206–234}}</ref> She was very unhappy with the final version of the script by writer, director and producer [[Irwin Allen]]; she found it untrue to the atmosphere of the book and scientifically embarrassing, describing it as "a cross between a believe-it-or-not and a breezy travelogue."<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=215–6, 238–9}}. Quotation from a letter to Carson's film agent Shirley Collier, November 9, 1952. Quoted in Lear, 239.</ref> She discovered, however, that her right to review the script did not extend to any control over its content. Allen proceeded in spite of Carson's objections to produce a very successful documentary. It won the 1953 [[Oscar for Best Documentary]], but Carson was so embittered by the experience that she never again sold film rights to her work.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=239–240}}</ref> - -===Relationship with Dorothy Freeman=== - -Carson moved with her mother to [[Southport Island, Maine]], in 1953, and in July of that year met Dorothy Freeman (1898–1978) — the beginning of an extremely close relationship that would last the rest of Carson's life. The nature of the relationship between Carson and Freeman has been the subject of speculation. Carson met Freeman, a summer resident of the island along with her husband, after Freeman had written to Carson to welcome her. Freeman had read ''The Sea Around Us'', a gift from her son, and was excited to have the prominent author as a neighbor. Carson's biographer, Linda Lear, writes that "Carson sorely needed a devoted friend and kindred spirit who would listen to her without advising and accept her wholly, the writer as well as the woman."<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|p=248}}</ref> She found this in Freeman. The two women had a number of common interests, nature chief among them, and began exchanging letters regularly while apart. They would share summers for the remainder of Carson's life, and meet whenever else their schedules permitted.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=243–288}}</ref> - -Though Lear does not explicitly describe the relationship as romantic, others (such as the encyclopedia ''[[glbtq.com|glbtq]]''<ref name="letters_with_Freeman">Caryn E. Neumann, [http://www.glbtq.com/social-sciences/carson_r.html "Carson, Rachel (1907–1964)"], ''glbtq: an encyclopedia of gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, & queer culture''; retrieved February 22, 2007</ref>) have noted that Carson and Freeman realized the letters could be interpreted as [[lesbian]], even though ''"the expression of their love was limited almost wholly to letters and very occasional farewell kisses or holding of hands"''.<ref>{{cite journal|author=Montefiore, Janet|title='The fact that possesses my imagination': Rachel Carson, Science and Writing|journal=Women: A Cultural Review|volume=12|issue=1|page=48|year=2001}}</ref> Freeman shared parts of Carson's letters with her husband to help him understand the relationship, but much of their correspondence was carefully guarded.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=255–6}}</ref> - -Shortly before Carson's death, she and Freeman destroyed hundreds of letters. The surviving correspondence was published in 1995 as ''Always, Rachel: The Letters of Rachel Carson and Dorothy Freeman, 1952–1964: An Intimate Portrait of a Remarkable Friendship'', edited by Freeman's granddaughter. According to one reviewer, the pair "fit Carolyn Heilbrun's characterization of a strong female friendship, where what matters is 'not whether friends are homosexual or heterosexual, lovers or not, but whether they share the wonderful energy of work in the public sphere'".<ref>{{cite journal|author=Tjossem, Sarah F.|title=Review of ''Always Rachel: The Letters of Rachel Carson and Dorothy Freeman, 1952–1964''|journal=Isis|volume=86|issue=4|pages=687–8|year=1995|doi=10.1086/357392}} quoting from: {{cite book|author=Heilbrun, Carolyn|title=Writing a Woman's Life|publisher=Ballantine|year=1988|isbn=0-345-36256-X|page=108}}</ref> - -===''The Edge of the Sea'' and transition to conservation work=== - -Early in 1953 Carson began library and field research on the ecology and organisms of the Atlantic shore.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=223–244}}</ref> In 1955, she completed the third volume of her sea trilogy, ''[[The Edge of the Sea]]'', which focuses on life in [[coastal]] ecosystems (particularly along the [[Eastern Seaboard]]). It appeared in ''The New Yorker'' in two condensed installments shortly before its October 26 book release by [[Houghton Mifflin]] (again a new publisher). By this time, Carson's reputation for clear and poetical prose was well established; ''The Edge of the Sea'' received highly favorable reviews, if not quite as enthusiastic as for ''The Sea Around Us''.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=261–276}}</ref> - -Through 1955 and 1956, Carson worked on a number of projects—including the script for an ''[[Omnibus (US TV series)|Omnibus]]'' episode, "Something About the Sky"—and wrote articles for popular magazines. Her plan for the next book was to address [[evolution]], but the publication of [[Julian Huxley]]'s ''Evolution in Action''—and her own difficulty in finding a clear and compelling approach to the topic—led her to abandon the project. Instead, her interests were turning to conservation. She considered an environment-themed book project tentatively entitled ''Remembrance of the Earth'' and became involved with [[The Nature Conservancy]] and other conservation groups. She also made plans to buy and preserve from development an area in Maine she and Freeman called the "Lost Woods".<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=276–300}}</ref> - -Early in 1957, family tragedy struck a third time when one of the nieces she had cared for in the 1940s died at the age of 31, leaving a five-year-old orphan son, Roger Christie. Carson took on that responsibility, adopting the boy, alongside continuing to care for her aging mother; this took a considerable toll on Carson. She moved to [[Silver Spring, Maryland|Silver Spring]], [[Maryland]], to care for Roger, and much of 1957 was spent putting their new living situation in order and focusing on specific environmental threats.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=300–9}}</ref> - -By fall 1957, Carson was closely following federal proposals for widespread pesticide spraying; the [[USDA]] planned to eradicate [[Red imported fire ant|fire ants]], and other spraying programs involving [[chlorinated hydrocarbons]] and [[organophosphates]] were on the rise.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=305–313}}</ref> For the rest of her life, Carson's main professional focus would be the dangers of pesticide overuse. - -===''Silent Spring''=== -:''Main article: Silent Spring{{w|Silent Spring}}'' -:''See also: Timeline of environmental events{{w|Timeline of environmental events}}, DDT{{w|DDT}} and Merchants of Doubt{{w|Merchants of Doubt}}'' - -''[[Silent Spring]]'' is a book written by Rachel Carson and published by [[Houghton Mifflin]] on 27 September 1962.<ref name=McLaughlin>{{cite web |author=McLaughlin, Dorothy |title=Fooling with Nature: ''Silent Spring'' Revisited |work=Frontline |publisher=PBS |url=http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/nature/disrupt/sspring.html |accessdate=August 24, 2010}}</ref> The book is widely credited with helping launch the [[environmental movement]].<ref>Josie Glausiusz. (2007), Better Planet: Can A Maligned Pesticide Save Lives? ''Discover Magazine''. Page 34.</ref> In 1994 an edition of ''Silent Spring'' was published in which vice president [[Al Gore]] wrote the introduction. - -====Research and writing==== - -Starting in the mid-1940s, Carson had become concerned about the use of synthetic pesticides, many of which had been developed through the [[military funding of science]] since [[World War II]]. It was the USDA's 1957 [[fire ant]] eradication program, however, that prompted Carson to devote her research, and her next book, to pesticides and environmental poisons. The fire ant program involved aerial spraying of [[DDT]] and other pesticides (mixed with [[fuel oil]]), including the spraying of private land. Landowners in Long Island filed a suit to have the spraying stopped, and many in affected regions followed the case closely. Though the suit was lost, the [[Supreme Court of the United States|Supreme Court]] granted petitioners the right to gain injunctions against potential environmental damage in the future; this laid the basis for later successful environmental actions.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://ellsworthmaine.com/site/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=12535&Itemid=47 |title=Obituary of Marjorie Spock |publisher=Ellsworthmaine.com |date=January 30, 2008 |accessdate=March 16, 2009}}{{dead link|date=November 2011}}</ref> - -The Washington, D.C. chapter of the [[Audubon Society]] also actively opposed such spraying programs, and recruited Carson to help make public the government's exact spraying practices and the related research.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=312–7}}</ref> Carson began the four-year project of what would become ''[[Silent Spring]]'' by gathering examples of environmental damage attributed to DDT. She also attempted to enlist others to join the cause: essayist [[E. B. White]], and a number of journalists and scientists. By 1958, Carson had arranged a book deal, with plans to co-write with ''[[Newsweek]]'' science journalist Edwin Diamond. However, when ''The New Yorker'' commissioned a long and well-paid article on the topic from Carson, she began considering writing more than simply the introduction and conclusion as planned; soon it was a solo project. (Diamond would later write one of the harshest critiques of ''Silent Spring''.)<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=317–327}}</ref> - -As her research progressed, Carson found a sizable community of scientists who were documenting the physiological and environmental effects of pesticides. She also took advantage of her personal connections with many government scientists, who supplied her with confidential information. From reading the scientific literature and interviewing scientists, Carson found two scientific camps when it came to pesticides: those who dismissed the possible danger of pesticide spraying barring conclusive proof, and those who were open to the possibility of harm and willing to consider alternative methods such as [[biological pest control]].<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=327–336}}</ref> - -By 1959, the [[USDA]]'s [[Agricultural Research Service]] responded to the criticism by Carson and others with a public service film, ''Fire Ants on Trial''; Carson characterized it as "flagrant [[propaganda]]" that ignored the dangers that spraying pesticides (especially [[dieldrin]] and [[heptachlor]]) posed to humans and wildlife. That spring, Carson wrote a letter, published in ''[[The Washington Post]]'', that attributed the recent decline in bird populations—in her words, the "silencing of birds"—to pesticide overuse.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=342–6}}</ref> That was also the year of the "Great Cranberry Scandal": the 1957, 1958, and 1959 crops of U.S. [[cranberry|cranberries]] were found to contain high levels of the herbicide [[aminotriazole]] (which caused cancer in laboratory rats) and the sale of all cranberry products was halted. Carson attended the ensuing FDA hearings on revising pesticide regulations; she came away discouraged by the aggressive tactics of the chemical industry representatives, which included expert testimony that was firmly contradicted by the bulk of the scientific literature she had been studying. She also wondered about the possible "financial inducements behind certain pesticide programs".<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=358–361}}</ref> - -Research at the [[United States National Library of Medicine|Library of Medicine]] of the [[National Institutes of Health]] brought Carson into contact with medical researchers investigating the gamut of cancer-causing chemicals. Of particular significance was the work of [[National Cancer Institute]] researcher and founding director of the environmental cancer section [[Wilhelm Hueper]], who classified many pesticides as carcinogens. Carson and her research assistant Jeanne Davis, with the help of NIH librarian Dorothy Algire, found evidence to support the pesticide-cancer connection; to Carson the evidence for the toxicity of a wide array of synthetic pesticides was clear-cut, though such conclusions were very controversial beyond the small community of scientists studying pesticide [[carcinogenesis]].<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=355–8}}</ref> - -By 1960, Carson had more than enough research material, and the writing was progressing rapidly. In addition to the thorough literature search, she had investigated hundreds of individual incidents of pesticide exposure and the human sickness and ecological damage that resulted. However, in January, a duodenal ulcer followed by several infections kept her bedridden for weeks, greatly delaying the completion of ''Silent Spring''. As she was nearing full recovery in March (just as she was completing drafts of the two cancer chapters of her book), she discovered cysts in her left breast, one of which necessitated a [[mastectomy]]. Though her doctor described the procedure as precautionary and recommended no further treatment, by December Carson discovered that the tumor was in fact [[malignant]] and the cancer had [[metastasized]].<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=360–8}}</ref> Her research was also delayed by revision work for a new edition of ''The Sea Around Us'', and by a collaborative photo essay with [[Erich Hartmann (photographer)|Erich Hartmann]].<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=372–3}}. The photo essay, "The Sea", was published in ''Johns Hopkins Magazine'', May/June 1961; Carson provided the captions for Hartmann's photographs.</ref> Most of the research and writing was done by the fall of 1960, except for the discussion of recent research on [[biological controls]] and investigations of a handful of new pesticides. However, further health troubles slowed the final revisions in 1961 and early 1962.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=376–7}}</ref> - -It was difficult finding a title for the book; "Silent Spring" was initially suggested as a title for the chapter on birds. By August 1961, Carson finally agreed to the suggestion of her literary agent Marie Rodell: ''Silent Spring'' would be a metaphorical title for the entire book—suggesting a bleak future for the whole natural world—rather than a literal chapter title about the absence of birdsong.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=375, 377–8, 386–7, 389}}</ref> With Carson's approval, editor Paul Brooks at [[Houghton Mifflin]] arranged for illustrations by Louis and Lois Darling, who also designed the cover. The final writing was the first chapter, "A Fable for Tomorrow", which was intended to provide a gentler introduction to what might otherwise be a forbiddingly serious topic. By mid-1962, Brooks and Carson had largely finished the editing, and were laying the groundwork for promoting the book by sending the manuscript out to select individuals for final suggestions.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=390–7}}</ref> - -====Argument==== - -As biographer Mark Hamilton Lytle writes, Carson "quite self-consciously decided to write a book calling into question the [[paradigm]] of [[scientific progress]] that defined [[postwar]] American culture." The overriding theme of ''Silent Spring'' is the powerful—and often negative—effect humans have on the natural world.<ref>{{harvnb|Lytle|2007|pp=166–7}}</ref> - -Carson's main argument is that [[pesticide]]s have detrimental effects on the environment; they are more properly termed "[[biocide]]s", she argues, because their effects are rarely limited to the target pests. DDT is a prime example, but other synthetic pesticides come under scrutiny as well—many of which are subject to [[bioaccumulation]]. Carson also accuses the [[chemical industry]] of intentionally spreading [[disinformation]] and public officials of accepting industry claims uncritically. Most of the book is devoted to pesticides' effects on natural ecosystems, but four chapters also detail cases of human pesticide poisoning, cancer, and other illnesses attributed to pesticides.<ref>{{harvnb|Lytle|2007|pp=166–172}}</ref> About DDT and cancer, the subject of so much subsequent debate, Carson says only a little: -{{quote|In laboratory tests on animal subjects, DDT has produced suspicious liver tumors. Scientists of the Food and Drug Administration who reported the discovery of these tumors were uncertain how to classify them, but felt there was some "justification for considering them low grade hepatic cell carcinomas." Dr. Hueper [author of ''Occupational Tumors and Allied Diseases''] now gives DDT the definite rating of a "chemical carcinogen."<ref>Carson, ''Silent Spring'', 225</ref>|Rachel Carson|''Silent Spring'', p. 225}} -Carson predicts increased consequences in the future, especially as targeted pests develop [[resistance to pesticides]] while weakened ecosystems fall prey to unanticipated [[invasive species]]. The book closes with a call for a [[biotic material|biotic]] approach to pest control as an alternative to chemical pesticides.<ref>{{harvnb|Lytle|2007|pp=169, 173}}</ref> - -====Promotion and reception==== - -Carson and the others involved with publication of ''Silent Spring'' expected fierce criticism. They were particularly concerned about the possibility of being sued for [[libel]]. Carson was also undergoing [[radiation therapy]] to combat her spreading cancer, and expected to have little energy to devote to defending her work and responding to critics. In preparation for the anticipated attacks, Carson and her agent attempted to amass as many prominent supporters as possible before the book's release.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=397–400}}</ref> - -Most of the book's scientific chapters were reviewed by scientists with relevant expertise, among whom Carson found strong support. Carson attended the White House Conference on Conservation in May, 1962; Houghton Mifflin distributed proof copies of ''Silent Spring'' to many of the delegates, and promoted the upcoming ''New Yorker'' serialization. Among many others, Carson also sent a proof copy to Supreme Court Justice [[William O. Douglas]], a long-time environmental advocate who had argued against the court's rejection of the Long Island pesticide spraying case (and who had provided Carson with some of the material included in her chapter on herbicides).<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=375, 377, 400–7}}. Douglas's dissenting opinion on the rejection of the case, ''Robert Cushman Murphy et al., v. Butler et al., from the Second Circuit Court of Appeals, is from March 28, 1960.</ref> - -Though ''Silent Spring'' had generated a fairly high level of interest based on pre-publication promotion, this became much more intense with the serialization in ''The New Yorker'', which began in the June 16, 1962 issue. This brought the book to the attention of the chemical industry and its lobbyists, as well as a wide swath of the American populace. Around that time Carson also learned that ''Silent Spring'' had been selected as the [[Book-of-the-Month]] for October; as she put it, this would "carry it to farms and hamlets all over that country that don't know what a bookstore looks like—much less ''The New Yorker''."<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=407–8}}. Quotation (p. 408) from a June 13, 1962 letter from Carson to Dorothy Freeman.</ref> Other publicity included a positive editorial in ''[[The New York Times]]'' and excerpts of the serialized version in ''Audubon Magazine'', with another round of publicity in July and August as chemical companies responded. The story of the birth defect-causing drug [[thalidomide]] broke just before the book's publication as well, inviting comparisons between Carson and [[Frances Oldham Kelsey]], the [[Food and Drug Administration]] reviewer who had blocked the drug's sale in the United States.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=409–413}}</ref> - -<!--[[File:Silent Spring Book-of-the-Month-Club edition.JPG|thumb|The [[Book-of-the-Month Club]] edition of ''[[Silent Spring]]'', including an endorsement by [[William O. Douglas]], had a first print run of 150,000 copies, two-and-a-half times the combined size of the two conventional printings of the initial release <ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=416, 419}}</ref>]] ---> -In the weeks leading up to the September 27 publication there was strong opposition to ''Silent Spring''. [[DuPont]] (a main manufacturer of DDT and [[2,4-D]]) and [[Velsicol Chemical Company]] (exclusive manufacturer of [[chlordane]] and [[heptachlor]]) were among the first to respond. DuPont compiled an extensive report on the book's press coverage and estimated impact on public opinion. Velsicol threatened legal action against Houghton Mifflin as well as ''The New Yorker'' and ''Audubon Magazine'' unless the planned ''Silent Spring'' features were canceled. Chemical industry representatives and lobbyists also lodged a range of non-specific complaints, some anonymously. Chemical companies and associated organizations produced a number of their own brochures and articles promoting and defending pesticide use. However, Carson's and the publishers' lawyers were confident in the vetting process ''Silent Spring'' had undergone. The magazine and book publications proceeded as planned, as did the large Book-of-the-Month printing (which included a pamphlet endorsing the book by William O. Douglas).<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=412–420}}</ref> - -[[American Cyanamid]] biochemist [[Robert White-Stevens]] and former Cyanamid chemist [[Thomas Jukes]] were among the most aggressive critics, especially of Carson's analysis of DDT.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=433–4}}</ref> According to White-Stevens, "If man were to follow the teachings of Miss Carson, we would return to the Dark Ages, and the insects and diseases and vermin would once again inherit the earth."<ref name="frontline_Cyanamid">[http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/nature/disrupt/sspring.html Fooling with nature: special reports: Silent Spring revisited:]. Retrieved September 23, 2007.</ref> Others went further, attacking Carson's scientific credentials (because her training was in marine biology rather than biochemistry) and her personal character. White-Stevens labeled her "a fanatic defender of the cult of the balance of nature",<ref>Quoted in {{harvnb|Lear|1997|p=434}}</ref> while former Secretary of Agriculture [[Ezra Taft Benson]]—in a letter to [[Dwight D. Eisenhower]]—reportedly concluded that because she was unmarried despite being physically attractive, she was "probably a Communist".<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=429–430}}. Benson's supposed comments were widely repeated at the time, but have not been directly confirmed.</ref> - -Many critics repeatedly asserted that she was calling for the elimination of all pesticides. Yet Carson had made it clear she was not advocating the banning or complete withdrawal of helpful pesticides, but was instead encouraging responsible and carefully managed use with an awareness of the chemicals' impact on the entire ecosystem.<ref>{{harvnb|Murphy|2005|9}}</ref> In fact, she concludes her section on DDT in ''Silent Spring'' not by urging a total ban, but with advice for spraying as little as possible to limit the development of resistance.<ref>Carson, ''Silent Spring'', 275</ref> - -The academic community—including prominent defenders such as [[H. J. Muller]], [[Loren Eisley]], [[Clarence Cottam]], and [[Frank Egler]]—by and large backed the book's scientific claims; public opinion soon turned Carson's way as well. The chemical industry campaign backfired, as the controversy greatly increased public awareness of potential pesticide dangers, as well as ''Silent Spring'' book sales. Pesticide use became a major public issue, especially after the ''[[CBS Reports]]'' TV special "The Silent Spring of Rachel Carson" that aired April 3, 1963. The program included segments of Carson reading from ''Silent Spring'' and interviews with a number of other experts, mostly critics (including White-Stevens); according to biographer Linda Lear, "in juxtaposition to the wild-eyed, loud-voiced Dr. Robert White-Stevens in white lab coat, Carson appeared anything but the hysterical alarmist that her critics contended."<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=437–449}}; quotation from 449.</ref> Reactions from the estimated audience of ten to fifteen million were overwhelmingly positive, and the program spurred a congressional review of pesticide dangers and the public release of a pesticide report by the [[President's Science Advisory Committee]].<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=449–450}}</ref> Within a year or so of publication, the attacks on the book and on Carson had largely lost momentum.<ref name="time100">[http://www.time.com/time/time100/scientist/profile/carson03.html The Time 100: Scientists and Thinkers], accessed September 23, 2007</ref><ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|p=461}}</ref> - -In one of her last public appearances, Carson had testified before President Kennedy's Science Advisory Committee. The committee issued its report on May 15, 1963, largely backing Carson's scientific claims.<ref name="nwhp_bio">[http://web.archive.org/web/20051208074458/http://www.nwhp.org/tlp/biographies/carson/carson-bio.html 2003 National Women's History Month Honorees: Rachel Carlson]. Retrieved September 23, 2007.</ref> Following the report's release, she also testified before a Senate subcommittee to make policy recommendations. Though Carson received hundreds of other speaking invitations, she was unable to accept the great majority of them. Her health was steadily declining as her cancer outpaced the radiation therapy, with only brief periods of remission. She spoke as much as she was physically able, however, including a notable appearance on ''[[Today (NBC program)|The Today Show]]'' and speeches at several dinners held in her honor. In late 1963, she received a flurry of awards and honors: the [[Audubon Medal]] (from the [[National Audubon Society]]), the [[Cullum Medal]] (from the [[American Geographical Society]]), and induction into the [[American Academy of Arts and Letters]].<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=451–461, 469–473}}</ref> - -=== Death === - -Weakened from breast cancer and her treatment regimen, Carson became ill with a respiratory virus in January 1964. Her condition worsened, and in February, doctors found that she had severe [[anemia]] from her radiation treatments and in March discovered that the cancer had reached her liver. She died of a [[myocardial infarction|heart attack]] on April 14, 1964.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=476–480}}</ref> - -She was interred at Parklawn Memorial Park and Menorah Gardens in [[Rockville, Maryland]]. - -==Legacy== - -===Collected papers and posthumous publications=== - -Carson bequeathed her manuscripts and papers to [[Yale University]], to take advantage of the new state-of-the-art preservations facilities of the [[Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library]]. Her longtime agent and literary executor [[Marie Rodell]] spent nearly two years organizing and cataloging Carson's papers and correspondence, distributing all the letters to their senders so that only what each correspondent approved of would be submitted to the archive.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=467–8, 477, 482–3}} See also the Beinecke [http://hdl.handle.net/10079/fa/beinecke.carson finding aid for the Rachel Carson Papers].</ref> - -In 1965, Rodell arranged for the publication of an essay Carson had intended to expand into a book: ''A Sense of Wonder''. The essay, which was combined with photographs by [[Charles Pratt II|Charles Pratt]] and others, exhorts parents to help their children experience the "lasting pleasures of contact with the natural world", which "are available to anyone who will place himself under the influence of earth, sea and sky and their amazing life."<ref name="Murphy 25">Murphy, 25; quotations from ''A Sense of Wonder'', 95. The essay was originally published in 1956 in ''Woman's Home Companion''.</ref> - -In addition to the letters in ''Always Rachel'', in 1998 a volume of Carson's previously unpublished work was published as ''Lost Woods: The Discovered Writing of Rachel Carson'', edited by Linda Lear. All of Carson's books remain in print.<ref name="Murphy 25"/> - -===Grassroots environmentalism and the EPA=== - -Carson's work had a powerful impact on the environmental movement. ''Silent Spring'', in particular, was a rallying point for the fledgling social movement in the 1960s. According to environmental engineer and Carson scholar H. Patricia Hynes, "''Silent Spring'' altered the balance of power in the world. No one since would be able to sell pollution as the necessary underside of progress so easily or uncritically."<ref>{{harvnb|Hynes|1989|p=3}}</ref> Carson's work, and the activism it inspired, are at least partly responsible for the [[deep ecology]] movement, and the overall strength of the grassroots environmental movement since the 1960s. It was also influential on the rise of [[ecofeminism]] and on many feminist scientists.<ref>{{harvnb|Hynes|1989|pp=8–9}}</ref> - -Carson's most direct legacy in the environmental movement was the campaign to ban the use of DDT in the United States (and related efforts to ban or limit its use throughout the world). Though environmental concerns about DDT had been considered by government agencies as early as Carson's testimony before the President's Science Advisory Committee, the 1967 formation of the [[Environmental Defense Fund]] was the first major milestone in the campaign against DDT. The organization brought lawsuits against the government to "establish a citizen's right to a clean environment", and the arguments employed against DDT largely mirrored Carson's. By 1972, the Environmental Defense Fund and other activist groups had succeeded in securing a phase-out of DDT use in the United States (except in emergency cases).<ref>{{harvnb|Hynes|1989|pp=46–7}}</ref> - -The creation of the [[United States Environmental Protection Agency|Environmental Protection Agency]] by the Nixon administration in 1970 addressed another concern that Carson had brought to light. Until then, the same agency (the [[USDA]]) was responsible both for regulating pesticides and promoting the concerns of the agriculture industry; Carson saw this as a [[conflict of interest]], since the agency was not responsible for effects on wildlife or other environmental concerns beyond farm policy. Fifteen years after its creation, one journalist described the EPA as "the extended shadow of ''Silent Spring''". Much of the agency's early work, such as enforcement of the 1972 [[Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act]], was directly related to Carson's work.<ref>{{harvnb|Hynes|1989|pp=47–8, 148–163}}</ref> - -===Science, nature, DDT, and food production=== - -Carson came into her own during a time in America when the majority of the population believed all science was inherently good. Carson came to challenge the idea that it was "man against nature" as explained by historian Thomas Dunlap. "Americans assumed that science was good, that chemicals were necessary, that their use would be governed by experts, that these experts could be trusted, and that the side-effects of chemical use would be negligible." <ref>(Lutts, 1985)</ref> An excellent example of this is the widespread use of [[DDT]] after World War II. "DDT was hailed as the success story of World War II. During the war, the chemical helped to exterminate lice and insect-borne disease, and saved much-needed food crops. When the war ended, the United States sought to become the top food supplier and the Department of Agriculture saw DDT as a means to achieve that end." <ref>(Gottlieb, R. ''Forcing the Spring''. Washington D.C.: Island Press)</ref> It is clear that financial superiority was the top priority after the war. These companies did not want people to start believing her; which would therefore lower or stop their production. The chemical companies, government and many of its scientists believed it would be ok to allow the people of the United States, and therefore the world (since at this time other countries looked to see what the USA was conducting) that the unmitigated use of DDT was not only the safest, but the most prudent way of gaining that superiority. Carson's works challenged these institutions and the assumptions they encouraged. - -Rachel Carson believed the modern environmental movement of the time overused pesticides. She deplored the "culture of American abundance" as incurred by the capitalist economy whose expanding nature led to the destruction of many wildlife habitats. <ref>(Lear, Rachel Carson Witness for Nature, 1997)</ref> Carson did not take the use of chemicals such as DDT at face value like most of the public. This is not to say that she did not want to enhance the life of the American people, or humans as a whole, but she did not support the destruction of the environment to attain that goal. -:"Because it is more comfortable to believe in pleasant things, most of us continue today to believe that in our country there will always be plenty. . . This is the comfortable dream of the average American. But it is a fallacious dream. It is a dangerous dream. . . Only so long as we are vigilant to cherish and safeguard [our resources] against waste, against over exploitation, and against destruction will our country continue strong and free." <ref>(Kline, B. First Along the River. Maryland: Rowma & Littlefield.)</ref> -This quote exemplifies the mindset of the average American who was looking to attain the "American Dream." This also illustrates why the people allowed the use of DDT without learning what it was doing to their environment as the quotes explains that it is more comfortable to believe in pleasant things as long as we are able to prosper. Carson also disliked the idea that Americans were ok with a "quick fix": -:"One great trouble — I suppose it is the fault of the American public as a whole — is this desire for the quick and easy way of doing something, without any consideration of the consequences. Even if the consequences are strongly implied or known, there is still a great temptation to go ahead and get the job done and let the future take care of itself. Maybe we will come up with a pill to take care of it, or something like that!" <ref>(Lutts, R. (1985. Chemical Fallout: Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, Radioactive Fallout, and the Environmental Movement, ''Environmental Review'', 210-225.)</ref> -Carson believed that this idea of the quick fix is what allowed the Americans to get into the Environmental predicament that had found themselves in. By allowing "the future to worry about itself " as Carson said, it freed scientists up to only come up with results as opposed to the best or the safest results. They were reacting after the fact and trying to fix the problem, instead of working to prevent the problem before it starts. Rachel Carson was significant in the history of the contemporary American environmental movement because through her writing and different publications she was able to change the mindset of the everyday American person. Although her job seems like it was simple and a quick fix, it took a lot of struggle on Carson’s part to get her point across. She was able to point out that the quick fix for something was not the only way to accomplish a goal and usually was not the best. In the case of DDT, the quick fix was harming the environment more than it was helping; with the help of Carson’s writing the public was able to see this error in the scientific world. - -===Criticisms of environmentalism and DDT restrictions=== - -Carson and the environmental movement were—and continue to be—criticized by some [[conservatives]] and [[libertarians]] as well as chemical industry trade groups, who argue that restrictions placed on pesticides, specifically DDT, have caused tens of millions of needless deaths and hampered agriculture (and, implicitly, that Carson bears responsibility for inciting such restrictions).<ref>{{harvnb|Lytle|2007|p=217}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|last=Baum|first=Rudy M.|date=June 4, 2007|title=Rachel Carson|journal=Chemical and Engineering News|publisher=American Chemical Society|volume=85|issue=23|page=5|url=http://pubs.acs.org/isubscribe/journals/cen/85/i23/html/8523editor.html}}</ref><ref name="Conservative criticism of Carson">Examples of recent criticism include:<br />(a) Rich Karlgaard, "[http://www.forbes.com/sites/digitalrules/2007/05/18/but-her-heart-was-good/ But Her Heart Was Good]", Forbes.com, May 18, 2007. Accessed September 23, 2007.<br />(b) Keith Lockitch, "[http://capmag.com/article.asp?ID=4965 Rachel Carson's Genocide]", ''Capitalism Magazine'', May 23, 2007. Accessed May 24, 2007<br />(c) [[David Roberts (journalist)|David Roberts]], "[http://gristmill.grist.org/story/2007/5/23/17433/0674 My one and only post on the Rachel Carson nonsense]" Grist.com, May 24, 2007. Accessed September 23, 2007.<br />(d) Paul Driessen, "[http://www.washingtontimes.com/commentary/20070428-100957-5274r.htm Forty Years of Perverse 'Responsibility,']", ''The Washington Times'', April 29, 2007. Accessed May 30, 2007.<br />(e) Iain Murray, "[http://article.nationalreview.com/?q=MjhkYTlmYjljMmJlMzU5Y2IxOGM3ZWM3YzZkNzFiNGE ''Silent'' Alarmism: A Centennial We Could Do Without]", ''National Review'', May 31, 2007. Accessed May 31, 2007.</ref> In the 1980s, the policies of the [[Reagan Administration]] emphasized economic growth at the expense of environmental regulation, rolling back many of the environmental policies adopted in response to Carson and her work.<ref>{{harvnb|Lytle|2007|pp=217–220}}; Jeffrey K. Stine, "Natural Resources and Environmental Policy" in ''The Reagan Presidency: Pragmatic Conservatism and Its Legacies'', edited by W. Elliott Browlee and Hugh Davis Graham. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press, 2003. ISBN 0-7006-1268-8</ref> - -Carson's vocal expressions of concern about the [[DDT#Effects on human health|human health effects]] and [[DDT#Environmental impact|environmental impact]] of DDT has come under the most intense fire. Political scientist Charles Rubin was one of the most vociferous critics in the 1980s and 1990s, though he accused her merely of selective use of source and fanaticism (rather than the more severe criticism Carson received upon ''Silent Spring'''s release). - -In the 2000s, however, criticism of the real and alleged ban(s) of DDT her work prompted became much more intense.<ref name="quig"/><ref name="Erik">Erik M. Conway, Naomi Oreskes, ''Merchants of Doubt'', 2010, p.217</ref> The conservative magazine ''[[Human Events]]'' gave ''Silent Spring'' an honorable mention for the "Ten Most Harmful Books of the 19th and 20th Centuries".<ref name="most_harmful">[http://www.humanevents.com/article.php?id=7591 Ten Most Harmful Books of the 19th and 20th Centuries]. Retrieved August 24, 2007.</ref> In 2009 the [[libertarianism|libertarian]] think tank [[Competitive Enterprise Institute]] set up a website Rachelwaswrong.org, asserting "Millions of people around the world suffer the painful and often deadly effects of malaria because one person sounded a false alarm. That person is Rachel Carson."<ref name="Erik" /> A 2012 review article in [[Nature (journal)|Nature]] by Rob Dunn<ref name="dunn_2012">Dunn, R. (2012) [http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v485/n7400/full/485578a.html ''In retrospect: Silent Spring''], [[Nature (journal)|Nature]] '''485'''(7400), 578-579.</ref> commemorating the 50th anniversary of [[Silent Spring]] prompted a response in a letter written by [[Anthony Trewavas]] and co-signed by 10 others, including [[Chris J. Leaver|Christopher Leaver]], [[Bruce Ames]], [[Richard Tren|Richard Tren]] and [[Peter Lachmann]], who quote estimates of 60 to 80 million deaths "as a result of misguided fears based on poorly understood evidence".<ref name="trewavas_2012">[[Anthony Trewavas|Trewavas, T.]], [[Chris J. Leaver|Leaver, C.]], [[Bruce Ames|Ames, B.]], [[Peter Lachmann|Lachmann, P.]], [[Richard Tren|Tren, R.]], Meiners, R., [[Henry I. Miller|Miller, H.I.]], ''et al.'' (2012) [http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v486/n7404/full/486473a.html ''Environment: Carson no 'beacon of reason' on DDT''], [[Nature (journal)|Nature]] '''486'''(7404), 473.</ref> - -Biographer Mark Hamilton Lytle believes these estimates unrealistic, even assuming that Carson can be "blamed" for worldwide DDT policies.<ref>{{harvnb|Lytle|2007|pp=220–8}}</ref> [[John Quiggin]] and Tim Lambert have written that "the most striking feature of the claim against Carson is the ease with which it can be refuted." DDT was never banned for anti-malarial use,<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.eac.int/health/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=95%3Aclassification-system&catid=15%3Adiseases&Itemid=32 |title=Malaria Prevention and Control |publisher=East African Community Health}}</ref> (its ban for agricultural use in the United States in 1972 did not apply outside the US or to anti-malaria spraying;<ref>Erik M. Conway, Naomi Oreskes, ''Merchants of Doubt'', 2010, p.226</ref> the international treaty that banned most uses of DDT and other organochlorine pesticides — the 2001 [[Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants]] — included an exemption for DDT for the use of malaria control until affordable substitutes could be found.<ref name="quig"/>) Mass outdoor spraying of DDT was abandoned in poor countries subject to malaria, such as Sri Lanka, in the 1970s and 1980s, not because of government prohibitions, but because the DDT had lost its ability to kill the mosquitoes.<ref name="quig">{{cite journal |author=John Quiggin, Tim Lambert |title=Rehabilitating Carson |journal=Prospect |issue=146 |pages= |date=24 May 2008 |url=http://www.prospectmagazine.co.uk/2008/05/rehabilitatingcarson/}}</ref> (Because of insects very short breeding cycle and large number of offspring, the most resistant insects that survive and pass on their genetic traits to their offspring replace the pesticide-slain insects relatively rapidly. Agricultural spraying of pesticides produces [[pesticide resistance|resistance]] to the pesticide in seven to ten years.<ref>Erik M. Conway, Naomi Oreskes, ''Merchants of Doubt'', 2010, p.223-4</ref>) - -Other defenders point out Carson never actually called for an outright ban on DDT, and part of the argument she made in ''Silent Spring'' was that even if DDT and other insecticides had ''no'' environmental side effects, their indiscriminate overuse was counter-productive because it would created insect resistance to the pesticide(s), making them (the pesticides) useless in eliminating the target insect populations: - -{{quote|No responsible person contends that insect-borne disease should be ignored. The question that has now urgently presented itself is whether it is either wise or responsible to attack the problem by methods that are rapidly making it worse. The world has heard much of the triumphant war against disease through the control of insect vectors of infection, but it has heard little of the other side of the story—the defeats, the short-lived triumphs that now strongly support the alarming view that the insect enemy has been made actually stronger by our efforts. Even worse, we may have destroyed our very means of fighting.<ref>''Silent Spring'', p. 266</ref>|Rachel Carson|''Silent Spring'', p. 266}} -Carson further noted that "Malaria programmes are threatened by resistance among mosquitoes"<ref>''Silent Spring'', p. 267</ref> and emphasized the advice given by the director of Holland's Plant Protection Service: "Practical advice should be 'Spray as little as you possibly can' rather than 'Spray to the limit of your capacity'…Pressure on the pest population should always be as slight as possible." <ref>''Silent Spring'', p. 275</ref> - -Consequently, some experts have argued that restrictions placed on the agricultural use of DDT have increased its effectiveness as a tool for battling malaria. According to pro-DDT advocate [[Amir Attaran]] the result of the 2004 [[Stockholm Convention]] banning DDT's use in agriculture ''"is arguably better than the status quo ... For the first time, there is now an insecticide which is restricted to vector control only, meaning that the selection of resistant mosquitoes will be slower than before."''<ref>[http://www.malaria.org/DDTpage.html Malaria Foundation International]. Retrieved March 15, 2006.</ref> But though Carson's legacy has been closely tied to DDT, [[Roger Bate]] of the DDT advocacy organization [[Africa Fighting Malaria]] warns that "A lot of people have used Carson to push their own agendas. We just have to be a little careful when you're talking about someone who died in 1964."<ref>[http://www.pbs.org/moyers/journal/09212007/profile2.html Rachel Carson and DDT], ''[[Bill Moyers Journal]]'', September 21, 2007. Retrieved September 29, 2007.</ref> - -===Posthumous honors=== -<!--[[File:Gordocarson.jpg|right|thumb|A ''[[Gordo (comic strip)|Gordo]]'' Sunday cartoon marking the passing of Rachel Carson in 1964]]--> -A variety of groups ranging from government institutions to environmental and conservation organizations to scholarly societies have celebrated Carson's life and work since her death. Perhaps most significantly, on June 9, 1980, Carson was awarded the [[Presidential Medal of Freedom]], the highest civilian honor in the United States<ref>[http://web.archive.org/web/20071018025824/www.medaloffreedom.com/Chronological.htm Chronological List of Medal of Freedom Awards], archived October 18, 2007. Retrieved August 1, 2009.</ref> A 17¢ [[Great Americans series]] [[postage stamp]] was issued in her honor the following year; several other countries have since issued Carson postage as well.<ref>[http://www.planetpatriot.net/stamps2/carson_rachel_stamps.html Marshall Is 2000], [http://stamp-search.com/images/pal9901sh16enviro.jpg Palau 1998], [http://stamp-search.com/images/zam0004sh4-milnm1950-00.jpg Zambia 2000]<br/></ref> - -<!--[[File:HAER PBG 9thStreet 361504pv.jpg|thumb|The Rachel Carson Bridge in Pittsburgh]]--> -Carson's birthplace and childhood home in [[Springdale, Pennsylvania]]&nbsp;— now known as the [[Rachel Carson Homestead]]—became a [[National Register of Historic Places]] site, and the [[nonprofit]] Rachel Carson Homestead Association was created in 1975 to manage it.<ref>[http://www.rachelcarsonhomestead.org/ Rachel Carson Homestead]. Retrieved September 7, 2007.</ref> Her [[Rachel Carson House (Colesville, Maryland)|home]] in [[Colesville, Maryland]] where she wrote ''Silent Spring'' was named a [[National Historic Landmark]] in 1991.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://mht.maryland.gov/nr/NRDetail.aspx?HDID=1094&FROM=NRNHLList.aspx|title=Maryland Historical Trust|date=June 8, 2008|work= National Register of Historic Places: Properties in Montgomery County|publisher=Maryland Historical Trust}}</ref> Near [[Pittsburgh]], a 35.7 mi hiking trail, maintained by the Rachel Carson Trails Conservancy, was dedicated to Carson in 1975.<ref>[http://www.rachelcarsontrails.org/rct Rachel Carson Trail]. Retrieved September 26, 2007.</ref> A Pittsburgh bridge was also renamed in Carson's honor as the [[Rachel Carson Bridge]].<ref name="bridge">Jerome L. Sherman, [http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/06113/684423-85.stm "Environmentalist Rachel Carson's legacy remembered on Earth Day"], ''Pittsburgh Post-Gazette'', April 23, 2006. Retrieved September 23, 2007.</ref> The [[Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection]] State Office Building in [[Harrisburg]] is named in her honor. An elementary school in [[Gaithersburg, Maryland|Gaithersburg]], [[Montgomery County, Maryland]], was named in her honor,<ref>[http://www.montgomeryschoolsmd.org/schools/rachelcarsones/index.shtm Rachel Carson Elementary School]. Retrieved February 22, 2008.</ref> as was a [[Rachel Carson Middle School]] in [[Herndon, Virginia]],<ref>[http://www.fcps.edu/RachelCarsonMS/ Rachel Carson Middle School]. Retrieved February 28, 2008.</ref> and another elementary school in [[Sammamish, Washington]].<ref>[http://www.lwsd.org/school/carson/Pages/default.aspx/ Rachel Carson Elementary]. Retrieved 15 June 2011.</ref> - -The ceremonial auditorium on the third floor of U.S. EPA's main headquarters, the [[Ariel Rios Building]], is named after Rachel Carson. The Rachel Carson room is just a few feet away from the EPA administrator's office and has been the site of numerous important announcements, including the Clean Air Interstate Rule, since the Agency moved to Ariel Rios in 2001.<ref>[http://yosemite.epa.gov/opa/admpress.nsf/6427a6b7538955c585257359003f0230/1a5d6d4953c0627985256fbf006a9578!OpenDocument&Start=9.4&Count=5&Expand=9.4 CAIR News Advisory]. REtrieved August 18, 2009.</ref> - -A number of [[conservation area]]s have been named for Carson as well. Between 1964 and 1990, 650 acres near [[Brookeville, Maryland|Brookeville]] in [[Montgomery County, Maryland]] were acquired and set aside as the Rachel Carson Conservation Park, administered by the [[Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission]].<ref>[http://www.montgomeryparks.org/park_of_the_day/may/parkday_may12.shtm MNCPPC: Rachel Carson Conservation Park]. Retrieved August 26, 2007.</ref> In 1969, the Coastal Maine National Wildlife Refuge became the [[Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge]]; expansions will bring the size of the refuge to about 9,125 acres.<ref>[http://www.fws.gov/northeast/rachelcarson/index.html Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge]. Retrieved September 11, 2007.</ref> In 1985, [[North Carolina]] renamed one of its [[estuarine]] reserves in honor of Carson, in [[Beaufort, North Carolina|Beaufort]].<ref>[http://nerrs.noaa.gov/NorthCarolina/welcome.html Rachel Carson Estuarine Research Reserve]{{dead link|date=November 2011}}. Retrieved October 12, 2007.</ref> - -Carson is also a frequent namesake for prizes awarded by philanthropic, educational and scholarly institutions. The [[Rachel Carson Prize (environmentalist award)|Rachel Carson Prize]], founded in [[Stavanger]], [[Norway]] in 1991, is awarded to women who have made a contribution in the field of environmental protection.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://rachelcarsonprisen.no/eng/The-Prize/What-is-the-Rachel-Carson-Prize|title=What is the Rachel Carson Prize?|publisher=Rachel Carson-prisen|accessdate=March 15, 2010}}</ref> The [[American Society for Environmental History]] has awarded the Rachel Carson Prize for Best Dissertation since 1993.<ref>[http://www.aseh.net/awards/list-of-award-recipients-and-comments Award Recipients&nbsp;– American Society for Environmental History]{{dead link|date=November 2011}}. Retrieved September 11, 2007.</ref> Since 1998, the [[Society for Social Studies of Science]] has awarded an annual [[Rachel Carson Prize (academic book prize)|Rachel Carson Book Prize]] for "a book length work of social or political relevance in the area of science and technology studies."<ref>[http://www.4sonline.org/carson.htm Rachel Carson Book Prize, 4S]. Retrieved September 11, 2007.</ref> - -====Centennial events==== -<!--[[File:Rachel Carson 100th birthday crowd.jpg|thumb|The celebration of the 100th anniversary of Carson's birth in [[Springdale, Pennsylvania]]]]--> - -2007 was the centennial of Carson's birth. On [[Earth Day]] (April 22, 2007), ''Courage for the Earth: Writers, Scientists, and Activists Celebrate the Life and Writing of Rachel Carson'' was released as "a centennial appreciation of Rachel Carson's brave life and transformative writing", thirteen essays by prominent environmental writers and scientists.<ref>[http://www.houghtonmifflinbooks.com/catalog/titledetail.cfm?titleNumber=694257 Houghton Mifflin Trade and Reference Division, ''Courage for the Earth'' release information]. Retrieved September 23, 2007.</ref> Democratic Senator [[Benjamin L. Cardin]] of [[Maryland]] had intended to submit a resolution celebrating Carson for her "legacy of scientific rigor coupled with poetic sensibility" on the 100th anniversary of her birth. The resolution was blocked by Republican Senator [[Tom Coburn]] of [[Oklahoma]],<ref>{{cite news |author=David A. Fahrenthold |title=Bill to honor Rachel Carson Blocked |url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/05/22/AR2007052201574.html |publisher=Washington Post |date=May 23, 2007 }}</ref> who said that "The junk science and stigma surrounding DDT—the cheapest and most effective insecticide on the planet—have finally been jettisoned."<ref>{{cite news |author=Stephen Moore |title=Doctor Tom's DDT Victory |url=http://coburn.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?FuseAction=LatestNews.NewsStories&ContentRecord_id=c7d00e46-802a-23ad-49b7-d4ec2599d64c |publisher=The Wall Street Journal |date=September 19, 2006 }}</ref> The [[Rachel Carson Homestead Association]] held a May 27 birthday party and sustainable feast at her birthplace and home in [[Springdale, Pennsylvania]], and the first Rachel Carson Legacy Conference in Pittsburgh with E.O. Wilson as keynote speaker. Both Rachel's Sustainable Feast and the conference continue as annual events. - -==List of works== - -*''[[Under the Sea Wind]]'', 1941, Simon & Schuster, Penguin Group, 1996, ISBN 0-14-025380-7 -*{{cite web |title=Fishes of the Middle West |year=1943 |format=PDF |publisher=United States Government Printing Office |url=http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/usfwspubs/6/}} -*{{cite web |title=Fish and Shellfish of the Middle Atlantic Coast |year=1945 |format=PDF |publisher=United States Government Printing Office |url=http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/usfwspubs/3/}} -*{{cite web |title=Chincoteague: A National Wildlife Refuge |year=1947 |format=PDF |publisher=United States Government Printing Office |url=http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/usfwspubs/1/}} -*{{cite web |title=Mattamuskeet: A National Wildlife Refuge |year=1947 |format=PDF |publisher=United States Government Printing Office |url=http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/usfwspubs/5/}} -*{{cite web |title=Parker River: A National Wildlife Refuge |year=1947 |format=PDF |publisher=United States Government Printing Office |url=http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/usfwspubs/4/}} -*{{cite web |title=Bear River: A National Wildlife Refuge |year=1950 |format=PDF |publisher=United States Government Printing Office |url=http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/usfwspubs/2/}} (with Vanez T. Wilson) -*''[[The Sea Around Us]]'', Oxford University Press, 1951; Oxford University Press, 1991, ISBN 0-19-506997-8 -*''[[The Edge of the Sea]]'', Houghton Mifflin 1955; Mariner Books, 1998, ISBN 0-395-92496-0 -*''[[Silent Spring]]'', Houghton Mifflin, 1962; Mariner Books, 2002, ISBN 0-618-24906-0 -**''Silent Spring'' initially appeared serialized in three parts in the June 16, June 23, and June 30, 1962 issues of ''[[The New Yorker]]'' magazine -*''The Sense of Wonder'', 1965, HarperCollins, 1998: ISBN 0-06-757520-X published posthumously -*''Always, Rachel: The Letters of Rachel Carson and Dorothy Freeman 1952–1964 An Intimate Portrait of a Remarkable Friendship'', Beacon Press, 1995, ISBN 0-8070-7010-6 edited by Martha Freeman (granddaughter of Dorothy Freeman) -*''Lost Woods: The Discovered Writing of Rachel Carson'', Beacon Press, 1998, ISBN 0-8070-8547-2 -*''Bedrock: Writers on the Wonders of Geology'', edited by Lauret E. Savoy, [[Eldridge M. Moores]], and Judith E. Moores, [[Trinity University (Texas)#Trinity University Press|Trinity University Press]], 2006, ISBN 1-59534-022-X - -==See also== -* [[Environmentalism]]{{w|Environmentalism}} -<!--* [[Environmental toxicology]] -* [[Rachel Carson House (Colesville, Maryland)]] -* [[Rachel Carson Homestead]] -* [[Rachel Carson Greenway]] (three trails in Central Maryland) -* [[Rachel Carson Trail]] -* [[Women and the environment through history]]--> - -==References== -{{reflist|2}} - -===Citations=== -*{{cite book |last=Hynes |first=H. Patricia |title=The Recurring Silent Spring |publisher=Pergamon Press |location=New York |year=1989 |isbn=0-08-037117-5 |series=Athene series |url=http://books.google.com/?id=MNjaAAAAMAAJ |ref=harv}} -*{{cite book |last=Lear |first=Linda |title=Rachel Carson: Witness for Nature |publisher=Henry Holt |location=New York |year=1997 |isbn=0-8050-3428-5 |url=http://books.google.com/?id=2kDGQgAACAAJ |ref=harv}} -*{{cite book |last=Lytle |first=Mark Hamilton |title=The Gentle Subversive: Rachel Carson, Silent Spring, and the Rise of the Environmental Movement |publisher=Oxford University Press |location=New York |year=2007 |isbn=0-19-517246-9 |url=http://books.google.com/?id=SOSD4PFchmsC |ref=harv}} -*{{cite book |last=Murphy |first=Priscilla Coit |title=What a Book Can Do: The Publication and Reception of Silent Spring |publisher=University of Massachusetts Press |location=Amherst |year=2005 |isbn=978-1-55849-582-1 |url=http://books.google.com/?id=MFWFjvY90PgC |ref=harv}} -*{{cite book |last=Kline |first=B |title=First Along the River. Maryland |publisher=Rowma & Littlefield |ref=harv}} -*{{cite book |last=Lutts |first=R |title= Chemical fallout: Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, Radioactive Fallout, and the Environmental Movement. |publisher= Environmental Review |year=1985 |ref=harv}} -*{{cite book |last=gottlieb |first=R |title=Forging the Spring. |publisher=Island Press |location=Washington D.C. |ref=harv}} - -==Further reading== - -*{{cite book |author=Brooks, Paul |title=The House of Life: Rachel Carson at Work |publisher=Houghton Mifflin |year=1972 |isbn=0-395-13517-6 |url=http://books.google.com/?id=VIkcZTSh7skC }} This book is a personal memoir by Carson's [[Houghton Mifflin]] editor and close friend Paul Brooks. -*{{cite book |author=Jezer, Marty |authorlink=Martin Jezer |title=Rachel Carson: Biologist and Author |publisher=Chelsea House Publications |year=1988 |isbn=1-55546-646-X |url=http://books.google.com/?id=pBwVPwAACAAJ |series=American women of achievement}} -*{{cite book |editor=Matthiessen, Peter |title=Courage for the Earth: Writers, Scientists, and Activists Celebrate the Life and Writing of Rachel Carson |publisher=Mariner Books |year=2007 |isbn=0-618-87276-0 |url=http://books.google.com/?id=VNXapJVwbC0C |editor-link=Peter Matthiessen }} -*{{cite book |author1=Moore, Kathleen Dean |author2=Sideris, Lisa H. |title=Rachel Carson: Legacy and Challenge |publisher=[[SUNY Press]] |location=[[Albany, New York]] |year=2008 |isbn=0-7914-7471-2 |url=http://books.google.com/?id=awR4kJrhQK0C }} -*{{cite book |author=Quaratiello, Arlene |title=Rachel Carson: A Biography |publisher=Prometheus|location=[[Amherst, New York]] |year=2010 |isbn=978-1-61614-187-5 |url=http://www.amazon.com/Rachel-Carson-Biography-Arlene-Quaratiello/dp/1616141875/ref=sr_1_3?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1278211359&sr=8-3}} -*{{cite journal |author=Sideris, Lisa H. |title=Fact and Fiction, Fear and Wonder: The Legacy of Rachel Carson |journal=Soundings |volume=91 |issue=3-4 |pages=335–69 |date=Fall–Winter 2009 |jstor=41179228}} - -==External links== -* Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to [http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Special:Search/Rachel_Carson '''''Rachel Carson'''''] -* Wikimedia Commons has media related to [http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Rachel_Carson '''''Rachel Carson'''''] -*[http://hdl.handle.net/10079/fa/beinecke.carson Rachel Carson Papers]. Yale Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University. -*[http://www.mindfully.org/Pesticide/Rachel-Carson-Silent-Spring.htm ''New York Times'' obituary] -*[http://www.rachelcarson.org/ RachelCarson.org]—website by Carson biographer Linda Lear -*[http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,990622,00.html ''Time'', Mar. 29, 1999, Environmentalist RACHEL CARSON] -*[http://www.pbs.org/moyers/journal/09212007/profile.html Revisiting Rachel Carson]—Bill Moyer's Journal, PBS.org, 9-21-2007 -*[http://www.pbs.org/moyers/journal/09212007/profile3.html "A Sense of Wonder"] – two-act play about Carson, written and performed by Kaiulani Lee, based on posthumous work of the same name -*[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=isoJxPZH1LQ YouTube Clip of Bill Moyers television on Lee's one woman show] -* [http://www.montgomeryparks.org/PPSD/ParkTrails/trails_MAPS/Rachel_Carson_Greenway_trails.shtm The Rachel Carson Greenway Trail] in Montgomery County, Maryland -* [http://books.google.com/books?id=diEDAAAAMBAJ&pg=RA1-PA14&dq=popular+science+1951+why+our+winters&hl=en&ei=9ALETJujGcf_nAe9r73xCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=popular%20science%201951%20why%20our%20winters&f=true "Why Our Winters Are Getting Warmer", November 1951, ''Popular Science''] - early article by Rachel Carson about how the ocean currents affected climate (excerpt from her 1951 book, ''The Sea Around Us''). -*[http://moviemorlocks.com/2011/02/20/rachel-l-carson-as-interpreted-by-irwin-allen/ (Rachel L. Carson as Interpreted by Irwin Allen – TCM Movie Morlocks on THE SEA AROUND US)] - -'''Carson-related organizations''' -*[http://www.rachelcarsonhomestead.org/ The Rachel Carson Homestead] -*[http://www.silentspring.org/ Silent Spring Institute] -*[http://www.rachelcarsontrails.org/ Rachel Carson Trails Conservancy] -*[http://www.chatham.edu/rci/ Rachel Carson Institute] - -{{Persondata <!-- Metadata: see [[Wikipedia:Persondata]] --> -|NAME= Carson, Rachel Louise -|ALTERNATIVE NAMES= -|SHORT DESCRIPTION= American zoologist, marine biologist, writer and activist -|DATE OF BIRTH= May 27, 1907 -|PLACE OF BIRTH= [[Springdale, Pennsylvania]], U.S -|DATE OF DEATH= April 14, 1964 -|PLACE OF DEATH= [[Silver Spring, Maryland]], U.S. -}} -{{DEFAULTSORT:Carson, Rachel}} -[[Category:Appropriate technology advocates]] -[[Category:Sustainability advocates]]
New page size (new_size)
0
Old page size (old_size)
73220
Size change in edit (edit_delta)
-73220
Lines added in edit (added_lines)
Lines removed in edit (removed_lines)
{{Infobox person <!-- for more information see [[:Template:Infobox person/doc]] --> | name = Rachel Carson | image = Rachel-Carson.jpg | imagesize = 200px | caption = Rachel Carson, 1940 <br />Fish & Wildlife Service employee photo | pseudonym = | birth_name = Rachel Louise Carson | birth_date = {{birth date|1907|5|27|mf=y}} | birth_place = Springdale, Pennsylvania, U.S. | death_date = {{death date and age|1964|4|14|1907|5|27|mf=y}} | death_place = Silver Spring, Maryland, U.S. | occupation = [Marine biologist, writer and environmentalist | nationality = American | alma_mater = Chatham University,<br>Johns Hopkins University | period = 1937–1964 | genre = Nature writing | subject = Marine biology, ecology, pesticides | movement = | notableworks = ''The Sea Around Us'' (1951) <br>''Silent Spring'' (1962) | influences = | influenced = | website = }} '''Rachel Louise Carson''' (May 27, 1907&nbsp;– April 14, 1964) was an American [[marine biology|marine biologist]] and [[conservation movement|conservationist]] whose book ''Silent Spring'' and other writings are credited with advancing the global [[environmental movement]]. Carson began her career as a biologist in the [[United States Fish and Wildlife Service|U.S. Bureau of Fisheries]], and became a full-time nature writer in the 1950s. Her widely praised 1951 bestseller ''[[The Sea Around Us]]'' won her a U.S. [[National Book Award]],<ref name=nba1952/> recognition as a gifted writer, and financial security. Her next book, ''[[The Edge of the Sea]]'', and the reissued version of her first book, ''[[Under the Sea Wind]]'', were also bestsellers. That so-called sea trilogy explores the whole of ocean life from the shores to the surface to the depths. Late in the 1950s Carson turned her attention to conservation, especially environmental problems she believed were caused by synthetic [[pesticide]]s. The result was ''[[Silent Spring]]'' (1962), which brought environmental concerns to an unprecedented share of the American people. Although Silent Spring met with fierce opposition by chemical companies, it spurred a reversal in national pesticide policy, which led to a nationwide ban on [[DDT]] and other pesticides, and it inspired a [[grassroots]] environmental movement that led to the creation of the [[United States Environmental Protection Agency|U.S. Environmental Protection Agency]]. Carson was posthumously awarded the [[Presidential Medal of Freedom]] by [[Jimmy Carter]]. ==Life and work== <!--[[File:RachelCarsonHomestead.jpg|thumb|left|Carson's childhood home now is preserved as the [[Rachel Carson Homestead]]]]--> ===Early life and education=== Rachel Carson was born on May 27, 1907, on a small family farm near [[Springdale, Pennsylvania]], just up the [[Allegheny River]] from [[Pittsburgh]]. An avid reader, she also spent a lot of time exploring around her family's 65 acre farm. She began writing stories (often involving animals) at age eight, and had her first story published at age eleven. She especially enjoyed the ''[[St. Nicholas Magazine]]'' (which carried her first published stories), the works of [[Beatrix Potter]], and the novels of [[Gene Stratton Porter]], and in her teen years, [[Herman Melville]], [[Joseph Conrad]] and [[Robert Louis Stevenson]]. The natural world, particularly the ocean, was the common thread of her favorite literature. Carson attended Springdale's small school through tenth grade, then completed high school in nearby [[Parnassus, Pennsylvania]], graduating in 1925 at the top of her class of forty-five students.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=7–24}}</ref> At the Pennsylvania College for Women (today known as [[Chatham University]]), as in high school, Carson was somewhat of a loner. She originally studied English, but switched her major to biology in January 1928, though she continued contributing to the school's student newspaper and literary supplement. Though admitted to graduate standing at [[Johns Hopkins University]] in 1928, she was forced to remain at the Pennsylvania College for Women for her senior year due to financial difficulties; she graduated ''[[magna cum laude]]'' in 1929. After a summer course at the [[Marine Biological Laboratory]], she continued her studies in [[zoology]] and [[genetics]] at Johns Hopkins in the fall of 1929.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=27–62}}</ref> After her first year of graduate school, Carson became a part-time student, taking an assistantship in [[Raymond Pearl]]'s laboratory, where she worked with rats and ''[[Drosophila]]'', to earn money for tuition. After false starts with [[pit vipers]] and [[squirrel]]s, she completed a dissertation project on the embryonic development of the [[pronephros]] in fish. She earned a master's degree in zoology in June 1932. She had intended to continue for a doctorate, but in 1934 Carson was forced to leave Johns Hopkins to search for a full-time teaching position to help support her family. In 1935, her father died suddenly, leaving Carson to care for her aging mother and making the financial situation even more critical. At the urging of her undergraduate biology mentor Mary Scott Skinker, she settled for a temporary position with the [[U.S. Bureau of Fisheries]], writing radio copy for a series of weekly educational broadcasts entitled "Romance Under the Waters". The series of fifty-two seven-minute programs focused on aquatic life and was intended to generate public interest in fish biology and in the work of the bureau—a task the several writers before Carson had not managed. Carson also began submitting articles on marine life in the [[Chesapeake Bay]], based on her research for the series, to local newspapers and magazines.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=63–79}}</ref> Carson's supervisor, pleased with the success of the radio series, asked her to write the introduction to a public brochure about the fisheries bureau; he also worked to secure her the first full-time position that became available. Sitting for the [[American civil service|civil service]] exam, she outscored all other applicants and in 1936 became only the second woman to be hired by the Bureau of Fisheries for a full-time, professional position, as a junior aquatic biologist.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=79–82}}</ref> ===Early career and publications=== At the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries, Carson's main responsibilities were to analyze and report field data on fish populations, and to write brochures and other literature for the public. Using her research and consultations with marine biologists as starting points, she also wrote a steady stream of articles for ''[[The Baltimore Sun]]'' and other newspapers. However, her family responsibilities further increased in January 1937 when her older sister died, leaving Carson as the sole breadwinner for her mother and two nieces.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=82–5}}</ref> In July 1937, the ''[[Atlantic Monthly]]'' accepted a revised version of an essay, "The World of Waters", that she had originally written for her first fisheries bureau brochure; her supervisor had deemed it too good for that purpose. The essay, published as "Undersea", was a vivid narrative of a journey along the ocean floor. It marked a major turning point in Carson's writing career. Publishing house [[Simon & Schuster]], impressed by "Undersea", contacted Carson and suggested that she expand it into book form. Several years of writing resulted in ''[[Under the Sea Wind]]'' (1941), which received excellent reviews but sold poorly. In the meantime, Carson's article-writing success continued—her features appeared in ''Sun Magazine'', ''[[Nature (journal)|Nature]]'', and ''[[Collier's Weekly|Collier's]]''.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=85–113}}</ref> Carson attempted to leave the Bureau (by then transformed into the [[Fish and Wildlife Service]]) in 1945, but few jobs for naturalists were available as most money for science was focused on technical fields in the wake of the [[Manhattan Project]]. In mid-1945, Carson first encountered the subject of [[DDT]], a revolutionary new pesticide (lauded as the "insect bomb" after the [[atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki]]) that was only beginning to undergo tests for safety and ecological effects. DDT was but one of Carson's many writing interests at the time, and editors found the subject unappealing; she published nothing on DDT until 1962.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=114–120}}</ref> Carson rose within the Fish and Wildlife Service, supervising a small writing staff by 1945 and becoming chief editor of publications in 1949. Though her position provided increasing opportunities for fieldwork and freedom in choosing her writing projects, it also entailed increasingly tedious administrative responsibilities. By 1948, Carson was working on material for a second book and had made the conscious decision to begin a transition to writing full-time. That year, she took on a literary agent, [[Marie Rodell]]; they formed a close professional relationship that would last the rest of Carson's career.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=121–160}}</ref> [[Oxford University Press]] expressed interest in Carson's book proposal for a life history of the ocean, spurring her to complete the manuscript of what would become ''[[The Sea Around Us]]'' by early 1950.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=163–4}}. <br>• An apocryphal story holds that the book was rejected by over twenty publishers before Oxford University Press. In fact, it may have only been sent to one other publisher before being accepted, though Rodell and Carson worked extensively to place chapters and excerpts in periodicals.</ref> Chapters appeared in ''[[Science Digest]]'' and the ''[[Yale Review]]''—the latter chapter, "The Birth of an Island", winning the [[American Association for the Advancement of Science]]'s George Westinghouse Science Writing Prize. Nine chapters were serialized in ''[[The New Yorker]]'' beginning June 1951 and the book was published July 2, 1951, by [[Oxford University Press]].<!-- source is our article on the book --> ''The Sea Around Us'' remained on the [[New York Times Best Seller List]] for 86 weeks, was abridged by ''[[Reader's Digest]]'', won the 1952 [[National Book Award for Nonfiction]]<ref name=nba1952>[http://www.nationalbook.org/nba1952.html "National Book Awards – 1952"]. [[National Book Foundation]]. Retrieved March 19, 2012. <br>(With acceptance speech by Carson and essay by Neil Baldwin from the Awards 50-year anniversary publications.)</ref> and the [[Burroughs Medal]], and resulted in Carson's being awarded two honorary doctorates. She also licensed a documentary film based on it. ''The Sea'''s success led to the republication of ''Under the Sea Wind'', which became a bestseller itself. With success came financial security, and Carson was able to give up her job in 1952 to concentrate on writing full time.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=164–241}}</ref> Carson was inundated with speaking engagements, [[fan mail]] and other correspondence regarding ''The Sea Around Us'', along with work on the documentary script that she had secured the right to review.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=206–234}}</ref> She was very unhappy with the final version of the script by writer, director and producer [[Irwin Allen]]; she found it untrue to the atmosphere of the book and scientifically embarrassing, describing it as "a cross between a believe-it-or-not and a breezy travelogue."<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=215–6, 238–9}}. Quotation from a letter to Carson's film agent Shirley Collier, November 9, 1952. Quoted in Lear, 239.</ref> She discovered, however, that her right to review the script did not extend to any control over its content. Allen proceeded in spite of Carson's objections to produce a very successful documentary. It won the 1953 [[Oscar for Best Documentary]], but Carson was so embittered by the experience that she never again sold film rights to her work.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=239–240}}</ref> ===Relationship with Dorothy Freeman=== Carson moved with her mother to [[Southport Island, Maine]], in 1953, and in July of that year met Dorothy Freeman (1898–1978) — the beginning of an extremely close relationship that would last the rest of Carson's life. The nature of the relationship between Carson and Freeman has been the subject of speculation. Carson met Freeman, a summer resident of the island along with her husband, after Freeman had written to Carson to welcome her. Freeman had read ''The Sea Around Us'', a gift from her son, and was excited to have the prominent author as a neighbor. Carson's biographer, Linda Lear, writes that "Carson sorely needed a devoted friend and kindred spirit who would listen to her without advising and accept her wholly, the writer as well as the woman."<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|p=248}}</ref> She found this in Freeman. The two women had a number of common interests, nature chief among them, and began exchanging letters regularly while apart. They would share summers for the remainder of Carson's life, and meet whenever else their schedules permitted.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=243–288}}</ref> Though Lear does not explicitly describe the relationship as romantic, others (such as the encyclopedia ''[[glbtq.com|glbtq]]''<ref name="letters_with_Freeman">Caryn E. Neumann, [http://www.glbtq.com/social-sciences/carson_r.html "Carson, Rachel (1907–1964)"], ''glbtq: an encyclopedia of gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, & queer culture''; retrieved February 22, 2007</ref>) have noted that Carson and Freeman realized the letters could be interpreted as [[lesbian]], even though ''"the expression of their love was limited almost wholly to letters and very occasional farewell kisses or holding of hands"''.<ref>{{cite journal|author=Montefiore, Janet|title='The fact that possesses my imagination': Rachel Carson, Science and Writing|journal=Women: A Cultural Review|volume=12|issue=1|page=48|year=2001}}</ref> Freeman shared parts of Carson's letters with her husband to help him understand the relationship, but much of their correspondence was carefully guarded.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=255–6}}</ref> Shortly before Carson's death, she and Freeman destroyed hundreds of letters. The surviving correspondence was published in 1995 as ''Always, Rachel: The Letters of Rachel Carson and Dorothy Freeman, 1952–1964: An Intimate Portrait of a Remarkable Friendship'', edited by Freeman's granddaughter. According to one reviewer, the pair "fit Carolyn Heilbrun's characterization of a strong female friendship, where what matters is 'not whether friends are homosexual or heterosexual, lovers or not, but whether they share the wonderful energy of work in the public sphere'".<ref>{{cite journal|author=Tjossem, Sarah F.|title=Review of ''Always Rachel: The Letters of Rachel Carson and Dorothy Freeman, 1952–1964''|journal=Isis|volume=86|issue=4|pages=687–8|year=1995|doi=10.1086/357392}} quoting from: {{cite book|author=Heilbrun, Carolyn|title=Writing a Woman's Life|publisher=Ballantine|year=1988|isbn=0-345-36256-X|page=108}}</ref> ===''The Edge of the Sea'' and transition to conservation work=== Early in 1953 Carson began library and field research on the ecology and organisms of the Atlantic shore.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=223–244}}</ref> In 1955, she completed the third volume of her sea trilogy, ''[[The Edge of the Sea]]'', which focuses on life in [[coastal]] ecosystems (particularly along the [[Eastern Seaboard]]). It appeared in ''The New Yorker'' in two condensed installments shortly before its October 26 book release by [[Houghton Mifflin]] (again a new publisher). By this time, Carson's reputation for clear and poetical prose was well established; ''The Edge of the Sea'' received highly favorable reviews, if not quite as enthusiastic as for ''The Sea Around Us''.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=261–276}}</ref> Through 1955 and 1956, Carson worked on a number of projects—including the script for an ''[[Omnibus (US TV series)|Omnibus]]'' episode, "Something About the Sky"—and wrote articles for popular magazines. Her plan for the next book was to address [[evolution]], but the publication of [[Julian Huxley]]'s ''Evolution in Action''—and her own difficulty in finding a clear and compelling approach to the topic—led her to abandon the project. Instead, her interests were turning to conservation. She considered an environment-themed book project tentatively entitled ''Remembrance of the Earth'' and became involved with [[The Nature Conservancy]] and other conservation groups. She also made plans to buy and preserve from development an area in Maine she and Freeman called the "Lost Woods".<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=276–300}}</ref> Early in 1957, family tragedy struck a third time when one of the nieces she had cared for in the 1940s died at the age of 31, leaving a five-year-old orphan son, Roger Christie. Carson took on that responsibility, adopting the boy, alongside continuing to care for her aging mother; this took a considerable toll on Carson. She moved to [[Silver Spring, Maryland|Silver Spring]], [[Maryland]], to care for Roger, and much of 1957 was spent putting their new living situation in order and focusing on specific environmental threats.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=300–9}}</ref> By fall 1957, Carson was closely following federal proposals for widespread pesticide spraying; the [[USDA]] planned to eradicate [[Red imported fire ant|fire ants]], and other spraying programs involving [[chlorinated hydrocarbons]] and [[organophosphates]] were on the rise.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=305–313}}</ref> For the rest of her life, Carson's main professional focus would be the dangers of pesticide overuse. ===''Silent Spring''=== :''Main article: Silent Spring{{w|Silent Spring}}'' :''See also: Timeline of environmental events{{w|Timeline of environmental events}}, DDT{{w|DDT}} and Merchants of Doubt{{w|Merchants of Doubt}}'' ''[[Silent Spring]]'' is a book written by Rachel Carson and published by [[Houghton Mifflin]] on 27 September 1962.<ref name=McLaughlin>{{cite web |author=McLaughlin, Dorothy |title=Fooling with Nature: ''Silent Spring'' Revisited |work=Frontline |publisher=PBS |url=http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/nature/disrupt/sspring.html |accessdate=August 24, 2010}}</ref> The book is widely credited with helping launch the [[environmental movement]].<ref>Josie Glausiusz. (2007), Better Planet: Can A Maligned Pesticide Save Lives? ''Discover Magazine''. Page 34.</ref> In 1994 an edition of ''Silent Spring'' was published in which vice president [[Al Gore]] wrote the introduction. ====Research and writing==== Starting in the mid-1940s, Carson had become concerned about the use of synthetic pesticides, many of which had been developed through the [[military funding of science]] since [[World War II]]. It was the USDA's 1957 [[fire ant]] eradication program, however, that prompted Carson to devote her research, and her next book, to pesticides and environmental poisons. The fire ant program involved aerial spraying of [[DDT]] and other pesticides (mixed with [[fuel oil]]), including the spraying of private land. Landowners in Long Island filed a suit to have the spraying stopped, and many in affected regions followed the case closely. Though the suit was lost, the [[Supreme Court of the United States|Supreme Court]] granted petitioners the right to gain injunctions against potential environmental damage in the future; this laid the basis for later successful environmental actions.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://ellsworthmaine.com/site/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=12535&Itemid=47 |title=Obituary of Marjorie Spock |publisher=Ellsworthmaine.com |date=January 30, 2008 |accessdate=March 16, 2009}}{{dead link|date=November 2011}}</ref> The Washington, D.C. chapter of the [[Audubon Society]] also actively opposed such spraying programs, and recruited Carson to help make public the government's exact spraying practices and the related research.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=312–7}}</ref> Carson began the four-year project of what would become ''[[Silent Spring]]'' by gathering examples of environmental damage attributed to DDT. She also attempted to enlist others to join the cause: essayist [[E. B. White]], and a number of journalists and scientists. By 1958, Carson had arranged a book deal, with plans to co-write with ''[[Newsweek]]'' science journalist Edwin Diamond. However, when ''The New Yorker'' commissioned a long and well-paid article on the topic from Carson, she began considering writing more than simply the introduction and conclusion as planned; soon it was a solo project. (Diamond would later write one of the harshest critiques of ''Silent Spring''.)<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=317–327}}</ref> As her research progressed, Carson found a sizable community of scientists who were documenting the physiological and environmental effects of pesticides. She also took advantage of her personal connections with many government scientists, who supplied her with confidential information. From reading the scientific literature and interviewing scientists, Carson found two scientific camps when it came to pesticides: those who dismissed the possible danger of pesticide spraying barring conclusive proof, and those who were open to the possibility of harm and willing to consider alternative methods such as [[biological pest control]].<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=327–336}}</ref> By 1959, the [[USDA]]'s [[Agricultural Research Service]] responded to the criticism by Carson and others with a public service film, ''Fire Ants on Trial''; Carson characterized it as "flagrant [[propaganda]]" that ignored the dangers that spraying pesticides (especially [[dieldrin]] and [[heptachlor]]) posed to humans and wildlife. That spring, Carson wrote a letter, published in ''[[The Washington Post]]'', that attributed the recent decline in bird populations—in her words, the "silencing of birds"—to pesticide overuse.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=342–6}}</ref> That was also the year of the "Great Cranberry Scandal": the 1957, 1958, and 1959 crops of U.S. [[cranberry|cranberries]] were found to contain high levels of the herbicide [[aminotriazole]] (which caused cancer in laboratory rats) and the sale of all cranberry products was halted. Carson attended the ensuing FDA hearings on revising pesticide regulations; she came away discouraged by the aggressive tactics of the chemical industry representatives, which included expert testimony that was firmly contradicted by the bulk of the scientific literature she had been studying. She also wondered about the possible "financial inducements behind certain pesticide programs".<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=358–361}}</ref> Research at the [[United States National Library of Medicine|Library of Medicine]] of the [[National Institutes of Health]] brought Carson into contact with medical researchers investigating the gamut of cancer-causing chemicals. Of particular significance was the work of [[National Cancer Institute]] researcher and founding director of the environmental cancer section [[Wilhelm Hueper]], who classified many pesticides as carcinogens. Carson and her research assistant Jeanne Davis, with the help of NIH librarian Dorothy Algire, found evidence to support the pesticide-cancer connection; to Carson the evidence for the toxicity of a wide array of synthetic pesticides was clear-cut, though such conclusions were very controversial beyond the small community of scientists studying pesticide [[carcinogenesis]].<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=355–8}}</ref> By 1960, Carson had more than enough research material, and the writing was progressing rapidly. In addition to the thorough literature search, she had investigated hundreds of individual incidents of pesticide exposure and the human sickness and ecological damage that resulted. However, in January, a duodenal ulcer followed by several infections kept her bedridden for weeks, greatly delaying the completion of ''Silent Spring''. As she was nearing full recovery in March (just as she was completing drafts of the two cancer chapters of her book), she discovered cysts in her left breast, one of which necessitated a [[mastectomy]]. Though her doctor described the procedure as precautionary and recommended no further treatment, by December Carson discovered that the tumor was in fact [[malignant]] and the cancer had [[metastasized]].<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=360–8}}</ref> Her research was also delayed by revision work for a new edition of ''The Sea Around Us'', and by a collaborative photo essay with [[Erich Hartmann (photographer)|Erich Hartmann]].<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=372–3}}. The photo essay, "The Sea", was published in ''Johns Hopkins Magazine'', May/June 1961; Carson provided the captions for Hartmann's photographs.</ref> Most of the research and writing was done by the fall of 1960, except for the discussion of recent research on [[biological controls]] and investigations of a handful of new pesticides. However, further health troubles slowed the final revisions in 1961 and early 1962.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=376–7}}</ref> It was difficult finding a title for the book; "Silent Spring" was initially suggested as a title for the chapter on birds. By August 1961, Carson finally agreed to the suggestion of her literary agent Marie Rodell: ''Silent Spring'' would be a metaphorical title for the entire book—suggesting a bleak future for the whole natural world—rather than a literal chapter title about the absence of birdsong.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=375, 377–8, 386–7, 389}}</ref> With Carson's approval, editor Paul Brooks at [[Houghton Mifflin]] arranged for illustrations by Louis and Lois Darling, who also designed the cover. The final writing was the first chapter, "A Fable for Tomorrow", which was intended to provide a gentler introduction to what might otherwise be a forbiddingly serious topic. By mid-1962, Brooks and Carson had largely finished the editing, and were laying the groundwork for promoting the book by sending the manuscript out to select individuals for final suggestions.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=390–7}}</ref> ====Argument==== As biographer Mark Hamilton Lytle writes, Carson "quite self-consciously decided to write a book calling into question the [[paradigm]] of [[scientific progress]] that defined [[postwar]] American culture." The overriding theme of ''Silent Spring'' is the powerful—and often negative—effect humans have on the natural world.<ref>{{harvnb|Lytle|2007|pp=166–7}}</ref> Carson's main argument is that [[pesticide]]s have detrimental effects on the environment; they are more properly termed "[[biocide]]s", she argues, because their effects are rarely limited to the target pests. DDT is a prime example, but other synthetic pesticides come under scrutiny as well—many of which are subject to [[bioaccumulation]]. Carson also accuses the [[chemical industry]] of intentionally spreading [[disinformation]] and public officials of accepting industry claims uncritically. Most of the book is devoted to pesticides' effects on natural ecosystems, but four chapters also detail cases of human pesticide poisoning, cancer, and other illnesses attributed to pesticides.<ref>{{harvnb|Lytle|2007|pp=166–172}}</ref> About DDT and cancer, the subject of so much subsequent debate, Carson says only a little: {{quote|In laboratory tests on animal subjects, DDT has produced suspicious liver tumors. Scientists of the Food and Drug Administration who reported the discovery of these tumors were uncertain how to classify them, but felt there was some "justification for considering them low grade hepatic cell carcinomas." Dr. Hueper [author of ''Occupational Tumors and Allied Diseases''] now gives DDT the definite rating of a "chemical carcinogen."<ref>Carson, ''Silent Spring'', 225</ref>|Rachel Carson|''Silent Spring'', p. 225}} Carson predicts increased consequences in the future, especially as targeted pests develop [[resistance to pesticides]] while weakened ecosystems fall prey to unanticipated [[invasive species]]. The book closes with a call for a [[biotic material|biotic]] approach to pest control as an alternative to chemical pesticides.<ref>{{harvnb|Lytle|2007|pp=169, 173}}</ref> ====Promotion and reception==== Carson and the others involved with publication of ''Silent Spring'' expected fierce criticism. They were particularly concerned about the possibility of being sued for [[libel]]. Carson was also undergoing [[radiation therapy]] to combat her spreading cancer, and expected to have little energy to devote to defending her work and responding to critics. In preparation for the anticipated attacks, Carson and her agent attempted to amass as many prominent supporters as possible before the book's release.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=397–400}}</ref> Most of the book's scientific chapters were reviewed by scientists with relevant expertise, among whom Carson found strong support. Carson attended the White House Conference on Conservation in May, 1962; Houghton Mifflin distributed proof copies of ''Silent Spring'' to many of the delegates, and promoted the upcoming ''New Yorker'' serialization. Among many others, Carson also sent a proof copy to Supreme Court Justice [[William O. Douglas]], a long-time environmental advocate who had argued against the court's rejection of the Long Island pesticide spraying case (and who had provided Carson with some of the material included in her chapter on herbicides).<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=375, 377, 400–7}}. Douglas's dissenting opinion on the rejection of the case, ''Robert Cushman Murphy et al., v. Butler et al., from the Second Circuit Court of Appeals, is from March 28, 1960.</ref> Though ''Silent Spring'' had generated a fairly high level of interest based on pre-publication promotion, this became much more intense with the serialization in ''The New Yorker'', which began in the June 16, 1962 issue. This brought the book to the attention of the chemical industry and its lobbyists, as well as a wide swath of the American populace. Around that time Carson also learned that ''Silent Spring'' had been selected as the [[Book-of-the-Month]] for October; as she put it, this would "carry it to farms and hamlets all over that country that don't know what a bookstore looks like—much less ''The New Yorker''."<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=407–8}}. Quotation (p. 408) from a June 13, 1962 letter from Carson to Dorothy Freeman.</ref> Other publicity included a positive editorial in ''[[The New York Times]]'' and excerpts of the serialized version in ''Audubon Magazine'', with another round of publicity in July and August as chemical companies responded. The story of the birth defect-causing drug [[thalidomide]] broke just before the book's publication as well, inviting comparisons between Carson and [[Frances Oldham Kelsey]], the [[Food and Drug Administration]] reviewer who had blocked the drug's sale in the United States.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=409–413}}</ref> <!--[[File:Silent Spring Book-of-the-Month-Club edition.JPG|thumb|The [[Book-of-the-Month Club]] edition of ''[[Silent Spring]]'', including an endorsement by [[William O. Douglas]], had a first print run of 150,000 copies, two-and-a-half times the combined size of the two conventional printings of the initial release <ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=416, 419}}</ref>]] --> In the weeks leading up to the September 27 publication there was strong opposition to ''Silent Spring''. [[DuPont]] (a main manufacturer of DDT and [[2,4-D]]) and [[Velsicol Chemical Company]] (exclusive manufacturer of [[chlordane]] and [[heptachlor]]) were among the first to respond. DuPont compiled an extensive report on the book's press coverage and estimated impact on public opinion. Velsicol threatened legal action against Houghton Mifflin as well as ''The New Yorker'' and ''Audubon Magazine'' unless the planned ''Silent Spring'' features were canceled. Chemical industry representatives and lobbyists also lodged a range of non-specific complaints, some anonymously. Chemical companies and associated organizations produced a number of their own brochures and articles promoting and defending pesticide use. However, Carson's and the publishers' lawyers were confident in the vetting process ''Silent Spring'' had undergone. The magazine and book publications proceeded as planned, as did the large Book-of-the-Month printing (which included a pamphlet endorsing the book by William O. Douglas).<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=412–420}}</ref> [[American Cyanamid]] biochemist [[Robert White-Stevens]] and former Cyanamid chemist [[Thomas Jukes]] were among the most aggressive critics, especially of Carson's analysis of DDT.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=433–4}}</ref> According to White-Stevens, "If man were to follow the teachings of Miss Carson, we would return to the Dark Ages, and the insects and diseases and vermin would once again inherit the earth."<ref name="frontline_Cyanamid">[http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/nature/disrupt/sspring.html Fooling with nature: special reports: Silent Spring revisited:]. Retrieved September 23, 2007.</ref> Others went further, attacking Carson's scientific credentials (because her training was in marine biology rather than biochemistry) and her personal character. White-Stevens labeled her "a fanatic defender of the cult of the balance of nature",<ref>Quoted in {{harvnb|Lear|1997|p=434}}</ref> while former Secretary of Agriculture [[Ezra Taft Benson]]—in a letter to [[Dwight D. Eisenhower]]—reportedly concluded that because she was unmarried despite being physically attractive, she was "probably a Communist".<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=429–430}}. Benson's supposed comments were widely repeated at the time, but have not been directly confirmed.</ref> Many critics repeatedly asserted that she was calling for the elimination of all pesticides. Yet Carson had made it clear she was not advocating the banning or complete withdrawal of helpful pesticides, but was instead encouraging responsible and carefully managed use with an awareness of the chemicals' impact on the entire ecosystem.<ref>{{harvnb|Murphy|2005|9}}</ref> In fact, she concludes her section on DDT in ''Silent Spring'' not by urging a total ban, but with advice for spraying as little as possible to limit the development of resistance.<ref>Carson, ''Silent Spring'', 275</ref> The academic community—including prominent defenders such as [[H. J. Muller]], [[Loren Eisley]], [[Clarence Cottam]], and [[Frank Egler]]—by and large backed the book's scientific claims; public opinion soon turned Carson's way as well. The chemical industry campaign backfired, as the controversy greatly increased public awareness of potential pesticide dangers, as well as ''Silent Spring'' book sales. Pesticide use became a major public issue, especially after the ''[[CBS Reports]]'' TV special "The Silent Spring of Rachel Carson" that aired April 3, 1963. The program included segments of Carson reading from ''Silent Spring'' and interviews with a number of other experts, mostly critics (including White-Stevens); according to biographer Linda Lear, "in juxtaposition to the wild-eyed, loud-voiced Dr. Robert White-Stevens in white lab coat, Carson appeared anything but the hysterical alarmist that her critics contended."<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=437–449}}; quotation from 449.</ref> Reactions from the estimated audience of ten to fifteen million were overwhelmingly positive, and the program spurred a congressional review of pesticide dangers and the public release of a pesticide report by the [[President's Science Advisory Committee]].<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=449–450}}</ref> Within a year or so of publication, the attacks on the book and on Carson had largely lost momentum.<ref name="time100">[http://www.time.com/time/time100/scientist/profile/carson03.html The Time 100: Scientists and Thinkers], accessed September 23, 2007</ref><ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|p=461}}</ref> In one of her last public appearances, Carson had testified before President Kennedy's Science Advisory Committee. The committee issued its report on May 15, 1963, largely backing Carson's scientific claims.<ref name="nwhp_bio">[http://web.archive.org/web/20051208074458/http://www.nwhp.org/tlp/biographies/carson/carson-bio.html 2003 National Women's History Month Honorees: Rachel Carlson]. Retrieved September 23, 2007.</ref> Following the report's release, she also testified before a Senate subcommittee to make policy recommendations. Though Carson received hundreds of other speaking invitations, she was unable to accept the great majority of them. Her health was steadily declining as her cancer outpaced the radiation therapy, with only brief periods of remission. She spoke as much as she was physically able, however, including a notable appearance on ''[[Today (NBC program)|The Today Show]]'' and speeches at several dinners held in her honor. In late 1963, she received a flurry of awards and honors: the [[Audubon Medal]] (from the [[National Audubon Society]]), the [[Cullum Medal]] (from the [[American Geographical Society]]), and induction into the [[American Academy of Arts and Letters]].<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=451–461, 469–473}}</ref> === Death === Weakened from breast cancer and her treatment regimen, Carson became ill with a respiratory virus in January 1964. Her condition worsened, and in February, doctors found that she had severe [[anemia]] from her radiation treatments and in March discovered that the cancer had reached her liver. She died of a [[myocardial infarction|heart attack]] on April 14, 1964.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=476–480}}</ref> She was interred at Parklawn Memorial Park and Menorah Gardens in [[Rockville, Maryland]]. ==Legacy== ===Collected papers and posthumous publications=== Carson bequeathed her manuscripts and papers to [[Yale University]], to take advantage of the new state-of-the-art preservations facilities of the [[Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library]]. Her longtime agent and literary executor [[Marie Rodell]] spent nearly two years organizing and cataloging Carson's papers and correspondence, distributing all the letters to their senders so that only what each correspondent approved of would be submitted to the archive.<ref>{{harvnb|Lear|1997|pp=467–8, 477, 482–3}} See also the Beinecke [http://hdl.handle.net/10079/fa/beinecke.carson finding aid for the Rachel Carson Papers].</ref> In 1965, Rodell arranged for the publication of an essay Carson had intended to expand into a book: ''A Sense of Wonder''. The essay, which was combined with photographs by [[Charles Pratt II|Charles Pratt]] and others, exhorts parents to help their children experience the "lasting pleasures of contact with the natural world", which "are available to anyone who will place himself under the influence of earth, sea and sky and their amazing life."<ref name="Murphy 25">Murphy, 25; quotations from ''A Sense of Wonder'', 95. The essay was originally published in 1956 in ''Woman's Home Companion''.</ref> In addition to the letters in ''Always Rachel'', in 1998 a volume of Carson's previously unpublished work was published as ''Lost Woods: The Discovered Writing of Rachel Carson'', edited by Linda Lear. All of Carson's books remain in print.<ref name="Murphy 25"/> ===Grassroots environmentalism and the EPA=== Carson's work had a powerful impact on the environmental movement. ''Silent Spring'', in particular, was a rallying point for the fledgling social movement in the 1960s. According to environmental engineer and Carson scholar H. Patricia Hynes, "''Silent Spring'' altered the balance of power in the world. No one since would be able to sell pollution as the necessary underside of progress so easily or uncritically."<ref>{{harvnb|Hynes|1989|p=3}}</ref> Carson's work, and the activism it inspired, are at least partly responsible for the [[deep ecology]] movement, and the overall strength of the grassroots environmental movement since the 1960s. It was also influential on the rise of [[ecofeminism]] and on many feminist scientists.<ref>{{harvnb|Hynes|1989|pp=8–9}}</ref> Carson's most direct legacy in the environmental movement was the campaign to ban the use of DDT in the United States (and related efforts to ban or limit its use throughout the world). Though environmental concerns about DDT had been considered by government agencies as early as Carson's testimony before the President's Science Advisory Committee, the 1967 formation of the [[Environmental Defense Fund]] was the first major milestone in the campaign against DDT. The organization brought lawsuits against the government to "establish a citizen's right to a clean environment", and the arguments employed against DDT largely mirrored Carson's. By 1972, the Environmental Defense Fund and other activist groups had succeeded in securing a phase-out of DDT use in the United States (except in emergency cases).<ref>{{harvnb|Hynes|1989|pp=46–7}}</ref> The creation of the [[United States Environmental Protection Agency|Environmental Protection Agency]] by the Nixon administration in 1970 addressed another concern that Carson had brought to light. Until then, the same agency (the [[USDA]]) was responsible both for regulating pesticides and promoting the concerns of the agriculture industry; Carson saw this as a [[conflict of interest]], since the agency was not responsible for effects on wildlife or other environmental concerns beyond farm policy. Fifteen years after its creation, one journalist described the EPA as "the extended shadow of ''Silent Spring''". Much of the agency's early work, such as enforcement of the 1972 [[Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act]], was directly related to Carson's work.<ref>{{harvnb|Hynes|1989|pp=47–8, 148–163}}</ref> ===Science, nature, DDT, and food production=== Carson came into her own during a time in America when the majority of the population believed all science was inherently good. Carson came to challenge the idea that it was "man against nature" as explained by historian Thomas Dunlap. "Americans assumed that science was good, that chemicals were necessary, that their use would be governed by experts, that these experts could be trusted, and that the side-effects of chemical use would be negligible." <ref>(Lutts, 1985)</ref> An excellent example of this is the widespread use of [[DDT]] after World War II. "DDT was hailed as the success story of World War II. During the war, the chemical helped to exterminate lice and insect-borne disease, and saved much-needed food crops. When the war ended, the United States sought to become the top food supplier and the Department of Agriculture saw DDT as a means to achieve that end." <ref>(Gottlieb, R. ''Forcing the Spring''. Washington D.C.: Island Press)</ref> It is clear that financial superiority was the top priority after the war. These companies did not want people to start believing her; which would therefore lower or stop their production. The chemical companies, government and many of its scientists believed it would be ok to allow the people of the United States, and therefore the world (since at this time other countries looked to see what the USA was conducting) that the unmitigated use of DDT was not only the safest, but the most prudent way of gaining that superiority. Carson's works challenged these institutions and the assumptions they encouraged. Rachel Carson believed the modern environmental movement of the time overused pesticides. She deplored the "culture of American abundance" as incurred by the capitalist economy whose expanding nature led to the destruction of many wildlife habitats. <ref>(Lear, Rachel Carson Witness for Nature, 1997)</ref> Carson did not take the use of chemicals such as DDT at face value like most of the public. This is not to say that she did not want to enhance the life of the American people, or humans as a whole, but she did not support the destruction of the environment to attain that goal. :"Because it is more comfortable to believe in pleasant things, most of us continue today to believe that in our country there will always be plenty. . . This is the comfortable dream of the average American. But it is a fallacious dream. It is a dangerous dream. . . Only so long as we are vigilant to cherish and safeguard [our resources] against waste, against over exploitation, and against destruction will our country continue strong and free." <ref>(Kline, B. First Along the River. Maryland: Rowma & Littlefield.)</ref> This quote exemplifies the mindset of the average American who was looking to attain the "American Dream." This also illustrates why the people allowed the use of DDT without learning what it was doing to their environment as the quotes explains that it is more comfortable to believe in pleasant things as long as we are able to prosper. Carson also disliked the idea that Americans were ok with a "quick fix": :"One great trouble — I suppose it is the fault of the American public as a whole — is this desire for the quick and easy way of doing something, without any consideration of the consequences. Even if the consequences are strongly implied or known, there is still a great temptation to go ahead and get the job done and let the future take care of itself. Maybe we will come up with a pill to take care of it, or something like that!" <ref>(Lutts, R. (1985. Chemical Fallout: Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, Radioactive Fallout, and the Environmental Movement, ''Environmental Review'', 210-225.)</ref> Carson believed that this idea of the quick fix is what allowed the Americans to get into the Environmental predicament that had found themselves in. By allowing "the future to worry about itself " as Carson said, it freed scientists up to only come up with results as opposed to the best or the safest results. They were reacting after the fact and trying to fix the problem, instead of working to prevent the problem before it starts. Rachel Carson was significant in the history of the contemporary American environmental movement because through her writing and different publications she was able to change the mindset of the everyday American person. Although her job seems like it was simple and a quick fix, it took a lot of struggle on Carson’s part to get her point across. She was able to point out that the quick fix for something was not the only way to accomplish a goal and usually was not the best. In the case of DDT, the quick fix was harming the environment more than it was helping; with the help of Carson’s writing the public was able to see this error in the scientific world. ===Criticisms of environmentalism and DDT restrictions=== Carson and the environmental movement were—and continue to be—criticized by some [[conservatives]] and [[libertarians]] as well as chemical industry trade groups, who argue that restrictions placed on pesticides, specifically DDT, have caused tens of millions of needless deaths and hampered agriculture (and, implicitly, that Carson bears responsibility for inciting such restrictions).<ref>{{harvnb|Lytle|2007|p=217}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|last=Baum|first=Rudy M.|date=June 4, 2007|title=Rachel Carson|journal=Chemical and Engineering News|publisher=American Chemical Society|volume=85|issue=23|page=5|url=http://pubs.acs.org/isubscribe/journals/cen/85/i23/html/8523editor.html}}</ref><ref name="Conservative criticism of Carson">Examples of recent criticism include:<br />(a) Rich Karlgaard, "[http://www.forbes.com/sites/digitalrules/2007/05/18/but-her-heart-was-good/ But Her Heart Was Good]", Forbes.com, May 18, 2007. Accessed September 23, 2007.<br />(b) Keith Lockitch, "[http://capmag.com/article.asp?ID=4965 Rachel Carson's Genocide]", ''Capitalism Magazine'', May 23, 2007. Accessed May 24, 2007<br />(c) [[David Roberts (journalist)|David Roberts]], "[http://gristmill.grist.org/story/2007/5/23/17433/0674 My one and only post on the Rachel Carson nonsense]" Grist.com, May 24, 2007. Accessed September 23, 2007.<br />(d) Paul Driessen, "[http://www.washingtontimes.com/commentary/20070428-100957-5274r.htm Forty Years of Perverse 'Responsibility,']", ''The Washington Times'', April 29, 2007. Accessed May 30, 2007.<br />(e) Iain Murray, "[http://article.nationalreview.com/?q=MjhkYTlmYjljMmJlMzU5Y2IxOGM3ZWM3YzZkNzFiNGE ''Silent'' Alarmism: A Centennial We Could Do Without]", ''National Review'', May 31, 2007. Accessed May 31, 2007.</ref> In the 1980s, the policies of the [[Reagan Administration]] emphasized economic growth at the expense of environmental regulation, rolling back many of the environmental policies adopted in response to Carson and her work.<ref>{{harvnb|Lytle|2007|pp=217–220}}; Jeffrey K. Stine, "Natural Resources and Environmental Policy" in ''The Reagan Presidency: Pragmatic Conservatism and Its Legacies'', edited by W. Elliott Browlee and Hugh Davis Graham. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press, 2003. ISBN 0-7006-1268-8</ref> Carson's vocal expressions of concern about the [[DDT#Effects on human health|human health effects]] and [[DDT#Environmental impact|environmental impact]] of DDT has come under the most intense fire. Political scientist Charles Rubin was one of the most vociferous critics in the 1980s and 1990s, though he accused her merely of selective use of source and fanaticism (rather than the more severe criticism Carson received upon ''Silent Spring'''s release). In the 2000s, however, criticism of the real and alleged ban(s) of DDT her work prompted became much more intense.<ref name="quig"/><ref name="Erik">Erik M. Conway, Naomi Oreskes, ''Merchants of Doubt'', 2010, p.217</ref> The conservative magazine ''[[Human Events]]'' gave ''Silent Spring'' an honorable mention for the "Ten Most Harmful Books of the 19th and 20th Centuries".<ref name="most_harmful">[http://www.humanevents.com/article.php?id=7591 Ten Most Harmful Books of the 19th and 20th Centuries]. Retrieved August 24, 2007.</ref> In 2009 the [[libertarianism|libertarian]] think tank [[Competitive Enterprise Institute]] set up a website Rachelwaswrong.org, asserting "Millions of people around the world suffer the painful and often deadly effects of malaria because one person sounded a false alarm. That person is Rachel Carson."<ref name="Erik" /> A 2012 review article in [[Nature (journal)|Nature]] by Rob Dunn<ref name="dunn_2012">Dunn, R. (2012) [http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v485/n7400/full/485578a.html ''In retrospect: Silent Spring''], [[Nature (journal)|Nature]] '''485'''(7400), 578-579.</ref> commemorating the 50th anniversary of [[Silent Spring]] prompted a response in a letter written by [[Anthony Trewavas]] and co-signed by 10 others, including [[Chris J. Leaver|Christopher Leaver]], [[Bruce Ames]], [[Richard Tren|Richard Tren]] and [[Peter Lachmann]], who quote estimates of 60 to 80 million deaths "as a result of misguided fears based on poorly understood evidence".<ref name="trewavas_2012">[[Anthony Trewavas|Trewavas, T.]], [[Chris J. Leaver|Leaver, C.]], [[Bruce Ames|Ames, B.]], [[Peter Lachmann|Lachmann, P.]], [[Richard Tren|Tren, R.]], Meiners, R., [[Henry I. Miller|Miller, H.I.]], ''et al.'' (2012) [http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v486/n7404/full/486473a.html ''Environment: Carson no 'beacon of reason' on DDT''], [[Nature (journal)|Nature]] '''486'''(7404), 473.</ref> Biographer Mark Hamilton Lytle believes these estimates unrealistic, even assuming that Carson can be "blamed" for worldwide DDT policies.<ref>{{harvnb|Lytle|2007|pp=220–8}}</ref> [[John Quiggin]] and Tim Lambert have written that "the most striking feature of the claim against Carson is the ease with which it can be refuted." DDT was never banned for anti-malarial use,<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.eac.int/health/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=95%3Aclassification-system&catid=15%3Adiseases&Itemid=32 |title=Malaria Prevention and Control |publisher=East African Community Health}}</ref> (its ban for agricultural use in the United States in 1972 did not apply outside the US or to anti-malaria spraying;<ref>Erik M. Conway, Naomi Oreskes, ''Merchants of Doubt'', 2010, p.226</ref> the international treaty that banned most uses of DDT and other organochlorine pesticides — the 2001 [[Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants]] — included an exemption for DDT for the use of malaria control until affordable substitutes could be found.<ref name="quig"/>) Mass outdoor spraying of DDT was abandoned in poor countries subject to malaria, such as Sri Lanka, in the 1970s and 1980s, not because of government prohibitions, but because the DDT had lost its ability to kill the mosquitoes.<ref name="quig">{{cite journal |author=John Quiggin, Tim Lambert |title=Rehabilitating Carson |journal=Prospect |issue=146 |pages= |date=24 May 2008 |url=http://www.prospectmagazine.co.uk/2008/05/rehabilitatingcarson/}}</ref> (Because of insects very short breeding cycle and large number of offspring, the most resistant insects that survive and pass on their genetic traits to their offspring replace the pesticide-slain insects relatively rapidly. Agricultural spraying of pesticides produces [[pesticide resistance|resistance]] to the pesticide in seven to ten years.<ref>Erik M. Conway, Naomi Oreskes, ''Merchants of Doubt'', 2010, p.223-4</ref>) Other defenders point out Carson never actually called for an outright ban on DDT, and part of the argument she made in ''Silent Spring'' was that even if DDT and other insecticides had ''no'' environmental side effects, their indiscriminate overuse was counter-productive because it would created insect resistance to the pesticide(s), making them (the pesticides) useless in eliminating the target insect populations: {{quote|No responsible person contends that insect-borne disease should be ignored. The question that has now urgently presented itself is whether it is either wise or responsible to attack the problem by methods that are rapidly making it worse. The world has heard much of the triumphant war against disease through the control of insect vectors of infection, but it has heard little of the other side of the story—the defeats, the short-lived triumphs that now strongly support the alarming view that the insect enemy has been made actually stronger by our efforts. Even worse, we may have destroyed our very means of fighting.<ref>''Silent Spring'', p. 266</ref>|Rachel Carson|''Silent Spring'', p. 266}} Carson further noted that "Malaria programmes are threatened by resistance among mosquitoes"<ref>''Silent Spring'', p. 267</ref> and emphasized the advice given by the director of Holland's Plant Protection Service: "Practical advice should be 'Spray as little as you possibly can' rather than 'Spray to the limit of your capacity'…Pressure on the pest population should always be as slight as possible." <ref>''Silent Spring'', p. 275</ref> Consequently, some experts have argued that restrictions placed on the agricultural use of DDT have increased its effectiveness as a tool for battling malaria. According to pro-DDT advocate [[Amir Attaran]] the result of the 2004 [[Stockholm Convention]] banning DDT's use in agriculture ''"is arguably better than the status quo ... For the first time, there is now an insecticide which is restricted to vector control only, meaning that the selection of resistant mosquitoes will be slower than before."''<ref>[http://www.malaria.org/DDTpage.html Malaria Foundation International]. Retrieved March 15, 2006.</ref> But though Carson's legacy has been closely tied to DDT, [[Roger Bate]] of the DDT advocacy organization [[Africa Fighting Malaria]] warns that "A lot of people have used Carson to push their own agendas. We just have to be a little careful when you're talking about someone who died in 1964."<ref>[http://www.pbs.org/moyers/journal/09212007/profile2.html Rachel Carson and DDT], ''[[Bill Moyers Journal]]'', September 21, 2007. Retrieved September 29, 2007.</ref> ===Posthumous honors=== <!--[[File:Gordocarson.jpg|right|thumb|A ''[[Gordo (comic strip)|Gordo]]'' Sunday cartoon marking the passing of Rachel Carson in 1964]]--> A variety of groups ranging from government institutions to environmental and conservation organizations to scholarly societies have celebrated Carson's life and work since her death. Perhaps most significantly, on June 9, 1980, Carson was awarded the [[Presidential Medal of Freedom]], the highest civilian honor in the United States<ref>[http://web.archive.org/web/20071018025824/www.medaloffreedom.com/Chronological.htm Chronological List of Medal of Freedom Awards], archived October 18, 2007. Retrieved August 1, 2009.</ref> A 17¢ [[Great Americans series]] [[postage stamp]] was issued in her honor the following year; several other countries have since issued Carson postage as well.<ref>[http://www.planetpatriot.net/stamps2/carson_rachel_stamps.html Marshall Is 2000], [http://stamp-search.com/images/pal9901sh16enviro.jpg Palau 1998], [http://stamp-search.com/images/zam0004sh4-milnm1950-00.jpg Zambia 2000]<br/></ref> <!--[[File:HAER PBG 9thStreet 361504pv.jpg|thumb|The Rachel Carson Bridge in Pittsburgh]]--> Carson's birthplace and childhood home in [[Springdale, Pennsylvania]]&nbsp;— now known as the [[Rachel Carson Homestead]]—became a [[National Register of Historic Places]] site, and the [[nonprofit]] Rachel Carson Homestead Association was created in 1975 to manage it.<ref>[http://www.rachelcarsonhomestead.org/ Rachel Carson Homestead]. Retrieved September 7, 2007.</ref> Her [[Rachel Carson House (Colesville, Maryland)|home]] in [[Colesville, Maryland]] where she wrote ''Silent Spring'' was named a [[National Historic Landmark]] in 1991.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://mht.maryland.gov/nr/NRDetail.aspx?HDID=1094&FROM=NRNHLList.aspx|title=Maryland Historical Trust|date=June 8, 2008|work= National Register of Historic Places: Properties in Montgomery County|publisher=Maryland Historical Trust}}</ref> Near [[Pittsburgh]], a 35.7 mi hiking trail, maintained by the Rachel Carson Trails Conservancy, was dedicated to Carson in 1975.<ref>[http://www.rachelcarsontrails.org/rct Rachel Carson Trail]. Retrieved September 26, 2007.</ref> A Pittsburgh bridge was also renamed in Carson's honor as the [[Rachel Carson Bridge]].<ref name="bridge">Jerome L. Sherman, [http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/06113/684423-85.stm "Environmentalist Rachel Carson's legacy remembered on Earth Day"], ''Pittsburgh Post-Gazette'', April 23, 2006. Retrieved September 23, 2007.</ref> The [[Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection]] State Office Building in [[Harrisburg]] is named in her honor. An elementary school in [[Gaithersburg, Maryland|Gaithersburg]], [[Montgomery County, Maryland]], was named in her honor,<ref>[http://www.montgomeryschoolsmd.org/schools/rachelcarsones/index.shtm Rachel Carson Elementary School]. Retrieved February 22, 2008.</ref> as was a [[Rachel Carson Middle School]] in [[Herndon, Virginia]],<ref>[http://www.fcps.edu/RachelCarsonMS/ Rachel Carson Middle School]. Retrieved February 28, 2008.</ref> and another elementary school in [[Sammamish, Washington]].<ref>[http://www.lwsd.org/school/carson/Pages/default.aspx/ Rachel Carson Elementary]. Retrieved 15 June 2011.</ref> The ceremonial auditorium on the third floor of U.S. EPA's main headquarters, the [[Ariel Rios Building]], is named after Rachel Carson. The Rachel Carson room is just a few feet away from the EPA administrator's office and has been the site of numerous important announcements, including the Clean Air Interstate Rule, since the Agency moved to Ariel Rios in 2001.<ref>[http://yosemite.epa.gov/opa/admpress.nsf/6427a6b7538955c585257359003f0230/1a5d6d4953c0627985256fbf006a9578!OpenDocument&Start=9.4&Count=5&Expand=9.4 CAIR News Advisory]. REtrieved August 18, 2009.</ref> A number of [[conservation area]]s have been named for Carson as well. Between 1964 and 1990, 650 acres near [[Brookeville, Maryland|Brookeville]] in [[Montgomery County, Maryland]] were acquired and set aside as the Rachel Carson Conservation Park, administered by the [[Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission]].<ref>[http://www.montgomeryparks.org/park_of_the_day/may/parkday_may12.shtm MNCPPC: Rachel Carson Conservation Park]. Retrieved August 26, 2007.</ref> In 1969, the Coastal Maine National Wildlife Refuge became the [[Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge]]; expansions will bring the size of the refuge to about 9,125 acres.<ref>[http://www.fws.gov/northeast/rachelcarson/index.html Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge]. Retrieved September 11, 2007.</ref> In 1985, [[North Carolina]] renamed one of its [[estuarine]] reserves in honor of Carson, in [[Beaufort, North Carolina|Beaufort]].<ref>[http://nerrs.noaa.gov/NorthCarolina/welcome.html Rachel Carson Estuarine Research Reserve]{{dead link|date=November 2011}}. Retrieved October 12, 2007.</ref> Carson is also a frequent namesake for prizes awarded by philanthropic, educational and scholarly institutions. The [[Rachel Carson Prize (environmentalist award)|Rachel Carson Prize]], founded in [[Stavanger]], [[Norway]] in 1991, is awarded to women who have made a contribution in the field of environmental protection.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://rachelcarsonprisen.no/eng/The-Prize/What-is-the-Rachel-Carson-Prize|title=What is the Rachel Carson Prize?|publisher=Rachel Carson-prisen|accessdate=March 15, 2010}}</ref> The [[American Society for Environmental History]] has awarded the Rachel Carson Prize for Best Dissertation since 1993.<ref>[http://www.aseh.net/awards/list-of-award-recipients-and-comments Award Recipients&nbsp;– American Society for Environmental History]{{dead link|date=November 2011}}. Retrieved September 11, 2007.</ref> Since 1998, the [[Society for Social Studies of Science]] has awarded an annual [[Rachel Carson Prize (academic book prize)|Rachel Carson Book Prize]] for "a book length work of social or political relevance in the area of science and technology studies."<ref>[http://www.4sonline.org/carson.htm Rachel Carson Book Prize, 4S]. Retrieved September 11, 2007.</ref> ====Centennial events==== <!--[[File:Rachel Carson 100th birthday crowd.jpg|thumb|The celebration of the 100th anniversary of Carson's birth in [[Springdale, Pennsylvania]]]]--> 2007 was the centennial of Carson's birth. On [[Earth Day]] (April 22, 2007), ''Courage for the Earth: Writers, Scientists, and Activists Celebrate the Life and Writing of Rachel Carson'' was released as "a centennial appreciation of Rachel Carson's brave life and transformative writing", thirteen essays by prominent environmental writers and scientists.<ref>[http://www.houghtonmifflinbooks.com/catalog/titledetail.cfm?titleNumber=694257 Houghton Mifflin Trade and Reference Division, ''Courage for the Earth'' release information]. Retrieved September 23, 2007.</ref> Democratic Senator [[Benjamin L. Cardin]] of [[Maryland]] had intended to submit a resolution celebrating Carson for her "legacy of scientific rigor coupled with poetic sensibility" on the 100th anniversary of her birth. The resolution was blocked by Republican Senator [[Tom Coburn]] of [[Oklahoma]],<ref>{{cite news |author=David A. Fahrenthold |title=Bill to honor Rachel Carson Blocked |url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/05/22/AR2007052201574.html |publisher=Washington Post |date=May 23, 2007 }}</ref> who said that "The junk science and stigma surrounding DDT—the cheapest and most effective insecticide on the planet—have finally been jettisoned."<ref>{{cite news |author=Stephen Moore |title=Doctor Tom's DDT Victory |url=http://coburn.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?FuseAction=LatestNews.NewsStories&ContentRecord_id=c7d00e46-802a-23ad-49b7-d4ec2599d64c |publisher=The Wall Street Journal |date=September 19, 2006 }}</ref> The [[Rachel Carson Homestead Association]] held a May 27 birthday party and sustainable feast at her birthplace and home in [[Springdale, Pennsylvania]], and the first Rachel Carson Legacy Conference in Pittsburgh with E.O. Wilson as keynote speaker. Both Rachel's Sustainable Feast and the conference continue as annual events. ==List of works== *''[[Under the Sea Wind]]'', 1941, Simon & Schuster, Penguin Group, 1996, ISBN 0-14-025380-7 *{{cite web |title=Fishes of the Middle West |year=1943 |format=PDF |publisher=United States Government Printing Office |url=http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/usfwspubs/6/}} *{{cite web |title=Fish and Shellfish of the Middle Atlantic Coast |year=1945 |format=PDF |publisher=United States Government Printing Office |url=http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/usfwspubs/3/}} *{{cite web |title=Chincoteague: A National Wildlife Refuge |year=1947 |format=PDF |publisher=United States Government Printing Office |url=http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/usfwspubs/1/}} *{{cite web |title=Mattamuskeet: A National Wildlife Refuge |year=1947 |format=PDF |publisher=United States Government Printing Office |url=http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/usfwspubs/5/}} *{{cite web |title=Parker River: A National Wildlife Refuge |year=1947 |format=PDF |publisher=United States Government Printing Office |url=http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/usfwspubs/4/}} *{{cite web |title=Bear River: A National Wildlife Refuge |year=1950 |format=PDF |publisher=United States Government Printing Office |url=http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/usfwspubs/2/}} (with Vanez T. Wilson) *''[[The Sea Around Us]]'', Oxford University Press, 1951; Oxford University Press, 1991, ISBN 0-19-506997-8 *''[[The Edge of the Sea]]'', Houghton Mifflin 1955; Mariner Books, 1998, ISBN 0-395-92496-0 *''[[Silent Spring]]'', Houghton Mifflin, 1962; Mariner Books, 2002, ISBN 0-618-24906-0 **''Silent Spring'' initially appeared serialized in three parts in the June 16, June 23, and June 30, 1962 issues of ''[[The New Yorker]]'' magazine *''The Sense of Wonder'', 1965, HarperCollins, 1998: ISBN 0-06-757520-X published posthumously *''Always, Rachel: The Letters of Rachel Carson and Dorothy Freeman 1952–1964 An Intimate Portrait of a Remarkable Friendship'', Beacon Press, 1995, ISBN 0-8070-7010-6 edited by Martha Freeman (granddaughter of Dorothy Freeman) *''Lost Woods: The Discovered Writing of Rachel Carson'', Beacon Press, 1998, ISBN 0-8070-8547-2 *''Bedrock: Writers on the Wonders of Geology'', edited by Lauret E. Savoy, [[Eldridge M. Moores]], and Judith E. Moores, [[Trinity University (Texas)#Trinity University Press|Trinity University Press]], 2006, ISBN 1-59534-022-X ==See also== * [[Environmentalism]]{{w|Environmentalism}} <!--* [[Environmental toxicology]] * [[Rachel Carson House (Colesville, Maryland)]] * [[Rachel Carson Homestead]] * [[Rachel Carson Greenway]] (three trails in Central Maryland) * [[Rachel Carson Trail]] * [[Women and the environment through history]]--> ==References== {{reflist|2}} ===Citations=== *{{cite book |last=Hynes |first=H. Patricia |title=The Recurring Silent Spring |publisher=Pergamon Press |location=New York |year=1989 |isbn=0-08-037117-5 |series=Athene series |url=http://books.google.com/?id=MNjaAAAAMAAJ |ref=harv}} *{{cite book |last=Lear |first=Linda |title=Rachel Carson: Witness for Nature |publisher=Henry Holt |location=New York |year=1997 |isbn=0-8050-3428-5 |url=http://books.google.com/?id=2kDGQgAACAAJ |ref=harv}} *{{cite book |last=Lytle |first=Mark Hamilton |title=The Gentle Subversive: Rachel Carson, Silent Spring, and the Rise of the Environmental Movement |publisher=Oxford University Press |location=New York |year=2007 |isbn=0-19-517246-9 |url=http://books.google.com/?id=SOSD4PFchmsC |ref=harv}} *{{cite book |last=Murphy |first=Priscilla Coit |title=What a Book Can Do: The Publication and Reception of Silent Spring |publisher=University of Massachusetts Press |location=Amherst |year=2005 |isbn=978-1-55849-582-1 |url=http://books.google.com/?id=MFWFjvY90PgC |ref=harv}} *{{cite book |last=Kline |first=B |title=First Along the River. Maryland |publisher=Rowma & Littlefield |ref=harv}} *{{cite book |last=Lutts |first=R |title= Chemical fallout: Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, Radioactive Fallout, and the Environmental Movement. |publisher= Environmental Review |year=1985 |ref=harv}} *{{cite book |last=gottlieb |first=R |title=Forging the Spring. |publisher=Island Press |location=Washington D.C. |ref=harv}} ==Further reading== *{{cite book |author=Brooks, Paul |title=The House of Life: Rachel Carson at Work |publisher=Houghton Mifflin |year=1972 |isbn=0-395-13517-6 |url=http://books.google.com/?id=VIkcZTSh7skC }} This book is a personal memoir by Carson's [[Houghton Mifflin]] editor and close friend Paul Brooks. *{{cite book |author=Jezer, Marty |authorlink=Martin Jezer |title=Rachel Carson: Biologist and Author |publisher=Chelsea House Publications |year=1988 |isbn=1-55546-646-X |url=http://books.google.com/?id=pBwVPwAACAAJ |series=American women of achievement}} *{{cite book |editor=Matthiessen, Peter |title=Courage for the Earth: Writers, Scientists, and Activists Celebrate the Life and Writing of Rachel Carson |publisher=Mariner Books |year=2007 |isbn=0-618-87276-0 |url=http://books.google.com/?id=VNXapJVwbC0C |editor-link=Peter Matthiessen }} *{{cite book |author1=Moore, Kathleen Dean |author2=Sideris, Lisa H. |title=Rachel Carson: Legacy and Challenge |publisher=[[SUNY Press]] |location=[[Albany, New York]] |year=2008 |isbn=0-7914-7471-2 |url=http://books.google.com/?id=awR4kJrhQK0C }} *{{cite book |author=Quaratiello, Arlene |title=Rachel Carson: A Biography |publisher=Prometheus|location=[[Amherst, New York]] |year=2010 |isbn=978-1-61614-187-5 |url=http://www.amazon.com/Rachel-Carson-Biography-Arlene-Quaratiello/dp/1616141875/ref=sr_1_3?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1278211359&sr=8-3}} *{{cite journal |author=Sideris, Lisa H. |title=Fact and Fiction, Fear and Wonder: The Legacy of Rachel Carson |journal=Soundings |volume=91 |issue=3-4 |pages=335–69 |date=Fall–Winter 2009 |jstor=41179228}} ==External links== * Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to [http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Special:Search/Rachel_Carson '''''Rachel Carson'''''] * Wikimedia Commons has media related to [http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Rachel_Carson '''''Rachel Carson'''''] *[http://hdl.handle.net/10079/fa/beinecke.carson Rachel Carson Papers]. Yale Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University. *[http://www.mindfully.org/Pesticide/Rachel-Carson-Silent-Spring.htm ''New York Times'' obituary] *[http://www.rachelcarson.org/ RachelCarson.org]—website by Carson biographer Linda Lear *[http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,990622,00.html ''Time'', Mar. 29, 1999, Environmentalist RACHEL CARSON] *[http://www.pbs.org/moyers/journal/09212007/profile.html Revisiting Rachel Carson]—Bill Moyer's Journal, PBS.org, 9-21-2007 *[http://www.pbs.org/moyers/journal/09212007/profile3.html "A Sense of Wonder"] – two-act play about Carson, written and performed by Kaiulani Lee, based on posthumous work of the same name *[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=isoJxPZH1LQ YouTube Clip of Bill Moyers television on Lee's one woman show] * [http://www.montgomeryparks.org/PPSD/ParkTrails/trails_MAPS/Rachel_Carson_Greenway_trails.shtm The Rachel Carson Greenway Trail] in Montgomery County, Maryland * [http://books.google.com/books?id=diEDAAAAMBAJ&pg=RA1-PA14&dq=popular+science+1951+why+our+winters&hl=en&ei=9ALETJujGcf_nAe9r73xCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=popular%20science%201951%20why%20our%20winters&f=true "Why Our Winters Are Getting Warmer", November 1951, ''Popular Science''] - early article by Rachel Carson about how the ocean currents affected climate (excerpt from her 1951 book, ''The Sea Around Us''). *[http://moviemorlocks.com/2011/02/20/rachel-l-carson-as-interpreted-by-irwin-allen/ (Rachel L. Carson as Interpreted by Irwin Allen – TCM Movie Morlocks on THE SEA AROUND US)] '''Carson-related organizations''' *[http://www.rachelcarsonhomestead.org/ The Rachel Carson Homestead] *[http://www.silentspring.org/ Silent Spring Institute] *[http://www.rachelcarsontrails.org/ Rachel Carson Trails Conservancy] *[http://www.chatham.edu/rci/ Rachel Carson Institute] {{Persondata <!-- Metadata: see [[Wikipedia:Persondata]] --> |NAME= Carson, Rachel Louise |ALTERNATIVE NAMES= |SHORT DESCRIPTION= American zoologist, marine biologist, writer and activist |DATE OF BIRTH= May 27, 1907 |PLACE OF BIRTH= [[Springdale, Pennsylvania]], U.S |DATE OF DEATH= April 14, 1964 |PLACE OF DEATH= [[Silver Spring, Maryland]], U.S. }} {{DEFAULTSORT:Carson, Rachel}} [[Category:Appropriate technology advocates]] [[Category:Sustainability advocates]]
Parsed HTML source of the new revision (new_html)
<div class="mw-parser-output"> <!-- NewPP limit report Cached time: 20200218221551 Cache expiry: 86400 Dynamic content: false CPU time usage: 0.001 seconds Real time usage: 0.001 seconds Preprocessor visited node count: 0/1000000 Preprocessor generated node count: 2/1000000 Post‐expand include size: 0/2097152 bytes Template argument size: 0/2097152 bytes Highest expansion depth: 0/40 Expensive parser function count: 0/100 Unstrip recursion depth: 0/20 Unstrip post‐expand size: 0/5000000 bytes --> <!-- Transclusion expansion time report (%,ms,calls,template) 100.00% 0.000 1 -total --> </div>
New page text, stripped of any markup (new_text)
Old page wikitext, parsed into HTML (no more in use) (old_html)
<div class="mw-parser-output"><table class="infobox biography vcard" cellspacing="3" style="border-spacing: 3px; width:22em;"><tbody><tr><th colspan="2" class="" style="text-align:center; font-size:125%; font-weight:bold;"><span class="fn">Rachel Carson</span></th></tr><tr class=""><td colspan="2" class="" style="text-align:center;"> <a href="/File:Rachel-Carson.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="/images/thumb/f/f4/Rachel-Carson.jpg/200px-Rachel-Carson.jpg" decoding="async" width="200" height="253" srcset="/images/thumb/f/f4/Rachel-Carson.jpg/300px-Rachel-Carson.jpg 1.5x, /images/thumb/f/f4/Rachel-Carson.jpg/400px-Rachel-Carson.jpg 2x" /></a><br /><span style="">Rachel Carson, 1940 <br />Fish &amp; Wildlife Service employee photo</span></td></tr><tr class=""><th scope="row" style="text-align:left;">Born</th> <td class="" style=""> <span class="nickname">Rachel Louise Carson</span><br />May 27, 1907<span style="display:none">(<span class="bday">1907-05-27</span>)</span><br />Springdale, Pennsylvania, U.S.</td></tr><tr class=""><th scope="row" style="text-align:left;">Died</th> <td class="" style=""> April 14, 1964<span style="display:none">(<span class="dday">1964-04-14</span>)</span> (aged&#160;56)<br />Silver Spring, Maryland, U.S.</td></tr><tr class=""><th scope="row" style="text-align:left;">Nationality</th> <td class="category" style=""> American</td></tr><tr class=""><th scope="row" style="text-align:left;"><i>Alma mater</i></th> <td class="" style=""> Chatham University,<br />Johns Hopkins University</td></tr><tr class=""><th scope="row" style="text-align:left;">Occupation</th> <td class="role" style=""> [Marine biologist, writer and environmentalist</td></tr> </tbody></table> <p><b>Rachel Louise Carson</b> (May 27, 1907&#160;– April 14, 1964) was an American <a href="/index.php?title=Marine_biology&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Marine biology (page does not exist)">marine biologist</a> and <a href="/index.php?title=Conservation_movement&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Conservation movement (page does not exist)">conservationist</a> whose book <i>Silent Spring</i> and other writings are credited with advancing the global <a href="/index.php?title=Environmental_movement&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Environmental movement (page does not exist)">environmental movement</a>. </p><p>Carson began her career as a biologist in the <a href="/index.php?title=United_States_Fish_and_Wildlife_Service&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="United States Fish and Wildlife Service (page does not exist)">U.S. Bureau of Fisheries</a>, and became a full-time nature writer in the 1950s. Her widely praised 1951 bestseller <i><a href="/index.php?title=The_Sea_Around_Us&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="The Sea Around Us (page does not exist)">The Sea Around Us</a></i> won her a U.S. <a href="/index.php?title=National_Book_Award&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="National Book Award (page does not exist)">National Book Award</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-nba1952_1-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-nba1952-1">&#91;1&#93;</a></sup> recognition as a gifted writer, and financial security. Her next book, <i><a href="/index.php?title=The_Edge_of_the_Sea&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="The Edge of the Sea (page does not exist)">The Edge of the Sea</a></i>, and the reissued version of her first book, <i><a href="/index.php?title=Under_the_Sea_Wind&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Under the Sea Wind (page does not exist)">Under the Sea Wind</a></i>, were also bestsellers. That so-called sea trilogy explores the whole of ocean life from the shores to the surface to the depths. </p><p>Late in the 1950s Carson turned her attention to conservation, especially environmental problems she believed were caused by synthetic <a href="/Pesticide" title="Pesticide">pesticides</a>. The result was <i><a href="/index.php?title=Silent_Spring&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Silent Spring (page does not exist)">Silent Spring</a></i> (1962), which brought environmental concerns to an unprecedented share of the American people. Although Silent Spring met with fierce opposition by chemical companies, it spurred a reversal in national pesticide policy, which led to a nationwide ban on <a href="/DDT" class="mw-redirect" title="DDT">DDT</a> and other pesticides, and it inspired a <a href="/index.php?title=Grassroots&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Grassroots (page does not exist)">grassroots</a> environmental movement that led to the creation of the <a href="/index.php?title=United_States_Environmental_Protection_Agency&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="United States Environmental Protection Agency (page does not exist)">U.S. Environmental Protection Agency</a>. Carson was posthumously awarded the <a href="/index.php?title=Presidential_Medal_of_Freedom&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Presidential Medal of Freedom (page does not exist)">Presidential Medal of Freedom</a> by <a href="/index.php?title=Jimmy_Carter&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Jimmy Carter (page does not exist)">Jimmy Carter</a>. </p> <div id="toc" class="toc"><input type="checkbox" role="button" id="toctogglecheckbox" class="toctogglecheckbox" style="display:none" /><div class="toctitle" lang="en" dir="ltr"><h2>Contents</h2><span class="toctogglespan"><label class="toctogglelabel" for="toctogglecheckbox"></label></span></div> <ul> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-1"><a href="#Life_and_work"><span class="tocnumber">1</span> <span class="toctext">Life and work</span></a> <ul> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-2"><a href="#Early_life_and_education"><span class="tocnumber">1.1</span> <span class="toctext">Early life and education</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-3"><a href="#Early_career_and_publications"><span class="tocnumber">1.2</span> <span class="toctext">Early career and publications</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-4"><a href="#Relationship_with_Dorothy_Freeman"><span class="tocnumber">1.3</span> <span class="toctext">Relationship with Dorothy Freeman</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-5"><a href="#The_Edge_of_the_Sea_and_transition_to_conservation_work"><span class="tocnumber">1.4</span> <span class="toctext"><i>The Edge of the Sea</i> and transition to conservation work</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-6"><a href="#Silent_Spring"><span class="tocnumber">1.5</span> <span class="toctext"><i>Silent Spring</i></span></a> <ul> <li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-7"><a href="#Research_and_writing"><span class="tocnumber">1.5.1</span> <span class="toctext">Research and writing</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-8"><a href="#Argument"><span class="tocnumber">1.5.2</span> <span class="toctext">Argument</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-9"><a href="#Promotion_and_reception"><span class="tocnumber">1.5.3</span> <span class="toctext">Promotion and reception</span></a></li> </ul> </li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-10"><a href="#Death"><span class="tocnumber">1.6</span> <span class="toctext">Death</span></a></li> </ul> </li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-11"><a href="#Legacy"><span class="tocnumber">2</span> <span class="toctext">Legacy</span></a> <ul> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-12"><a href="#Collected_papers_and_posthumous_publications"><span class="tocnumber">2.1</span> <span class="toctext">Collected papers and posthumous publications</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-13"><a href="#Grassroots_environmentalism_and_the_EPA"><span class="tocnumber">2.2</span> <span class="toctext">Grassroots environmentalism and the EPA</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-14"><a href="#Science.2C_nature.2C_DDT.2C_and_food_production"><span class="tocnumber">2.3</span> <span class="toctext">Science, nature, DDT, and food production</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-15"><a href="#Criticisms_of_environmentalism_and_DDT_restrictions"><span class="tocnumber">2.4</span> <span class="toctext">Criticisms of environmentalism and DDT restrictions</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-16"><a href="#Posthumous_honors"><span class="tocnumber">2.5</span> <span class="toctext">Posthumous honors</span></a> <ul> <li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-17"><a href="#Centennial_events"><span class="tocnumber">2.5.1</span> <span class="toctext">Centennial events</span></a></li> </ul> </li> </ul> </li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-18"><a href="#List_of_works"><span class="tocnumber">3</span> <span class="toctext">List of works</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-19"><a href="#See_also"><span class="tocnumber">4</span> <span class="toctext">See also</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-20"><a href="#References"><span class="tocnumber">5</span> <span class="toctext">References</span></a> <ul> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-21"><a href="#Citations"><span class="tocnumber">5.1</span> <span class="toctext">Citations</span></a></li> </ul> </li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-22"><a href="#Further_reading"><span class="tocnumber">6</span> <span class="toctext">Further reading</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-23"><a href="#External_links"><span class="tocnumber">7</span> <span class="toctext">External links</span></a></li> </ul> </div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Life_and_work">Life and work</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/index.php?title=User:RichardF/Sandbox&amp;action=edit&amp;section=1" title="Edit section: Life and work">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Early_life_and_education">Early life and education</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/index.php?title=User:RichardF/Sandbox&amp;action=edit&amp;section=2" title="Edit section: Early life and education">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3> <p>Rachel Carson was born on May 27, 1907, on a small family farm near <a href="/index.php?title=Springdale,_Pennsylvania&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Springdale, Pennsylvania (page does not exist)">Springdale, Pennsylvania</a>, just up the <a href="/index.php?title=Allegheny_River&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Allegheny River (page does not exist)">Allegheny River</a> from <a href="/index.php?title=Pittsburgh&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Pittsburgh (page does not exist)">Pittsburgh</a>. An avid reader, she also spent a lot of time exploring around her family's 65 acre farm. She began writing stories (often involving animals) at age eight, and had her first story published at age eleven. She especially enjoyed the <i><a href="/index.php?title=St._Nicholas_Magazine&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="St. Nicholas Magazine (page does not exist)">St. Nicholas Magazine</a></i> (which carried her first published stories), the works of <a href="/index.php?title=Beatrix_Potter&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Beatrix Potter (page does not exist)">Beatrix Potter</a>, and the novels of <a href="/index.php?title=Gene_Stratton_Porter&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Gene Stratton Porter (page does not exist)">Gene Stratton Porter</a>, and in her teen years, <a href="/index.php?title=Herman_Melville&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Herman Melville (page does not exist)">Herman Melville</a>, <a href="/index.php?title=Joseph_Conrad&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Joseph Conrad (page does not exist)">Joseph Conrad</a> and <a href="/index.php?title=Robert_Louis_Stevenson&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Robert Louis Stevenson (page does not exist)">Robert Louis Stevenson</a>. The natural world, particularly the ocean, was the common thread of her favorite literature. Carson attended Springdale's small school through tenth grade, then completed high school in nearby <a href="/index.php?title=Parnassus,_Pennsylvania&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Parnassus, Pennsylvania (page does not exist)">Parnassus, Pennsylvania</a>, graduating in 1925 at the top of her class of forty-five students.<sup id="cite_ref-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-2">&#91;2&#93;</a></sup> </p><p>At the Pennsylvania College for Women (today known as <a href="/index.php?title=Chatham_University&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Chatham University (page does not exist)">Chatham University</a>), as in high school, Carson was somewhat of a loner. She originally studied English, but switched her major to biology in January 1928, though she continued contributing to the school's student newspaper and literary supplement. Though admitted to graduate standing at <a href="/index.php?title=Johns_Hopkins_University&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Johns Hopkins University (page does not exist)">Johns Hopkins University</a> in 1928, she was forced to remain at the Pennsylvania College for Women for her senior year due to financial difficulties; she graduated <i><a href="/index.php?title=Magna_cum_laude&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Magna cum laude (page does not exist)">magna cum laude</a></i> in 1929. After a summer course at the <a href="/index.php?title=Marine_Biological_Laboratory&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Marine Biological Laboratory (page does not exist)">Marine Biological Laboratory</a>, she continued her studies in <a href="/index.php?title=Zoology&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Zoology (page does not exist)">zoology</a> and <a href="/index.php?title=Genetics&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Genetics (page does not exist)">genetics</a> at Johns Hopkins in the fall of 1929.<sup id="cite_ref-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-3">&#91;3&#93;</a></sup> </p><p>After her first year of graduate school, Carson became a part-time student, taking an assistantship in <a href="/index.php?title=Raymond_Pearl&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Raymond Pearl (page does not exist)">Raymond Pearl</a>'s laboratory, where she worked with rats and <i><a href="/index.php?title=Drosophila&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Drosophila (page does not exist)">Drosophila</a></i>, to earn money for tuition. After false starts with <a href="/index.php?title=Pit_vipers&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Pit vipers (page does not exist)">pit vipers</a> and <a href="/index.php?title=Squirrel&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Squirrel (page does not exist)">squirrels</a>, she completed a dissertation project on the embryonic development of the <a href="/index.php?title=Pronephros&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Pronephros (page does not exist)">pronephros</a> in fish. She earned a master's degree in zoology in June 1932. She had intended to continue for a doctorate, but in 1934 Carson was forced to leave Johns Hopkins to search for a full-time teaching position to help support her family. In 1935, her father died suddenly, leaving Carson to care for her aging mother and making the financial situation even more critical. At the urging of her undergraduate biology mentor Mary Scott Skinker, she settled for a temporary position with the <a href="/index.php?title=U.S._Bureau_of_Fisheries&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="U.S. Bureau of Fisheries (page does not exist)">U.S. Bureau of Fisheries</a>, writing radio copy for a series of weekly educational broadcasts entitled "Romance Under the Waters". The series of fifty-two seven-minute programs focused on aquatic life and was intended to generate public interest in fish biology and in the work of the bureau—a task the several writers before Carson had not managed. Carson also began submitting articles on marine life in the <a href="/index.php?title=Chesapeake_Bay&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Chesapeake Bay (page does not exist)">Chesapeake Bay</a>, based on her research for the series, to local newspapers and magazines.<sup id="cite_ref-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-4">&#91;4&#93;</a></sup> </p><p>Carson's supervisor, pleased with the success of the radio series, asked her to write the introduction to a public brochure about the fisheries bureau; he also worked to secure her the first full-time position that became available. Sitting for the <a href="/index.php?title=American_civil_service&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="American civil service (page does not exist)">civil service</a> exam, she outscored all other applicants and in 1936 became only the second woman to be hired by the Bureau of Fisheries for a full-time, professional position, as a junior aquatic biologist.<sup id="cite_ref-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-5">&#91;5&#93;</a></sup> </p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Early_career_and_publications">Early career and publications</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/index.php?title=User:RichardF/Sandbox&amp;action=edit&amp;section=3" title="Edit section: Early career and publications">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3> <p>At the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries, Carson's main responsibilities were to analyze and report field data on fish populations, and to write brochures and other literature for the public. Using her research and consultations with marine biologists as starting points, she also wrote a steady stream of articles for <i><a href="/index.php?title=The_Baltimore_Sun&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="The Baltimore Sun (page does not exist)">The Baltimore Sun</a></i> and other newspapers. However, her family responsibilities further increased in January 1937 when her older sister died, leaving Carson as the sole breadwinner for her mother and two nieces.<sup id="cite_ref-6" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-6">&#91;6&#93;</a></sup> </p><p>In July 1937, the <i><a href="/index.php?title=Atlantic_Monthly&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Atlantic Monthly (page does not exist)">Atlantic Monthly</a></i> accepted a revised version of an essay, "The World of Waters", that she had originally written for her first fisheries bureau brochure; her supervisor had deemed it too good for that purpose. The essay, published as "Undersea", was a vivid narrative of a journey along the ocean floor. It marked a major turning point in Carson's writing career. Publishing house <a href="/index.php?title=Simon_%26_Schuster&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Simon &amp; Schuster (page does not exist)">Simon &amp; Schuster</a>, impressed by "Undersea", contacted Carson and suggested that she expand it into book form. Several years of writing resulted in <i><a href="/index.php?title=Under_the_Sea_Wind&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Under the Sea Wind (page does not exist)">Under the Sea Wind</a></i> (1941), which received excellent reviews but sold poorly. In the meantime, Carson's article-writing success continued—her features appeared in <i>Sun Magazine</i>, <i><a href="/index.php?title=Nature_(journal)&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Nature (journal) (page does not exist)">Nature</a></i>, and <i><a href="/index.php?title=Collier%27s_Weekly&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Collier&#39;s Weekly (page does not exist)">Collier's</a></i>.<sup id="cite_ref-7" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-7">&#91;7&#93;</a></sup> </p><p>Carson attempted to leave the Bureau (by then transformed into the <a href="/index.php?title=Fish_and_Wildlife_Service&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Fish and Wildlife Service (page does not exist)">Fish and Wildlife Service</a>) in 1945, but few jobs for naturalists were available as most money for science was focused on technical fields in the wake of the <a href="/index.php?title=Manhattan_Project&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Manhattan Project (page does not exist)">Manhattan Project</a>. In mid-1945, Carson first encountered the subject of <a href="/DDT" class="mw-redirect" title="DDT">DDT</a>, a revolutionary new pesticide (lauded as the "insect bomb" after the <a href="/index.php?title=Atomic_bombings_of_Hiroshima_and_Nagasaki&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (page does not exist)">atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki</a>) that was only beginning to undergo tests for safety and ecological effects. DDT was but one of Carson's many writing interests at the time, and editors found the subject unappealing; she published nothing on DDT until 1962.<sup id="cite_ref-8" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-8">&#91;8&#93;</a></sup> </p><p>Carson rose within the Fish and Wildlife Service, supervising a small writing staff by 1945 and becoming chief editor of publications in 1949. Though her position provided increasing opportunities for fieldwork and freedom in choosing her writing projects, it also entailed increasingly tedious administrative responsibilities. By 1948, Carson was working on material for a second book and had made the conscious decision to begin a transition to writing full-time. That year, she took on a literary agent, <a href="/index.php?title=Marie_Rodell&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Marie Rodell (page does not exist)">Marie Rodell</a>; they formed a close professional relationship that would last the rest of Carson's career.<sup id="cite_ref-9" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-9">&#91;9&#93;</a></sup> </p><p><a href="/index.php?title=Oxford_University_Press&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Oxford University Press (page does not exist)">Oxford University Press</a> expressed interest in Carson's book proposal for a life history of the ocean, spurring her to complete the manuscript of what would become <i><a href="/index.php?title=The_Sea_Around_Us&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="The Sea Around Us (page does not exist)">The Sea Around Us</a></i> by early 1950.<sup id="cite_ref-10" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-10">&#91;10&#93;</a></sup> Chapters appeared in <i><a href="/index.php?title=Science_Digest&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Science Digest (page does not exist)">Science Digest</a></i> and the <i><a href="/index.php?title=Yale_Review&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Yale Review (page does not exist)">Yale Review</a></i>—the latter chapter, "The Birth of an Island", winning the <a href="/index.php?title=American_Association_for_the_Advancement_of_Science&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="American Association for the Advancement of Science (page does not exist)">American Association for the Advancement of Science</a>'s George Westinghouse Science Writing Prize. Nine chapters were serialized in <i><a href="/index.php?title=The_New_Yorker&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="The New Yorker (page does not exist)">The New Yorker</a></i> beginning June 1951 and the book was published July 2, 1951, by <a href="/index.php?title=Oxford_University_Press&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Oxford University Press (page does not exist)">Oxford University Press</a>. <i>The Sea Around Us</i> remained on the <a href="/index.php?title=New_York_Times_Best_Seller_List&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="New York Times Best Seller List (page does not exist)">New York Times Best Seller List</a> for 86 weeks, was abridged by <i><a href="/index.php?title=Reader%27s_Digest&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Reader&#39;s Digest (page does not exist)">Reader's Digest</a></i>, won the 1952 <a href="/index.php?title=National_Book_Award_for_Nonfiction&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="National Book Award for Nonfiction (page does not exist)">National Book Award for Nonfiction</a><sup id="cite_ref-nba1952_1-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-nba1952-1">&#91;1&#93;</a></sup> and the <a href="/index.php?title=Burroughs_Medal&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Burroughs Medal (page does not exist)">Burroughs Medal</a>, and resulted in Carson's being awarded two honorary doctorates. She also licensed a documentary film based on it. <i>The Sea'</i>s success led to the republication of <i>Under the Sea Wind</i>, which became a bestseller itself. With success came financial security, and Carson was able to give up her job in 1952 to concentrate on writing full time.<sup id="cite_ref-11" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-11">&#91;11&#93;</a></sup> </p><p>Carson was inundated with speaking engagements, <a href="/index.php?title=Fan_mail&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Fan mail (page does not exist)">fan mail</a> and other correspondence regarding <i>The Sea Around Us</i>, along with work on the documentary script that she had secured the right to review.<sup id="cite_ref-12" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-12">&#91;12&#93;</a></sup> She was very unhappy with the final version of the script by writer, director and producer <a href="/index.php?title=Irwin_Allen&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Irwin Allen (page does not exist)">Irwin Allen</a>; she found it untrue to the atmosphere of the book and scientifically embarrassing, describing it as "a cross between a believe-it-or-not and a breezy travelogue."<sup id="cite_ref-13" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-13">&#91;13&#93;</a></sup> She discovered, however, that her right to review the script did not extend to any control over its content. Allen proceeded in spite of Carson's objections to produce a very successful documentary. It won the 1953 <a href="/index.php?title=Oscar_for_Best_Documentary&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Oscar for Best Documentary (page does not exist)">Oscar for Best Documentary</a>, but Carson was so embittered by the experience that she never again sold film rights to her work.<sup id="cite_ref-14" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-14">&#91;14&#93;</a></sup> </p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Relationship_with_Dorothy_Freeman">Relationship with Dorothy Freeman</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/index.php?title=User:RichardF/Sandbox&amp;action=edit&amp;section=4" title="Edit section: Relationship with Dorothy Freeman">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3> <p>Carson moved with her mother to <a href="/index.php?title=Southport_Island,_Maine&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Southport Island, Maine (page does not exist)">Southport Island, Maine</a>, in 1953, and in July of that year met Dorothy Freeman (1898–1978) — the beginning of an extremely close relationship that would last the rest of Carson's life. The nature of the relationship between Carson and Freeman has been the subject of speculation. Carson met Freeman, a summer resident of the island along with her husband, after Freeman had written to Carson to welcome her. Freeman had read <i>The Sea Around Us</i>, a gift from her son, and was excited to have the prominent author as a neighbor. Carson's biographer, Linda Lear, writes that "Carson sorely needed a devoted friend and kindred spirit who would listen to her without advising and accept her wholly, the writer as well as the woman."<sup id="cite_ref-15" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-15">&#91;15&#93;</a></sup> She found this in Freeman. The two women had a number of common interests, nature chief among them, and began exchanging letters regularly while apart. They would share summers for the remainder of Carson's life, and meet whenever else their schedules permitted.<sup id="cite_ref-16" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-16">&#91;16&#93;</a></sup> </p><p>Though Lear does not explicitly describe the relationship as romantic, others (such as the encyclopedia <i><a href="/index.php?title=Glbtq.com&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Glbtq.com (page does not exist)">glbtq</a></i><sup id="cite_ref-letters_with_Freeman_17-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-letters_with_Freeman-17">&#91;17&#93;</a></sup>) have noted that Carson and Freeman realized the letters could be interpreted as <a href="/index.php?title=Lesbian&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Lesbian (page does not exist)">lesbian</a>, even though <i>"the expression of their love was limited almost wholly to letters and very occasional farewell kisses or holding of hands"</i>.<sup id="cite_ref-18" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-18">&#91;18&#93;</a></sup> Freeman shared parts of Carson's letters with her husband to help him understand the relationship, but much of their correspondence was carefully guarded.<sup id="cite_ref-19" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-19">&#91;19&#93;</a></sup> </p><p>Shortly before Carson's death, she and Freeman destroyed hundreds of letters. The surviving correspondence was published in 1995 as <i>Always, Rachel: The Letters of Rachel Carson and Dorothy Freeman, 1952–1964: An Intimate Portrait of a Remarkable Friendship</i>, edited by Freeman's granddaughter. According to one reviewer, the pair "fit Carolyn Heilbrun's characterization of a strong female friendship, where what matters is 'not whether friends are homosexual or heterosexual, lovers or not, but whether they share the wonderful energy of work in the public sphere'".<sup id="cite_ref-20" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-20">&#91;20&#93;</a></sup> </p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="The_Edge_of_the_Sea_and_transition_to_conservation_work"><i>The Edge of the Sea</i> and transition to conservation work</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/index.php?title=User:RichardF/Sandbox&amp;action=edit&amp;section=5" title="Edit section: The Edge of the Sea and transition to conservation work">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3> <p>Early in 1953 Carson began library and field research on the ecology and organisms of the Atlantic shore.<sup id="cite_ref-21" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-21">&#91;21&#93;</a></sup> In 1955, she completed the third volume of her sea trilogy, <i><a href="/index.php?title=The_Edge_of_the_Sea&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="The Edge of the Sea (page does not exist)">The Edge of the Sea</a></i>, which focuses on life in <a href="/index.php?title=Coastal&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Coastal (page does not exist)">coastal</a> ecosystems (particularly along the <a href="/index.php?title=Eastern_Seaboard&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Eastern Seaboard (page does not exist)">Eastern Seaboard</a>). It appeared in <i>The New Yorker</i> in two condensed installments shortly before its October 26 book release by <a href="/index.php?title=Houghton_Mifflin&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Houghton Mifflin (page does not exist)">Houghton Mifflin</a> (again a new publisher). By this time, Carson's reputation for clear and poetical prose was well established; <i>The Edge of the Sea</i> received highly favorable reviews, if not quite as enthusiastic as for <i>The Sea Around Us</i>.<sup id="cite_ref-22" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-22">&#91;22&#93;</a></sup> </p><p>Through 1955 and 1956, Carson worked on a number of projects—including the script for an <i><a href="/index.php?title=Omnibus_(US_TV_series)&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Omnibus (US TV series) (page does not exist)">Omnibus</a></i> episode, "Something About the Sky"—and wrote articles for popular magazines. Her plan for the next book was to address <a href="/index.php?title=Evolution&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Evolution (page does not exist)">evolution</a>, but the publication of <a href="/index.php?title=Julian_Huxley&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Julian Huxley (page does not exist)">Julian Huxley</a>'s <i>Evolution in Action</i>—and her own difficulty in finding a clear and compelling approach to the topic—led her to abandon the project. Instead, her interests were turning to conservation. She considered an environment-themed book project tentatively entitled <i>Remembrance of the Earth</i> and became involved with <a href="/index.php?title=The_Nature_Conservancy&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="The Nature Conservancy (page does not exist)">The Nature Conservancy</a> and other conservation groups. She also made plans to buy and preserve from development an area in Maine she and Freeman called the "Lost Woods".<sup id="cite_ref-23" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-23">&#91;23&#93;</a></sup> </p><p>Early in 1957, family tragedy struck a third time when one of the nieces she had cared for in the 1940s died at the age of 31, leaving a five-year-old orphan son, Roger Christie. Carson took on that responsibility, adopting the boy, alongside continuing to care for her aging mother; this took a considerable toll on Carson. She moved to <a href="/index.php?title=Silver_Spring,_Maryland&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Silver Spring, Maryland (page does not exist)">Silver Spring</a>, <a href="/Maryland" title="Maryland">Maryland</a>, to care for Roger, and much of 1957 was spent putting their new living situation in order and focusing on specific environmental threats.<sup id="cite_ref-24" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-24">&#91;24&#93;</a></sup> </p><p>By fall 1957, Carson was closely following federal proposals for widespread pesticide spraying; the <a href="/index.php?title=USDA&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="USDA (page does not exist)">USDA</a> planned to eradicate <a href="/index.php?title=Red_imported_fire_ant&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Red imported fire ant (page does not exist)">fire ants</a>, and other spraying programs involving <a href="/index.php?title=Chlorinated_hydrocarbons&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Chlorinated hydrocarbons (page does not exist)">chlorinated hydrocarbons</a> and <a href="/index.php?title=Organophosphates&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Organophosphates (page does not exist)">organophosphates</a> were on the rise.<sup id="cite_ref-25" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-25">&#91;25&#93;</a></sup> For the rest of her life, Carson's main professional focus would be the dangers of pesticide overuse. </p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Silent_Spring"><i>Silent Spring</i></span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/index.php?title=User:RichardF/Sandbox&amp;action=edit&amp;section=6" title="Edit section: Silent Spring">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3> <dl><dd><i>Main article: Silent Spring<sup><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silent_Spring" class="extiw" title="wikipedia:Silent Spring">W</a></sup></i></dd> <dd><i>See also: Timeline of environmental events<sup><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_environmental_events" class="extiw" title="wikipedia:Timeline of environmental events">W</a></sup>, DDT<sup><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DDT" class="extiw" title="wikipedia:DDT">W</a></sup> and Merchants of Doubt<sup><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Merchants_of_Doubt" class="extiw" title="wikipedia:Merchants of Doubt">W</a></sup></i></dd></dl> <p><i><a href="/index.php?title=Silent_Spring&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Silent Spring (page does not exist)">Silent Spring</a></i> is a book written by Rachel Carson and published by <a href="/index.php?title=Houghton_Mifflin&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Houghton Mifflin (page does not exist)">Houghton Mifflin</a> on 27 September 1962.<sup id="cite_ref-McLaughlin_26-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-McLaughlin-26">&#91;26&#93;</a></sup> The book is widely credited with helping launch the <a href="/index.php?title=Environmental_movement&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Environmental movement (page does not exist)">environmental movement</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-27" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-27">&#91;27&#93;</a></sup> In 1994 an edition of <i>Silent Spring</i> was published in which vice president <a href="/Al_Gore" title="Al Gore">Al Gore</a> wrote the introduction. </p> <h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Research_and_writing">Research and writing</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/index.php?title=User:RichardF/Sandbox&amp;action=edit&amp;section=7" title="Edit section: Research and writing">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4> <p>Starting in the mid-1940s, Carson had become concerned about the use of synthetic pesticides, many of which had been developed through the <a href="/index.php?title=Military_funding_of_science&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Military funding of science (page does not exist)">military funding of science</a> since <a href="/index.php?title=World_War_II&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="World War II (page does not exist)">World War II</a>. It was the USDA's 1957 <a href="/index.php?title=Fire_ant&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Fire ant (page does not exist)">fire ant</a> eradication program, however, that prompted Carson to devote her research, and her next book, to pesticides and environmental poisons. The fire ant program involved aerial spraying of <a href="/DDT" class="mw-redirect" title="DDT">DDT</a> and other pesticides (mixed with <a href="/index.php?title=Fuel_oil&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Fuel oil (page does not exist)">fuel oil</a>), including the spraying of private land. Landowners in Long Island filed a suit to have the spraying stopped, and many in affected regions followed the case closely. Though the suit was lost, the <a href="/index.php?title=Supreme_Court_of_the_United_States&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Supreme Court of the United States (page does not exist)">Supreme Court</a> granted petitioners the right to gain injunctions against potential environmental damage in the future; this laid the basis for later successful environmental actions.<sup id="cite_ref-28" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-28">&#91;28&#93;</a></sup> </p><p>The Washington, D.C. chapter of the <a href="/index.php?title=Audubon_Society&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Audubon Society (page does not exist)">Audubon Society</a> also actively opposed such spraying programs, and recruited Carson to help make public the government's exact spraying practices and the related research.<sup id="cite_ref-29" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-29">&#91;29&#93;</a></sup> Carson began the four-year project of what would become <i><a href="/index.php?title=Silent_Spring&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Silent Spring (page does not exist)">Silent Spring</a></i> by gathering examples of environmental damage attributed to DDT. She also attempted to enlist others to join the cause: essayist <a href="/index.php?title=E._B._White&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="E. B. White (page does not exist)">E. B. White</a>, and a number of journalists and scientists. By 1958, Carson had arranged a book deal, with plans to co-write with <i><a href="/index.php?title=Newsweek&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Newsweek (page does not exist)">Newsweek</a></i> science journalist Edwin Diamond. However, when <i>The New Yorker</i> commissioned a long and well-paid article on the topic from Carson, she began considering writing more than simply the introduction and conclusion as planned; soon it was a solo project. (Diamond would later write one of the harshest critiques of <i>Silent Spring</i>.)<sup id="cite_ref-30" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-30">&#91;30&#93;</a></sup> </p><p>As her research progressed, Carson found a sizable community of scientists who were documenting the physiological and environmental effects of pesticides. She also took advantage of her personal connections with many government scientists, who supplied her with confidential information. From reading the scientific literature and interviewing scientists, Carson found two scientific camps when it came to pesticides: those who dismissed the possible danger of pesticide spraying barring conclusive proof, and those who were open to the possibility of harm and willing to consider alternative methods such as <a href="/Biological_pest_control" title="Biological pest control">biological pest control</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-31" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-31">&#91;31&#93;</a></sup> </p><p>By 1959, the <a href="/index.php?title=USDA&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="USDA (page does not exist)">USDA</a>'s <a href="/index.php?title=Agricultural_Research_Service&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Agricultural Research Service (page does not exist)">Agricultural Research Service</a> responded to the criticism by Carson and others with a public service film, <i>Fire Ants on Trial</i>; Carson characterized it as "flagrant <a href="/index.php?title=Propaganda&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Propaganda (page does not exist)">propaganda</a>" that ignored the dangers that spraying pesticides (especially <a href="/index.php?title=Dieldrin&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Dieldrin (page does not exist)">dieldrin</a> and <a href="/index.php?title=Heptachlor&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Heptachlor (page does not exist)">heptachlor</a>) posed to humans and wildlife. That spring, Carson wrote a letter, published in <i><a href="/index.php?title=The_Washington_Post&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="The Washington Post (page does not exist)">The Washington Post</a></i>, that attributed the recent decline in bird populations—in her words, the "silencing of birds"—to pesticide overuse.<sup id="cite_ref-32" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-32">&#91;32&#93;</a></sup> That was also the year of the "Great Cranberry Scandal": the 1957, 1958, and 1959 crops of U.S. <a href="/index.php?title=Cranberry&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Cranberry (page does not exist)">cranberries</a> were found to contain high levels of the herbicide <a href="/index.php?title=Aminotriazole&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Aminotriazole (page does not exist)">aminotriazole</a> (which caused cancer in laboratory rats) and the sale of all cranberry products was halted. Carson attended the ensuing FDA hearings on revising pesticide regulations; she came away discouraged by the aggressive tactics of the chemical industry representatives, which included expert testimony that was firmly contradicted by the bulk of the scientific literature she had been studying. She also wondered about the possible "financial inducements behind certain pesticide programs".<sup id="cite_ref-33" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-33">&#91;33&#93;</a></sup> </p><p>Research at the <a href="/index.php?title=United_States_National_Library_of_Medicine&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="United States National Library of Medicine (page does not exist)">Library of Medicine</a> of the <a href="/index.php?title=National_Institutes_of_Health&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="National Institutes of Health (page does not exist)">National Institutes of Health</a> brought Carson into contact with medical researchers investigating the gamut of cancer-causing chemicals. Of particular significance was the work of <a href="/index.php?title=National_Cancer_Institute&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="National Cancer Institute (page does not exist)">National Cancer Institute</a> researcher and founding director of the environmental cancer section <a href="/index.php?title=Wilhelm_Hueper&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Wilhelm Hueper (page does not exist)">Wilhelm Hueper</a>, who classified many pesticides as carcinogens. Carson and her research assistant Jeanne Davis, with the help of NIH librarian Dorothy Algire, found evidence to support the pesticide-cancer connection; to Carson the evidence for the toxicity of a wide array of synthetic pesticides was clear-cut, though such conclusions were very controversial beyond the small community of scientists studying pesticide <a href="/index.php?title=Carcinogenesis&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Carcinogenesis (page does not exist)">carcinogenesis</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-34" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-34">&#91;34&#93;</a></sup> </p><p>By 1960, Carson had more than enough research material, and the writing was progressing rapidly. In addition to the thorough literature search, she had investigated hundreds of individual incidents of pesticide exposure and the human sickness and ecological damage that resulted. However, in January, a duodenal ulcer followed by several infections kept her bedridden for weeks, greatly delaying the completion of <i>Silent Spring</i>. As she was nearing full recovery in March (just as she was completing drafts of the two cancer chapters of her book), she discovered cysts in her left breast, one of which necessitated a <a href="/index.php?title=Mastectomy&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Mastectomy (page does not exist)">mastectomy</a>. Though her doctor described the procedure as precautionary and recommended no further treatment, by December Carson discovered that the tumor was in fact <a href="/index.php?title=Malignant&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Malignant (page does not exist)">malignant</a> and the cancer had <a href="/index.php?title=Metastasized&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Metastasized (page does not exist)">metastasized</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-35" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-35">&#91;35&#93;</a></sup> Her research was also delayed by revision work for a new edition of <i>The Sea Around Us</i>, and by a collaborative photo essay with <a href="/index.php?title=Erich_Hartmann_(photographer)&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Erich Hartmann (photographer) (page does not exist)">Erich Hartmann</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-36" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-36">&#91;36&#93;</a></sup> Most of the research and writing was done by the fall of 1960, except for the discussion of recent research on <a href="/index.php?title=Biological_controls&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Biological controls (page does not exist)">biological controls</a> and investigations of a handful of new pesticides. However, further health troubles slowed the final revisions in 1961 and early 1962.<sup id="cite_ref-37" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-37">&#91;37&#93;</a></sup> </p><p>It was difficult finding a title for the book; "Silent Spring" was initially suggested as a title for the chapter on birds. By August 1961, Carson finally agreed to the suggestion of her literary agent Marie Rodell: <i>Silent Spring</i> would be a metaphorical title for the entire book—suggesting a bleak future for the whole natural world—rather than a literal chapter title about the absence of birdsong.<sup id="cite_ref-38" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-38">&#91;38&#93;</a></sup> With Carson's approval, editor Paul Brooks at <a href="/index.php?title=Houghton_Mifflin&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Houghton Mifflin (page does not exist)">Houghton Mifflin</a> arranged for illustrations by Louis and Lois Darling, who also designed the cover. The final writing was the first chapter, "A Fable for Tomorrow", which was intended to provide a gentler introduction to what might otherwise be a forbiddingly serious topic. By mid-1962, Brooks and Carson had largely finished the editing, and were laying the groundwork for promoting the book by sending the manuscript out to select individuals for final suggestions.<sup id="cite_ref-39" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-39">&#91;39&#93;</a></sup> </p> <h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Argument">Argument</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/index.php?title=User:RichardF/Sandbox&amp;action=edit&amp;section=8" title="Edit section: Argument">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4> <p>As biographer Mark Hamilton Lytle writes, Carson "quite self-consciously decided to write a book calling into question the <a href="/index.php?title=Paradigm&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Paradigm (page does not exist)">paradigm</a> of <a href="/index.php?title=Scientific_progress&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Scientific progress (page does not exist)">scientific progress</a> that defined <a href="/index.php?title=Postwar&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Postwar (page does not exist)">postwar</a> American culture." The overriding theme of <i>Silent Spring</i> is the powerful—and often negative—effect humans have on the natural world.<sup id="cite_ref-40" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-40">&#91;40&#93;</a></sup> </p><p>Carson's main argument is that <a href="/Pesticide" title="Pesticide">pesticides</a> have detrimental effects on the environment; they are more properly termed "<a href="/index.php?title=Biocide&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Biocide (page does not exist)">biocides</a>", she argues, because their effects are rarely limited to the target pests. DDT is a prime example, but other synthetic pesticides come under scrutiny as well—many of which are subject to <a href="/index.php?title=Bioaccumulation&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Bioaccumulation (page does not exist)">bioaccumulation</a>. Carson also accuses the <a href="/index.php?title=Chemical_industry&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Chemical industry (page does not exist)">chemical industry</a> of intentionally spreading <a href="/index.php?title=Disinformation&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Disinformation (page does not exist)">disinformation</a> and public officials of accepting industry claims uncritically. Most of the book is devoted to pesticides' effects on natural ecosystems, but four chapters also detail cases of human pesticide poisoning, cancer, and other illnesses attributed to pesticides.<sup id="cite_ref-41" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-41">&#91;41&#93;</a></sup> About DDT and cancer, the subject of so much subsequent debate, Carson says only a little: </p> <blockquote> <p>In laboratory tests on animal subjects, DDT has produced suspicious liver tumors. Scientists of the Food and Drug Administration who reported the discovery of these tumors were uncertain how to classify them, but felt there was some "justification for considering them low grade hepatic cell carcinomas." Dr. Hueper [author of <i>Occupational Tumors and Allied Diseases</i>] now gives DDT the definite rating of a "chemical carcinogen."<sup id="cite_ref-42" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-42">&#91;42&#93;</a></sup> </p> <p style="text-align:left; font-size:90%;">— Rachel Carson, <i>Silent Spring</i>, p. 225</p> </blockquote> <p>Carson predicts increased consequences in the future, especially as targeted pests develop <a href="/index.php?title=Resistance_to_pesticides&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Resistance to pesticides (page does not exist)">resistance to pesticides</a> while weakened ecosystems fall prey to unanticipated <a href="/index.php?title=Invasive_species&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Invasive species (page does not exist)">invasive species</a>. The book closes with a call for a <a href="/index.php?title=Biotic_material&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Biotic material (page does not exist)">biotic</a> approach to pest control as an alternative to chemical pesticides.<sup id="cite_ref-43" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-43">&#91;43&#93;</a></sup> </p> <h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Promotion_and_reception">Promotion and reception</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/index.php?title=User:RichardF/Sandbox&amp;action=edit&amp;section=9" title="Edit section: Promotion and reception">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4> <p>Carson and the others involved with publication of <i>Silent Spring</i> expected fierce criticism. They were particularly concerned about the possibility of being sued for <a href="/index.php?title=Libel&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Libel (page does not exist)">libel</a>. Carson was also undergoing <a href="/index.php?title=Radiation_therapy&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Radiation therapy (page does not exist)">radiation therapy</a> to combat her spreading cancer, and expected to have little energy to devote to defending her work and responding to critics. In preparation for the anticipated attacks, Carson and her agent attempted to amass as many prominent supporters as possible before the book's release.<sup id="cite_ref-44" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-44">&#91;44&#93;</a></sup> </p><p>Most of the book's scientific chapters were reviewed by scientists with relevant expertise, among whom Carson found strong support. Carson attended the White House Conference on Conservation in May, 1962; Houghton Mifflin distributed proof copies of <i>Silent Spring</i> to many of the delegates, and promoted the upcoming <i>New Yorker</i> serialization. Among many others, Carson also sent a proof copy to Supreme Court Justice <a href="/index.php?title=William_O._Douglas&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="William O. Douglas (page does not exist)">William O. Douglas</a>, a long-time environmental advocate who had argued against the court's rejection of the Long Island pesticide spraying case (and who had provided Carson with some of the material included in her chapter on herbicides).<sup id="cite_ref-45" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-45">&#91;45&#93;</a></sup> </p><p>Though <i>Silent Spring</i> had generated a fairly high level of interest based on pre-publication promotion, this became much more intense with the serialization in <i>The New Yorker</i>, which began in the June 16, 1962 issue. This brought the book to the attention of the chemical industry and its lobbyists, as well as a wide swath of the American populace. Around that time Carson also learned that <i>Silent Spring</i> had been selected as the <a href="/index.php?title=Book-of-the-Month&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Book-of-the-Month (page does not exist)">Book-of-the-Month</a> for October; as she put it, this would "carry it to farms and hamlets all over that country that don't know what a bookstore looks like—much less <i>The New Yorker</i>."<sup id="cite_ref-46" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-46">&#91;46&#93;</a></sup> Other publicity included a positive editorial in <i><a href="/index.php?title=The_New_York_Times&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="The New York Times (page does not exist)">The New York Times</a></i> and excerpts of the serialized version in <i>Audubon Magazine</i>, with another round of publicity in July and August as chemical companies responded. The story of the birth defect-causing drug <a href="/index.php?title=Thalidomide&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Thalidomide (page does not exist)">thalidomide</a> broke just before the book's publication as well, inviting comparisons between Carson and <a href="/index.php?title=Frances_Oldham_Kelsey&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Frances Oldham Kelsey (page does not exist)">Frances Oldham Kelsey</a>, the <a href="/index.php?title=Food_and_Drug_Administration&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Food and Drug Administration (page does not exist)">Food and Drug Administration</a> reviewer who had blocked the drug's sale in the United States.<sup id="cite_ref-47" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-47">&#91;47&#93;</a></sup> </p><p>In the weeks leading up to the September 27 publication there was strong opposition to <i>Silent Spring</i>. <a href="/index.php?title=DuPont&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="DuPont (page does not exist)">DuPont</a> (a main manufacturer of DDT and <a href="/index.php?title=2,4-D&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="2,4-D (page does not exist)">2,4-D</a>) and <a href="/index.php?title=Velsicol_Chemical_Company&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Velsicol Chemical Company (page does not exist)">Velsicol Chemical Company</a> (exclusive manufacturer of <a href="/index.php?title=Chlordane&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Chlordane (page does not exist)">chlordane</a> and <a href="/index.php?title=Heptachlor&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Heptachlor (page does not exist)">heptachlor</a>) were among the first to respond. DuPont compiled an extensive report on the book's press coverage and estimated impact on public opinion. Velsicol threatened legal action against Houghton Mifflin as well as <i>The New Yorker</i> and <i>Audubon Magazine</i> unless the planned <i>Silent Spring</i> features were canceled. Chemical industry representatives and lobbyists also lodged a range of non-specific complaints, some anonymously. Chemical companies and associated organizations produced a number of their own brochures and articles promoting and defending pesticide use. However, Carson's and the publishers' lawyers were confident in the vetting process <i>Silent Spring</i> had undergone. The magazine and book publications proceeded as planned, as did the large Book-of-the-Month printing (which included a pamphlet endorsing the book by William O. Douglas).<sup id="cite_ref-48" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-48">&#91;48&#93;</a></sup> </p><p><a href="/index.php?title=American_Cyanamid&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="American Cyanamid (page does not exist)">American Cyanamid</a> biochemist <a href="/index.php?title=Robert_White-Stevens&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Robert White-Stevens (page does not exist)">Robert White-Stevens</a> and former Cyanamid chemist <a href="/index.php?title=Thomas_Jukes&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Thomas Jukes (page does not exist)">Thomas Jukes</a> were among the most aggressive critics, especially of Carson's analysis of DDT.<sup id="cite_ref-49" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-49">&#91;49&#93;</a></sup> According to White-Stevens, "If man were to follow the teachings of Miss Carson, we would return to the Dark Ages, and the insects and diseases and vermin would once again inherit the earth."<sup id="cite_ref-frontline_Cyanamid_50-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-frontline_Cyanamid-50">&#91;50&#93;</a></sup> Others went further, attacking Carson's scientific credentials (because her training was in marine biology rather than biochemistry) and her personal character. White-Stevens labeled her "a fanatic defender of the cult of the balance of nature",<sup id="cite_ref-51" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-51">&#91;51&#93;</a></sup> while former Secretary of Agriculture <a href="/index.php?title=Ezra_Taft_Benson&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Ezra Taft Benson (page does not exist)">Ezra Taft Benson</a>—in a letter to <a href="/index.php?title=Dwight_D._Eisenhower&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Dwight D. Eisenhower (page does not exist)">Dwight D. Eisenhower</a>—reportedly concluded that because she was unmarried despite being physically attractive, she was "probably a Communist".<sup id="cite_ref-52" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-52">&#91;52&#93;</a></sup> </p><p>Many critics repeatedly asserted that she was calling for the elimination of all pesticides. Yet Carson had made it clear she was not advocating the banning or complete withdrawal of helpful pesticides, but was instead encouraging responsible and carefully managed use with an awareness of the chemicals' impact on the entire ecosystem.<sup id="cite_ref-53" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-53">&#91;53&#93;</a></sup> In fact, she concludes her section on DDT in <i>Silent Spring</i> not by urging a total ban, but with advice for spraying as little as possible to limit the development of resistance.<sup id="cite_ref-54" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-54">&#91;54&#93;</a></sup> </p><p>The academic community—including prominent defenders such as <a href="/index.php?title=H._J._Muller&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="H. J. Muller (page does not exist)">H. J. Muller</a>, <a href="/index.php?title=Loren_Eisley&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Loren Eisley (page does not exist)">Loren Eisley</a>, <a href="/index.php?title=Clarence_Cottam&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Clarence Cottam (page does not exist)">Clarence Cottam</a>, and <a href="/index.php?title=Frank_Egler&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Frank Egler (page does not exist)">Frank Egler</a>—by and large backed the book's scientific claims; public opinion soon turned Carson's way as well. The chemical industry campaign backfired, as the controversy greatly increased public awareness of potential pesticide dangers, as well as <i>Silent Spring</i> book sales. Pesticide use became a major public issue, especially after the <i><a href="/index.php?title=CBS_Reports&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="CBS Reports (page does not exist)">CBS Reports</a></i> TV special "The Silent Spring of Rachel Carson" that aired April 3, 1963. The program included segments of Carson reading from <i>Silent Spring</i> and interviews with a number of other experts, mostly critics (including White-Stevens); according to biographer Linda Lear, "in juxtaposition to the wild-eyed, loud-voiced Dr. Robert White-Stevens in white lab coat, Carson appeared anything but the hysterical alarmist that her critics contended."<sup id="cite_ref-55" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-55">&#91;55&#93;</a></sup> Reactions from the estimated audience of ten to fifteen million were overwhelmingly positive, and the program spurred a congressional review of pesticide dangers and the public release of a pesticide report by the <a href="/index.php?title=President%27s_Science_Advisory_Committee&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="President&#39;s Science Advisory Committee (page does not exist)">President's Science Advisory Committee</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-56" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-56">&#91;56&#93;</a></sup> Within a year or so of publication, the attacks on the book and on Carson had largely lost momentum.<sup id="cite_ref-time100_57-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-time100-57">&#91;57&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-58" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-58">&#91;58&#93;</a></sup> </p><p>In one of her last public appearances, Carson had testified before President Kennedy's Science Advisory Committee. The committee issued its report on May 15, 1963, largely backing Carson's scientific claims.<sup id="cite_ref-nwhp_bio_59-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-nwhp_bio-59">&#91;59&#93;</a></sup> Following the report's release, she also testified before a Senate subcommittee to make policy recommendations. Though Carson received hundreds of other speaking invitations, she was unable to accept the great majority of them. Her health was steadily declining as her cancer outpaced the radiation therapy, with only brief periods of remission. She spoke as much as she was physically able, however, including a notable appearance on <i><a href="/index.php?title=Today_(NBC_program)&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Today (NBC program) (page does not exist)">The Today Show</a></i> and speeches at several dinners held in her honor. In late 1963, she received a flurry of awards and honors: the <a href="/index.php?title=Audubon_Medal&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Audubon Medal (page does not exist)">Audubon Medal</a> (from the <a href="/index.php?title=National_Audubon_Society&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="National Audubon Society (page does not exist)">National Audubon Society</a>), the <a href="/index.php?title=Cullum_Medal&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Cullum Medal (page does not exist)">Cullum Medal</a> (from the <a href="/index.php?title=American_Geographical_Society&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="American Geographical Society (page does not exist)">American Geographical Society</a>), and induction into the <a href="/index.php?title=American_Academy_of_Arts_and_Letters&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="American Academy of Arts and Letters (page does not exist)">American Academy of Arts and Letters</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-60" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-60">&#91;60&#93;</a></sup> </p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Death">Death</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/index.php?title=User:RichardF/Sandbox&amp;action=edit&amp;section=10" title="Edit section: Death">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3> <p>Weakened from breast cancer and her treatment regimen, Carson became ill with a respiratory virus in January 1964. Her condition worsened, and in February, doctors found that she had severe <a href="/index.php?title=Anemia&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Anemia (page does not exist)">anemia</a> from her radiation treatments and in March discovered that the cancer had reached her liver. She died of a <a href="/index.php?title=Myocardial_infarction&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Myocardial infarction (page does not exist)">heart attack</a> on April 14, 1964.<sup id="cite_ref-61" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-61">&#91;61&#93;</a></sup> </p><p>She was interred at Parklawn Memorial Park and Menorah Gardens in <a href="/index.php?title=Rockville,_Maryland&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Rockville, Maryland (page does not exist)">Rockville, Maryland</a>. </p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Legacy">Legacy</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/index.php?title=User:RichardF/Sandbox&amp;action=edit&amp;section=11" title="Edit section: Legacy">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Collected_papers_and_posthumous_publications">Collected papers and posthumous publications</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/index.php?title=User:RichardF/Sandbox&amp;action=edit&amp;section=12" title="Edit section: Collected papers and posthumous publications">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3> <p>Carson bequeathed her manuscripts and papers to <a href="/index.php?title=Yale_University&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Yale University (page does not exist)">Yale University</a>, to take advantage of the new state-of-the-art preservations facilities of the <a href="/index.php?title=Beinecke_Rare_Book_and_Manuscript_Library&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library (page does not exist)">Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library</a>. Her longtime agent and literary executor <a href="/index.php?title=Marie_Rodell&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Marie Rodell (page does not exist)">Marie Rodell</a> spent nearly two years organizing and cataloging Carson's papers and correspondence, distributing all the letters to their senders so that only what each correspondent approved of would be submitted to the archive.<sup id="cite_ref-62" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-62">&#91;62&#93;</a></sup> </p><p>In 1965, Rodell arranged for the publication of an essay Carson had intended to expand into a book: <i>A Sense of Wonder</i>. The essay, which was combined with photographs by <a href="/index.php?title=Charles_Pratt_II&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Charles Pratt II (page does not exist)">Charles Pratt</a> and others, exhorts parents to help their children experience the "lasting pleasures of contact with the natural world", which "are available to anyone who will place himself under the influence of earth, sea and sky and their amazing life."<sup id="cite_ref-Murphy_25_63-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Murphy_25-63">&#91;63&#93;</a></sup> </p><p>In addition to the letters in <i>Always Rachel</i>, in 1998 a volume of Carson's previously unpublished work was published as <i>Lost Woods: The Discovered Writing of Rachel Carson</i>, edited by Linda Lear. All of Carson's books remain in print.<sup id="cite_ref-Murphy_25_63-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Murphy_25-63">&#91;63&#93;</a></sup> </p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Grassroots_environmentalism_and_the_EPA">Grassroots environmentalism and the EPA</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/index.php?title=User:RichardF/Sandbox&amp;action=edit&amp;section=13" title="Edit section: Grassroots environmentalism and the EPA">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3> <p>Carson's work had a powerful impact on the environmental movement. <i>Silent Spring</i>, in particular, was a rallying point for the fledgling social movement in the 1960s. According to environmental engineer and Carson scholar H. Patricia Hynes, "<i>Silent Spring</i> altered the balance of power in the world. No one since would be able to sell pollution as the necessary underside of progress so easily or uncritically."<sup id="cite_ref-64" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-64">&#91;64&#93;</a></sup> Carson's work, and the activism it inspired, are at least partly responsible for the <a href="/index.php?title=Deep_ecology&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Deep ecology (page does not exist)">deep ecology</a> movement, and the overall strength of the grassroots environmental movement since the 1960s. It was also influential on the rise of <a href="/index.php?title=Ecofeminism&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Ecofeminism (page does not exist)">ecofeminism</a> and on many feminist scientists.<sup id="cite_ref-65" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-65">&#91;65&#93;</a></sup> </p><p>Carson's most direct legacy in the environmental movement was the campaign to ban the use of DDT in the United States (and related efforts to ban or limit its use throughout the world). Though environmental concerns about DDT had been considered by government agencies as early as Carson's testimony before the President's Science Advisory Committee, the 1967 formation of the <a href="/Environmental_Defense_Fund" title="Environmental Defense Fund">Environmental Defense Fund</a> was the first major milestone in the campaign against DDT. The organization brought lawsuits against the government to "establish a citizen's right to a clean environment", and the arguments employed against DDT largely mirrored Carson's. By 1972, the Environmental Defense Fund and other activist groups had succeeded in securing a phase-out of DDT use in the United States (except in emergency cases).<sup id="cite_ref-66" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-66">&#91;66&#93;</a></sup> </p><p>The creation of the <a href="/index.php?title=United_States_Environmental_Protection_Agency&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="United States Environmental Protection Agency (page does not exist)">Environmental Protection Agency</a> by the Nixon administration in 1970 addressed another concern that Carson had brought to light. Until then, the same agency (the <a href="/index.php?title=USDA&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="USDA (page does not exist)">USDA</a>) was responsible both for regulating pesticides and promoting the concerns of the agriculture industry; Carson saw this as a <a href="/index.php?title=Conflict_of_interest&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Conflict of interest (page does not exist)">conflict of interest</a>, since the agency was not responsible for effects on wildlife or other environmental concerns beyond farm policy. Fifteen years after its creation, one journalist described the EPA as "the extended shadow of <i>Silent Spring</i>". Much of the agency's early work, such as enforcement of the 1972 <a href="/index.php?title=Federal_Insecticide,_Fungicide,_and_Rodenticide_Act&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (page does not exist)">Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act</a>, was directly related to Carson's work.<sup id="cite_ref-67" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-67">&#91;67&#93;</a></sup> </p> <h3><span id="Science,_nature,_DDT,_and_food_production"></span><span class="mw-headline" id="Science.2C_nature.2C_DDT.2C_and_food_production">Science, nature, DDT, and food production</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/index.php?title=User:RichardF/Sandbox&amp;action=edit&amp;section=14" title="Edit section: Science, nature, DDT, and food production">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3> <p>Carson came into her own during a time in America when the majority of the population believed all science was inherently good. Carson came to challenge the idea that it was "man against nature" as explained by historian Thomas Dunlap. "Americans assumed that science was good, that chemicals were necessary, that their use would be governed by experts, that these experts could be trusted, and that the side-effects of chemical use would be negligible." <sup id="cite_ref-68" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-68">&#91;68&#93;</a></sup> An excellent example of this is the widespread use of <a href="/DDT" class="mw-redirect" title="DDT">DDT</a> after World War II. "DDT was hailed as the success story of World War II. During the war, the chemical helped to exterminate lice and insect-borne disease, and saved much-needed food crops. When the war ended, the United States sought to become the top food supplier and the Department of Agriculture saw DDT as a means to achieve that end." <sup id="cite_ref-69" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-69">&#91;69&#93;</a></sup> It is clear that financial superiority was the top priority after the war. These companies did not want people to start believing her; which would therefore lower or stop their production. The chemical companies, government and many of its scientists believed it would be ok to allow the people of the United States, and therefore the world (since at this time other countries looked to see what the USA was conducting) that the unmitigated use of DDT was not only the safest, but the most prudent way of gaining that superiority. Carson's works challenged these institutions and the assumptions they encouraged. </p><p>Rachel Carson believed the modern environmental movement of the time overused pesticides. She deplored the "culture of American abundance" as incurred by the capitalist economy whose expanding nature led to the destruction of many wildlife habitats. <sup id="cite_ref-70" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-70">&#91;70&#93;</a></sup> Carson did not take the use of chemicals such as DDT at face value like most of the public. This is not to say that she did not want to enhance the life of the American people, or humans as a whole, but she did not support the destruction of the environment to attain that goal. </p> <dl><dd>"Because it is more comfortable to believe in pleasant things, most of us continue today to believe that in our country there will always be plenty. . . This is the comfortable dream of the average American. But it is a fallacious dream. It is a dangerous dream. . . Only so long as we are vigilant to cherish and safeguard [our resources] against waste, against over exploitation, and against destruction will our country continue strong and free." <sup id="cite_ref-71" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-71">&#91;71&#93;</a></sup></dd></dl> <p>This quote exemplifies the mindset of the average American who was looking to attain the "American Dream." This also illustrates why the people allowed the use of DDT without learning what it was doing to their environment as the quotes explains that it is more comfortable to believe in pleasant things as long as we are able to prosper. Carson also disliked the idea that Americans were ok with a "quick fix": </p> <dl><dd>"One great trouble — I suppose it is the fault of the American public as a whole — is this desire for the quick and easy way of doing something, without any consideration of the consequences. Even if the consequences are strongly implied or known, there is still a great temptation to go ahead and get the job done and let the future take care of itself. Maybe we will come up with a pill to take care of it, or something like that!" <sup id="cite_ref-72" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-72">&#91;72&#93;</a></sup></dd></dl> <p>Carson believed that this idea of the quick fix is what allowed the Americans to get into the Environmental predicament that had found themselves in. By allowing "the future to worry about itself " as Carson said, it freed scientists up to only come up with results as opposed to the best or the safest results. They were reacting after the fact and trying to fix the problem, instead of working to prevent the problem before it starts. Rachel Carson was significant in the history of the contemporary American environmental movement because through her writing and different publications she was able to change the mindset of the everyday American person. Although her job seems like it was simple and a quick fix, it took a lot of struggle on Carson’s part to get her point across. She was able to point out that the quick fix for something was not the only way to accomplish a goal and usually was not the best. In the case of DDT, the quick fix was harming the environment more than it was helping; with the help of Carson’s writing the public was able to see this error in the scientific world. </p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Criticisms_of_environmentalism_and_DDT_restrictions">Criticisms of environmentalism and DDT restrictions</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/index.php?title=User:RichardF/Sandbox&amp;action=edit&amp;section=15" title="Edit section: Criticisms of environmentalism and DDT restrictions">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3> <p>Carson and the environmental movement were—and continue to be—criticized by some <a href="/index.php?title=Conservatives&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Conservatives (page does not exist)">conservatives</a> and <a href="/index.php?title=Libertarians&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Libertarians (page does not exist)">libertarians</a> as well as chemical industry trade groups, who argue that restrictions placed on pesticides, specifically DDT, have caused tens of millions of needless deaths and hampered agriculture (and, implicitly, that Carson bears responsibility for inciting such restrictions).<sup id="cite_ref-73" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-73">&#91;73&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-74" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-74">&#91;74&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Conservative_criticism_of_Carson_75-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Conservative_criticism_of_Carson-75">&#91;75&#93;</a></sup> In the 1980s, the policies of the <a href="/index.php?title=Reagan_Administration&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Reagan Administration (page does not exist)">Reagan Administration</a> emphasized economic growth at the expense of environmental regulation, rolling back many of the environmental policies adopted in response to Carson and her work.<sup id="cite_ref-76" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-76">&#91;76&#93;</a></sup> </p><p>Carson's vocal expressions of concern about the <a href="/DDT#Effects_on_human_health" class="mw-redirect" title="DDT">human health effects</a> and <a href="/DDT#Environmental_impact" class="mw-redirect" title="DDT">environmental impact</a> of DDT has come under the most intense fire. Political scientist Charles Rubin was one of the most vociferous critics in the 1980s and 1990s, though he accused her merely of selective use of source and fanaticism (rather than the more severe criticism Carson received upon <i>Silent Spring'</i>s release). </p><p>In the 2000s, however, criticism of the real and alleged ban(s) of DDT her work prompted became much more intense.<sup id="cite_ref-quig_77-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-quig-77">&#91;77&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Erik_78-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Erik-78">&#91;78&#93;</a></sup> The conservative magazine <i><a href="/index.php?title=Human_Events&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Human Events (page does not exist)">Human Events</a></i> gave <i>Silent Spring</i> an honorable mention for the "Ten Most Harmful Books of the 19th and 20th Centuries".<sup id="cite_ref-most_harmful_79-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-most_harmful-79">&#91;79&#93;</a></sup> In 2009 the <a href="/index.php?title=Libertarianism&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Libertarianism (page does not exist)">libertarian</a> think tank <a href="/index.php?title=Competitive_Enterprise_Institute&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Competitive Enterprise Institute (page does not exist)">Competitive Enterprise Institute</a> set up a website Rachelwaswrong.org, asserting "Millions of people around the world suffer the painful and often deadly effects of malaria because one person sounded a false alarm. That person is Rachel Carson."<sup id="cite_ref-Erik_78-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Erik-78">&#91;78&#93;</a></sup> A 2012 review article in <a href="/index.php?title=Nature_(journal)&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Nature (journal) (page does not exist)">Nature</a> by Rob Dunn<sup id="cite_ref-dunn_2012_80-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-dunn_2012-80">&#91;80&#93;</a></sup> commemorating the 50th anniversary of <a href="/index.php?title=Silent_Spring&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Silent Spring (page does not exist)">Silent Spring</a> prompted a response in a letter written by <a href="/index.php?title=Anthony_Trewavas&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Anthony Trewavas (page does not exist)">Anthony Trewavas</a> and co-signed by 10 others, including <a href="/index.php?title=Chris_J._Leaver&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Chris J. Leaver (page does not exist)">Christopher Leaver</a>, <a href="/index.php?title=Bruce_Ames&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Bruce Ames (page does not exist)">Bruce Ames</a>, <a href="/index.php?title=Richard_Tren&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Richard Tren (page does not exist)">Richard Tren</a> and <a href="/index.php?title=Peter_Lachmann&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Peter Lachmann (page does not exist)">Peter Lachmann</a>, who quote estimates of 60 to 80 million deaths "as a result of misguided fears based on poorly understood evidence".<sup id="cite_ref-trewavas_2012_81-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-trewavas_2012-81">&#91;81&#93;</a></sup> </p><p>Biographer Mark Hamilton Lytle believes these estimates unrealistic, even assuming that Carson can be "blamed" for worldwide DDT policies.<sup id="cite_ref-82" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-82">&#91;82&#93;</a></sup> <a href="/index.php?title=John_Quiggin&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="John Quiggin (page does not exist)">John Quiggin</a> and Tim Lambert have written that "the most striking feature of the claim against Carson is the ease with which it can be refuted." DDT was never banned for anti-malarial use,<sup id="cite_ref-83" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-83">&#91;83&#93;</a></sup> (its ban for agricultural use in the United States in 1972 did not apply outside the US or to anti-malaria spraying;<sup id="cite_ref-84" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-84">&#91;84&#93;</a></sup> the international treaty that banned most uses of DDT and other organochlorine pesticides — the 2001 <a href="/index.php?title=Stockholm_Convention_on_Persistent_Organic_Pollutants&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (page does not exist)">Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants</a> — included an exemption for DDT for the use of malaria control until affordable substitutes could be found.<sup id="cite_ref-quig_77-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-quig-77">&#91;77&#93;</a></sup>) Mass outdoor spraying of DDT was abandoned in poor countries subject to malaria, such as Sri Lanka, in the 1970s and 1980s, not because of government prohibitions, but because the DDT had lost its ability to kill the mosquitoes.<sup id="cite_ref-quig_77-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-quig-77">&#91;77&#93;</a></sup> (Because of insects very short breeding cycle and large number of offspring, the most resistant insects that survive and pass on their genetic traits to their offspring replace the pesticide-slain insects relatively rapidly. Agricultural spraying of pesticides produces <a href="/index.php?title=Pesticide_resistance&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Pesticide resistance (page does not exist)">resistance</a> to the pesticide in seven to ten years.<sup id="cite_ref-85" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-85">&#91;85&#93;</a></sup>) </p><p>Other defenders point out Carson never actually called for an outright ban on DDT, and part of the argument she made in <i>Silent Spring</i> was that even if DDT and other insecticides had <i>no</i> environmental side effects, their indiscriminate overuse was counter-productive because it would created insect resistance to the pesticide(s), making them (the pesticides) useless in eliminating the target insect populations: </p> <blockquote> <p>No responsible person contends that insect-borne disease should be ignored. The question that has now urgently presented itself is whether it is either wise or responsible to attack the problem by methods that are rapidly making it worse. The world has heard much of the triumphant war against disease through the control of insect vectors of infection, but it has heard little of the other side of the story—the defeats, the short-lived triumphs that now strongly support the alarming view that the insect enemy has been made actually stronger by our efforts. Even worse, we may have destroyed our very means of fighting.<sup id="cite_ref-86" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-86">&#91;86&#93;</a></sup> </p> <p style="text-align:left; font-size:90%;">— Rachel Carson, <i>Silent Spring</i>, p. 266</p> </blockquote> <p>Carson further noted that "Malaria programmes are threatened by resistance among mosquitoes"<sup id="cite_ref-87" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-87">&#91;87&#93;</a></sup> and emphasized the advice given by the director of Holland's Plant Protection Service: "Practical advice should be 'Spray as little as you possibly can' rather than 'Spray to the limit of your capacity'…Pressure on the pest population should always be as slight as possible." <sup id="cite_ref-88" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-88">&#91;88&#93;</a></sup> </p><p>Consequently, some experts have argued that restrictions placed on the agricultural use of DDT have increased its effectiveness as a tool for battling malaria. According to pro-DDT advocate <a href="/index.php?title=Amir_Attaran&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Amir Attaran (page does not exist)">Amir Attaran</a> the result of the 2004 <a href="/index.php?title=Stockholm_Convention&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Stockholm Convention (page does not exist)">Stockholm Convention</a> banning DDT's use in agriculture <i>"is arguably better than the status quo ... For the first time, there is now an insecticide which is restricted to vector control only, meaning that the selection of resistant mosquitoes will be slower than before."</i><sup id="cite_ref-89" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-89">&#91;89&#93;</a></sup> But though Carson's legacy has been closely tied to DDT, <a href="/index.php?title=Roger_Bate&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Roger Bate (page does not exist)">Roger Bate</a> of the DDT advocacy organization <a href="/index.php?title=Africa_Fighting_Malaria&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Africa Fighting Malaria (page does not exist)">Africa Fighting Malaria</a> warns that "A lot of people have used Carson to push their own agendas. We just have to be a little careful when you're talking about someone who died in 1964."<sup id="cite_ref-90" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-90">&#91;90&#93;</a></sup> </p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Posthumous_honors">Posthumous honors</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/index.php?title=User:RichardF/Sandbox&amp;action=edit&amp;section=16" title="Edit section: Posthumous honors">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3> <p>A variety of groups ranging from government institutions to environmental and conservation organizations to scholarly societies have celebrated Carson's life and work since her death. Perhaps most significantly, on June 9, 1980, Carson was awarded the <a href="/index.php?title=Presidential_Medal_of_Freedom&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Presidential Medal of Freedom (page does not exist)">Presidential Medal of Freedom</a>, the highest civilian honor in the United States<sup id="cite_ref-91" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-91">&#91;91&#93;</a></sup> A 17¢ <a href="/index.php?title=Great_Americans_series&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Great Americans series (page does not exist)">Great Americans series</a> <a href="/index.php?title=Postage_stamp&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Postage stamp (page does not exist)">postage stamp</a> was issued in her honor the following year; several other countries have since issued Carson postage as well.<sup id="cite_ref-92" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-92">&#91;92&#93;</a></sup> </p><p>Carson's birthplace and childhood home in <a href="/index.php?title=Springdale,_Pennsylvania&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Springdale, Pennsylvania (page does not exist)">Springdale, Pennsylvania</a>&#160;— now known as the <a href="/index.php?title=Rachel_Carson_Homestead&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Rachel Carson Homestead (page does not exist)">Rachel Carson Homestead</a>—became a <a href="/index.php?title=National_Register_of_Historic_Places&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="National Register of Historic Places (page does not exist)">National Register of Historic Places</a> site, and the <a href="/index.php?title=Nonprofit&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Nonprofit (page does not exist)">nonprofit</a> Rachel Carson Homestead Association was created in 1975 to manage it.<sup id="cite_ref-93" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-93">&#91;93&#93;</a></sup> Her <a href="/index.php?title=Rachel_Carson_House_(Colesville,_Maryland)&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Rachel Carson House (Colesville, Maryland) (page does not exist)">home</a> in <a href="/index.php?title=Colesville,_Maryland&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Colesville, Maryland (page does not exist)">Colesville, Maryland</a> where she wrote <i>Silent Spring</i> was named a <a href="/index.php?title=National_Historic_Landmark&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="National Historic Landmark (page does not exist)">National Historic Landmark</a> in 1991.<sup id="cite_ref-94" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-94">&#91;94&#93;</a></sup> Near <a href="/index.php?title=Pittsburgh&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Pittsburgh (page does not exist)">Pittsburgh</a>, a 35.7 mi hiking trail, maintained by the Rachel Carson Trails Conservancy, was dedicated to Carson in 1975.<sup id="cite_ref-95" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-95">&#91;95&#93;</a></sup> A Pittsburgh bridge was also renamed in Carson's honor as the <a href="/index.php?title=Rachel_Carson_Bridge&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Rachel Carson Bridge (page does not exist)">Rachel Carson Bridge</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-bridge_96-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-bridge-96">&#91;96&#93;</a></sup> The <a href="/index.php?title=Pennsylvania_Department_of_Environmental_Protection&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (page does not exist)">Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection</a> State Office Building in <a href="/index.php?title=Harrisburg&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Harrisburg (page does not exist)">Harrisburg</a> is named in her honor. An elementary school in <a href="/index.php?title=Gaithersburg,_Maryland&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Gaithersburg, Maryland (page does not exist)">Gaithersburg</a>, <a href="/index.php?title=Montgomery_County,_Maryland&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Montgomery County, Maryland (page does not exist)">Montgomery County, Maryland</a>, was named in her honor,<sup id="cite_ref-97" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-97">&#91;97&#93;</a></sup> as was a <a href="/index.php?title=Rachel_Carson_Middle_School&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Rachel Carson Middle School (page does not exist)">Rachel Carson Middle School</a> in <a href="/index.php?title=Herndon,_Virginia&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Herndon, Virginia (page does not exist)">Herndon, Virginia</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-98" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-98">&#91;98&#93;</a></sup> and another elementary school in <a href="/index.php?title=Sammamish,_Washington&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Sammamish, Washington (page does not exist)">Sammamish, Washington</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-99" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-99">&#91;99&#93;</a></sup> </p><p>The ceremonial auditorium on the third floor of U.S. EPA's main headquarters, the <a href="/index.php?title=Ariel_Rios_Building&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Ariel Rios Building (page does not exist)">Ariel Rios Building</a>, is named after Rachel Carson. The Rachel Carson room is just a few feet away from the EPA administrator's office and has been the site of numerous important announcements, including the Clean Air Interstate Rule, since the Agency moved to Ariel Rios in 2001.<sup id="cite_ref-100" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-100">&#91;100&#93;</a></sup> </p><p>A number of <a href="/index.php?title=Conservation_area&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Conservation area (page does not exist)">conservation areas</a> have been named for Carson as well. Between 1964 and 1990, 650 acres near <a href="/index.php?title=Brookeville,_Maryland&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Brookeville, Maryland (page does not exist)">Brookeville</a> in <a href="/index.php?title=Montgomery_County,_Maryland&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Montgomery County, Maryland (page does not exist)">Montgomery County, Maryland</a> were acquired and set aside as the Rachel Carson Conservation Park, administered by the <a href="/index.php?title=Maryland-National_Capital_Park_and_Planning_Commission&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission (page does not exist)">Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-101" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-101">&#91;101&#93;</a></sup> In 1969, the Coastal Maine National Wildlife Refuge became the <a href="/index.php?title=Rachel_Carson_National_Wildlife_Refuge&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge (page does not exist)">Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge</a>; expansions will bring the size of the refuge to about 9,125 acres.<sup id="cite_ref-102" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-102">&#91;102&#93;</a></sup> In 1985, <a href="/North_Carolina" title="North Carolina">North Carolina</a> renamed one of its <a href="/index.php?title=Estuarine&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Estuarine (page does not exist)">estuarine</a> reserves in honor of Carson, in <a href="/index.php?title=Beaufort,_North_Carolina&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Beaufort, North Carolina (page does not exist)">Beaufort</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-103" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-103">&#91;103&#93;</a></sup> </p><p>Carson is also a frequent namesake for prizes awarded by philanthropic, educational and scholarly institutions. The <a href="/index.php?title=Rachel_Carson_Prize_(environmentalist_award)&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Rachel Carson Prize (environmentalist award) (page does not exist)">Rachel Carson Prize</a>, founded in <a href="/index.php?title=Stavanger&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Stavanger (page does not exist)">Stavanger</a>, <a href="/Norway" title="Norway">Norway</a> in 1991, is awarded to women who have made a contribution in the field of environmental protection.<sup id="cite_ref-104" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-104">&#91;104&#93;</a></sup> The <a href="/index.php?title=American_Society_for_Environmental_History&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="American Society for Environmental History (page does not exist)">American Society for Environmental History</a> has awarded the Rachel Carson Prize for Best Dissertation since 1993.<sup id="cite_ref-105" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-105">&#91;105&#93;</a></sup> Since 1998, the <a href="/index.php?title=Society_for_Social_Studies_of_Science&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Society for Social Studies of Science (page does not exist)">Society for Social Studies of Science</a> has awarded an annual <a href="/index.php?title=Rachel_Carson_Prize_(academic_book_prize)&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Rachel Carson Prize (academic book prize) (page does not exist)">Rachel Carson Book Prize</a> for "a book length work of social or political relevance in the area of science and technology studies."<sup id="cite_ref-106" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-106">&#91;106&#93;</a></sup> </p> <h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Centennial_events">Centennial events</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/index.php?title=User:RichardF/Sandbox&amp;action=edit&amp;section=17" title="Edit section: Centennial events">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4> <p>2007 was the centennial of Carson's birth. On <a href="/Earth_Day" title="Earth Day">Earth Day</a> (April 22, 2007), <i>Courage for the Earth: Writers, Scientists, and Activists Celebrate the Life and Writing of Rachel Carson</i> was released as "a centennial appreciation of Rachel Carson's brave life and transformative writing", thirteen essays by prominent environmental writers and scientists.<sup id="cite_ref-107" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-107">&#91;107&#93;</a></sup> Democratic Senator <a href="/index.php?title=Benjamin_L._Cardin&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Benjamin L. Cardin (page does not exist)">Benjamin L. Cardin</a> of <a href="/Maryland" title="Maryland">Maryland</a> had intended to submit a resolution celebrating Carson for her "legacy of scientific rigor coupled with poetic sensibility" on the 100th anniversary of her birth. The resolution was blocked by Republican Senator <a href="/index.php?title=Tom_Coburn&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Tom Coburn (page does not exist)">Tom Coburn</a> of <a href="/Oklahoma" title="Oklahoma">Oklahoma</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-108" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-108">&#91;108&#93;</a></sup> who said that "The junk science and stigma surrounding DDT—the cheapest and most effective insecticide on the planet—have finally been jettisoned."<sup id="cite_ref-109" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-109">&#91;109&#93;</a></sup> The <a href="/index.php?title=Rachel_Carson_Homestead_Association&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Rachel Carson Homestead Association (page does not exist)">Rachel Carson Homestead Association</a> held a May 27 birthday party and sustainable feast at her birthplace and home in <a href="/index.php?title=Springdale,_Pennsylvania&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Springdale, Pennsylvania (page does not exist)">Springdale, Pennsylvania</a>, and the first Rachel Carson Legacy Conference in Pittsburgh with E.O. Wilson as keynote speaker. Both Rachel's Sustainable Feast and the conference continue as annual events. </p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="List_of_works">List of works</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/index.php?title=User:RichardF/Sandbox&amp;action=edit&amp;section=18" title="Edit section: List of works">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2> <ul><li><i><a href="/index.php?title=Under_the_Sea_Wind&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Under the Sea Wind (page does not exist)">Under the Sea Wind</a></i>, 1941, Simon &amp; Schuster, Penguin Group, 1996, ISBN 0-14-025380-7</li> <li><span class="citation web"><a class="external text" href="http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/usfwspubs/6/">"Fishes of the Middle West"</a>&#32;(PDF).&#32;United States Government Printing Office.&#32;1943.</span></li> <li><span class="citation web"><a class="external text" href="http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/usfwspubs/3/">"Fish and Shellfish of the Middle Atlantic Coast"</a>&#32;(PDF).&#32;United States Government Printing Office.&#32;1945.</span></li> <li><span class="citation web"><a class="external text" href="http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/usfwspubs/1/">"Chincoteague: A National Wildlife Refuge"</a>&#32;(PDF).&#32;United States Government Printing Office.&#32;1947.</span></li> <li><span class="citation web"><a class="external text" href="http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/usfwspubs/5/">"Mattamuskeet: A National Wildlife Refuge"</a>&#32;(PDF).&#32;United States Government Printing Office.&#32;1947.</span></li> <li><span class="citation web"><a class="external text" href="http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/usfwspubs/4/">"Parker River: A National Wildlife Refuge"</a>&#32;(PDF).&#32;United States Government Printing Office.&#32;1947.</span></li> <li><span class="citation web"><a class="external text" href="http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/usfwspubs/2/">"Bear River: A National Wildlife Refuge"</a>&#32;(PDF).&#32;United States Government Printing Office.&#32;1950.</span> (with Vanez T. Wilson)</li> <li><i><a href="/index.php?title=The_Sea_Around_Us&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="The Sea Around Us (page does not exist)">The Sea Around Us</a></i>, Oxford University Press, 1951; Oxford University Press, 1991, ISBN 0-19-506997-8</li> <li><i><a href="/index.php?title=The_Edge_of_the_Sea&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="The Edge of the Sea (page does not exist)">The Edge of the Sea</a></i>, Houghton Mifflin 1955; Mariner Books, 1998, ISBN 0-395-92496-0</li> <li><i><a href="/index.php?title=Silent_Spring&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Silent Spring (page does not exist)">Silent Spring</a></i>, Houghton Mifflin, 1962; Mariner Books, 2002, ISBN 0-618-24906-0 <ul><li><i>Silent Spring</i> initially appeared serialized in three parts in the June 16, June 23, and June 30, 1962 issues of <i><a href="/index.php?title=The_New_Yorker&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="The New Yorker (page does not exist)">The New Yorker</a></i> magazine</li></ul></li> <li><i>The Sense of Wonder</i>, 1965, HarperCollins, 1998: ISBN 0-06-757520-X published posthumously</li> <li><i>Always, Rachel: The Letters of Rachel Carson and Dorothy Freeman 1952–1964 An Intimate Portrait of a Remarkable Friendship</i>, Beacon Press, 1995, ISBN 0-8070-7010-6 edited by Martha Freeman (granddaughter of Dorothy Freeman)</li> <li><i>Lost Woods: The Discovered Writing of Rachel Carson</i>, Beacon Press, 1998, ISBN 0-8070-8547-2</li> <li><i>Bedrock: Writers on the Wonders of Geology</i>, edited by Lauret E. Savoy, <a href="/index.php?title=Eldridge_M._Moores&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Eldridge M. Moores (page does not exist)">Eldridge M. Moores</a>, and Judith E. Moores, <a href="/index.php?title=Trinity_University_(Texas)&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Trinity University (Texas) (page does not exist)">Trinity University Press</a>, 2006, ISBN 1-59534-022-X</li></ul> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="See_also">See also</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/index.php?title=User:RichardF/Sandbox&amp;action=edit&amp;section=19" title="Edit section: See also">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2> <ul><li><a href="/Environmentalism" class="mw-redirect" title="Environmentalism">Environmentalism</a><sup><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmentalism" class="extiw" title="wikipedia:Environmentalism">W</a></sup></li></ul> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="References">References</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/index.php?title=User:RichardF/Sandbox&amp;action=edit&amp;section=20" title="Edit section: References">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2> <div class="reflist references-column-count references-column-count-2" style="column-count: 2; -moz-column-count: 2; -webkit-column-count: 2; list-style-type: decimal;"> <div class="mw-references-wrap mw-references-columns"><ol class="references"> <li id="cite_note-nba1952-1"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">↑ <sup><a href="#cite_ref-nba1952_1-0">1.0</a></sup> <sup><a href="#cite_ref-nba1952_1-1">1.1</a></sup></span> <span class="reference-text"><a class="external text" href="http://www.nationalbook.org/nba1952.html">"National Book Awards – 1952"</a>. <a href="/index.php?title=National_Book_Foundation&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="National Book Foundation (page does not exist)">National Book Foundation</a>. Retrieved March 19, 2012. <br />(With acceptance speech by Carson and essay by Neil Baldwin from the Awards 50-year anniversary publications.)</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-2"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-2">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, pp.&#160;7–24</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-3"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-3">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, pp.&#160;27–62</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-4"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-4">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, pp.&#160;63–79</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-5"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-5">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, pp.&#160;79–82</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-6"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-6">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, pp.&#160;82–5</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-7"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-7">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, pp.&#160;85–113</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-8"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-8">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, pp.&#160;114–120</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-9"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-9">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, pp.&#160;121–160</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-10"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-10">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, pp.&#160;163–4. <br />• An apocryphal story holds that the book was rejected by over twenty publishers before Oxford University Press. In fact, it may have only been sent to one other publisher before being accepted, though Rodell and Carson worked extensively to place chapters and excerpts in periodicals.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-11"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-11">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, pp.&#160;164–241</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-12"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-12">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, pp.&#160;206–234</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-13"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-13">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, pp.&#160;215–6, 238–9. Quotation from a letter to Carson's film agent Shirley Collier, November 9, 1952. Quoted in Lear, 239.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-14"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-14">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, pp.&#160;239–240</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-15"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-15">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, p.&#160;248</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-16"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-16">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, pp.&#160;243–288</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-letters_with_Freeman-17"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-letters_with_Freeman_17-0">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text">Caryn E. Neumann, <a class="external text" href="http://www.glbtq.com/social-sciences/carson_r.html">"Carson, Rachel (1907–1964)"</a>, <i>glbtq: an encyclopedia of gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, &amp; queer culture</i>; retrieved February 22, 2007</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-18"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-18">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation Journal">Montefiore, Janet&#32;(2001).&#32;"'The fact that possesses my imagination': Rachel Carson, Science and Writing".&#32;<i>Women: A Cultural Review</i>&#32;<b>12</b>&#32;(1): 48.</span></span> </li> <li id="cite_note-19"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-19">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, pp.&#160;255–6</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-20"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-20">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation Journal">Tjossem, Sarah F.&#32;(1995).&#32;"Review of <i>Always Rachel: The Letters of Rachel Carson and Dorothy Freeman, 1952–1964</i>".&#32;<i>Isis</i>&#32;<b>86</b>&#32;(4): 687–8.&#32;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" class="extiw" title="wikipedia:Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1086%2F357392">10.1086/357392</a>.</span> quoting from: <span class="citation book">Heilbrun, Carolyn&#32;(1988).&#32;<i>Writing a Woman's Life</i>.&#32;Ballantine.&#32;p.&#160;108.&#32;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" class="extiw" title="wikipedia:International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/Special:BookSources/0-345-36256-X" title="Special:BookSources/0-345-36256-X">0-345-36256-X</a>.</span></span> </li> <li id="cite_note-21"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-21">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, pp.&#160;223–244</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-22"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-22">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, pp.&#160;261–276</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-23"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-23">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, pp.&#160;276–300</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-24"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-24">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, pp.&#160;300–9</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-25"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-25">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, pp.&#160;305–313</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-McLaughlin-26"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-McLaughlin_26-0">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web">McLaughlin, Dorothy.&#32;<a class="external text" href="http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/nature/disrupt/sspring.html">"Fooling with Nature: <i>Silent Spring</i> Revisited"</a>.&#32;<i>Frontline</i>.&#32;PBS<span class="reference-accessdate">.&#32;Retrieved August 24, 2010</span>.</span></span> </li> <li id="cite_note-27"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-27">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text">Josie Glausiusz. (2007), Better Planet: Can A Maligned Pesticide Save Lives? <i>Discover Magazine</i>. Page 34.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-28"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-28">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a class="external text" href="http://ellsworthmaine.com/site/index.php?option=com_content&amp;task=view&amp;id=12535&amp;Itemid=47">"Obituary of Marjorie Spock"</a>.&#32;Ellsworthmaine.com.&#32;January 30, 2008<span class="reference-accessdate">.&#32;Retrieved March 16, 2009</span>.</span><sup class="noprint Inline-Template"><span title="&#160;since November 2011" style="white-space: nowrap;">&#91;<i><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Link_rot" class="extiw" title="wikipedia:Link rot">dead link</a></i>&#93;</span></sup></span> </li> <li id="cite_note-29"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-29">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, pp.&#160;312–7</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-30"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-30">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, pp.&#160;317–327</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-31"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-31">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, pp.&#160;327–336</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-32"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-32">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, pp.&#160;342–6</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-33"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-33">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, pp.&#160;358–361</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-34"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-34">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, pp.&#160;355–8</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-35"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-35">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, pp.&#160;360–8</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-36"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-36">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, pp.&#160;372–3. The photo essay, "The Sea", was published in <i>Johns Hopkins Magazine</i>, May/June 1961; Carson provided the captions for Hartmann's photographs.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-37"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-37">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, pp.&#160;376–7</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-38"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-38">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, pp.&#160;375, 377–8, 386–7, 389</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-39"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-39">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, pp.&#160;390–7</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-40"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-40">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLytle2007">Lytle 2007</a>, pp.&#160;166–7</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-41"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-41">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLytle2007">Lytle 2007</a>, pp.&#160;166–172</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-42"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-42">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text">Carson, <i>Silent Spring</i>, 225</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-43"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-43">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLytle2007">Lytle 2007</a>, pp.&#160;169, 173</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-44"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-44">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, pp.&#160;397–400</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-45"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-45">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, pp.&#160;375, 377, 400–7. Douglas's dissenting opinion on the rejection of the case, <i>Robert Cushman Murphy et al., v. Butler et al., from the Second Circuit Court of Appeals, is from March 28, 1960.</i></span> </li> <li id="cite_note-46"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-46">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, pp.&#160;407–8. Quotation (p. 408) from a June 13, 1962 letter from Carson to Dorothy Freeman.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-47"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-47">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, pp.&#160;409–413</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-48"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-48">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, pp.&#160;412–420</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-49"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-49">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, pp.&#160;433–4</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-frontline_Cyanamid-50"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-frontline_Cyanamid_50-0">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a class="external text" href="http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/nature/disrupt/sspring.html">Fooling with nature: special reports: Silent Spring revisited:</a>. Retrieved September 23, 2007.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-51"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-51">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text">Quoted in <a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, p.&#160;434</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-52"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-52">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, pp.&#160;429–430. Benson's supposed comments were widely repeated at the time, but have not been directly confirmed.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-53"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-53">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFMurphy20059">Murphy &amp; 2005 9</a></span> </li> <li id="cite_note-54"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-54">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text">Carson, <i>Silent Spring</i>, 275</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-55"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-55">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, pp.&#160;437–449; quotation from 449.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-56"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-56">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, pp.&#160;449–450</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-time100-57"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-time100_57-0">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a class="external text" href="http://www.time.com/time/time100/scientist/profile/carson03.html">The Time 100: Scientists and Thinkers</a>, accessed September 23, 2007</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-58"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-58">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, p.&#160;461</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-nwhp_bio-59"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-nwhp_bio_59-0">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a class="external text" href="http://web.archive.org/web/20051208074458/http://www.nwhp.org/tlp/biographies/carson/carson-bio.html">2003 National Women's History Month Honorees: Rachel Carlson</a>. Retrieved September 23, 2007.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-60"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-60">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, pp.&#160;451–461, 469–473</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-61"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-61">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, pp.&#160;476–480</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-62"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-62">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLear1997">Lear 1997</a>, pp.&#160;467–8, 477, 482–3 See also the Beinecke <a class="external text" href="http://hdl.handle.net/10079/fa/beinecke.carson">finding aid for the Rachel Carson Papers</a>.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-Murphy_25-63"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">↑ <sup><a href="#cite_ref-Murphy_25_63-0">63.0</a></sup> <sup><a href="#cite_ref-Murphy_25_63-1">63.1</a></sup></span> <span class="reference-text">Murphy, 25; quotations from <i>A Sense of Wonder</i>, 95. The essay was originally published in 1956 in <i>Woman's Home Companion</i>.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-64"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-64">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFHynes1989">Hynes 1989</a>, p.&#160;3</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-65"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-65">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFHynes1989">Hynes 1989</a>, pp.&#160;8–9</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-66"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-66">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFHynes1989">Hynes 1989</a>, pp.&#160;46–7</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-67"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-67">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFHynes1989">Hynes 1989</a>, pp.&#160;47–8, 148–163</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-68"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-68">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text">(Lutts, 1985)</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-69"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-69">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text">(Gottlieb, R. <i>Forcing the Spring</i>. Washington D.C.: Island Press)</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-70"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-70">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text">(Lear, Rachel Carson Witness for Nature, 1997)</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-71"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-71">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text">(Kline, B. First Along the River. Maryland: Rowma &amp; Littlefield.)</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-72"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-72">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text">(Lutts, R. (1985. Chemical Fallout: Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, Radioactive Fallout, and the Environmental Movement, <i>Environmental Review</i>, 210-225.)</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-73"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-73">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLytle2007">Lytle 2007</a>, p.&#160;217</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-74"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-74">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation Journal">Baum,&#32;Rudy M.&#32;(June 4, 2007).&#32;<a class="external text" href="http://pubs.acs.org/isubscribe/journals/cen/85/i23/html/8523editor.html">"Rachel Carson"</a>.&#32;<i>Chemical and Engineering News</i>&#32;(American Chemical Society)&#32;<b>85</b>&#32;(23): 5.</span></span> </li> <li id="cite_note-Conservative_criticism_of_Carson-75"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-Conservative_criticism_of_Carson_75-0">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text">Examples of recent criticism include:<br />(a) Rich Karlgaard, "<a class="external text" href="http://www.forbes.com/sites/digitalrules/2007/05/18/but-her-heart-was-good/">But Her Heart Was Good</a>", Forbes.com, May 18, 2007. Accessed September 23, 2007.<br />(b) Keith Lockitch, "<a class="external text" href="http://capmag.com/article.asp?ID=4965">Rachel Carson's Genocide</a>", <i>Capitalism Magazine</i>, May 23, 2007. Accessed May 24, 2007<br />(c) <a href="/index.php?title=David_Roberts_(journalist)&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="David Roberts (journalist) (page does not exist)">David Roberts</a>, "<a class="external text" href="http://gristmill.grist.org/story/2007/5/23/17433/0674">My one and only post on the Rachel Carson nonsense</a>" Grist.com, May 24, 2007. Accessed September 23, 2007.<br />(d) Paul Driessen, "<a class="external text" href="http://www.washingtontimes.com/commentary/20070428-100957-5274r.htm">Forty Years of Perverse 'Responsibility,'</a>", <i>The Washington Times</i>, April 29, 2007. Accessed May 30, 2007.<br />(e) Iain Murray, "<a class="external text" href="http://article.nationalreview.com/?q=MjhkYTlmYjljMmJlMzU5Y2IxOGM3ZWM3YzZkNzFiNGE"><i>Silent</i> Alarmism: A Centennial We Could Do Without</a>", <i>National Review</i>, May 31, 2007. Accessed May 31, 2007.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-76"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-76">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLytle2007">Lytle 2007</a>, pp.&#160;217–220; Jeffrey K. Stine, "Natural Resources and Environmental Policy" in <i>The Reagan Presidency: Pragmatic Conservatism and Its Legacies</i>, edited by W. Elliott Browlee and Hugh Davis Graham. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press, 2003. ISBN 0-7006-1268-8</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-quig-77"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">↑ <sup><a href="#cite_ref-quig_77-0">77.0</a></sup> <sup><a href="#cite_ref-quig_77-1">77.1</a></sup> <sup><a href="#cite_ref-quig_77-2">77.2</a></sup></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation Journal">John Quiggin, Tim Lambert&#32;(24 May 2008).&#32;<a class="external text" href="http://www.prospectmagazine.co.uk/2008/05/rehabilitatingcarson/">"Rehabilitating Carson"</a>.&#32;<i>Prospect</i>&#32;(146).</span></span> </li> <li id="cite_note-Erik-78"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">↑ <sup><a href="#cite_ref-Erik_78-0">78.0</a></sup> <sup><a href="#cite_ref-Erik_78-1">78.1</a></sup></span> <span class="reference-text">Erik M. Conway, Naomi Oreskes, <i>Merchants of Doubt</i>, 2010, p.217</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-most_harmful-79"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-most_harmful_79-0">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a class="external text" href="http://www.humanevents.com/article.php?id=7591">Ten Most Harmful Books of the 19th and 20th Centuries</a>. Retrieved August 24, 2007.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-dunn_2012-80"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-dunn_2012_80-0">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text">Dunn, R. (2012) <a class="external text" href="http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v485/n7400/full/485578a.html"><i>In retrospect: Silent Spring</i></a>, <a href="/index.php?title=Nature_(journal)&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Nature (journal) (page does not exist)">Nature</a> <b>485</b>(7400), 578-579.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-trewavas_2012-81"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-trewavas_2012_81-0">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="/index.php?title=Anthony_Trewavas&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Anthony Trewavas (page does not exist)">Trewavas, T.</a>, <a href="/index.php?title=Chris_J._Leaver&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Chris J. Leaver (page does not exist)">Leaver, C.</a>, <a href="/index.php?title=Bruce_Ames&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Bruce Ames (page does not exist)">Ames, B.</a>, <a href="/index.php?title=Peter_Lachmann&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Peter Lachmann (page does not exist)">Lachmann, P.</a>, <a href="/index.php?title=Richard_Tren&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Richard Tren (page does not exist)">Tren, R.</a>, Meiners, R., <a href="/index.php?title=Henry_I._Miller&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Henry I. Miller (page does not exist)">Miller, H.I.</a>, <i>et al.</i> (2012) <a class="external text" href="http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v486/n7404/full/486473a.html"><i>Environment: Carson no 'beacon of reason' on DDT</i></a>, <a href="/index.php?title=Nature_(journal)&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Nature (journal) (page does not exist)">Nature</a> <b>486</b>(7404), 473.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-82"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-82">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLytle2007">Lytle 2007</a>, pp.&#160;220–8</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-83"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-83">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a class="external text" href="http://www.eac.int/health/index.php?option=com_content&amp;view=article&amp;id=95%3Aclassification-system&amp;catid=15%3Adiseases&amp;Itemid=32">"Malaria Prevention and Control"</a>.&#32;East African Community Health.</span></span> </li> <li id="cite_note-84"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-84">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text">Erik M. Conway, Naomi Oreskes, <i>Merchants of Doubt</i>, 2010, p.226</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-85"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-85">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text">Erik M. Conway, Naomi Oreskes, <i>Merchants of Doubt</i>, 2010, p.223-4</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-86"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-86">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><i>Silent Spring</i>, p. 266</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-87"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-87">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><i>Silent Spring</i>, p. 267</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-88"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-88">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><i>Silent Spring</i>, p. 275</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-89"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-89">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a class="external text" href="http://www.malaria.org/DDTpage.html">Malaria Foundation International</a>. Retrieved March 15, 2006.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-90"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-90">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a class="external text" href="http://www.pbs.org/moyers/journal/09212007/profile2.html">Rachel Carson and DDT</a>, <i><a href="/index.php?title=Bill_Moyers_Journal&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Bill Moyers Journal (page does not exist)">Bill Moyers Journal</a></i>, September 21, 2007. Retrieved September 29, 2007.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-91"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-91">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a class="external text" href="http://web.archive.org/web/20071018025824/www.medaloffreedom.com/Chronological.htm">Chronological List of Medal of Freedom Awards</a>, archived October 18, 2007. Retrieved August 1, 2009.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-92"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-92">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a class="external text" href="http://www.planetpatriot.net/stamps2/carson_rachel_stamps.html">Marshall Is 2000</a>, <a class="external text" href="http://stamp-search.com/images/pal9901sh16enviro.jpg">Palau 1998</a>, <a class="external text" href="http://stamp-search.com/images/zam0004sh4-milnm1950-00.jpg">Zambia 2000</a><br /></span> </li> <li id="cite_note-93"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-93">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a class="external text" href="http://www.rachelcarsonhomestead.org/">Rachel Carson Homestead</a>. Retrieved September 7, 2007.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-94"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-94">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a class="external text" href="http://mht.maryland.gov/nr/NRDetail.aspx?HDID=1094&amp;FROM=NRNHLList.aspx">"Maryland Historical Trust"</a>.&#32;<i>National Register of Historic Places: Properties in Montgomery County</i>.&#32;Maryland Historical Trust.&#32;June 8, 2008.</span></span> </li> <li id="cite_note-95"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-95">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a class="external text" href="http://www.rachelcarsontrails.org/rct">Rachel Carson Trail</a>. Retrieved September 26, 2007.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-bridge-96"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-bridge_96-0">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text">Jerome L. Sherman, <a class="external text" href="http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/06113/684423-85.stm">"Environmentalist Rachel Carson's legacy remembered on Earth Day"</a>, <i>Pittsburgh Post-Gazette</i>, April 23, 2006. Retrieved September 23, 2007.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-97"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-97">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a class="external text" href="http://www.montgomeryschoolsmd.org/schools/rachelcarsones/index.shtm">Rachel Carson Elementary School</a>. Retrieved February 22, 2008.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-98"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-98">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a class="external text" href="http://www.fcps.edu/RachelCarsonMS/">Rachel Carson Middle School</a>. Retrieved February 28, 2008.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-99"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-99">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a class="external text" href="http://www.lwsd.org/school/carson/Pages/default.aspx/">Rachel Carson Elementary</a>. Retrieved 15 June 2011.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-100"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-100">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a class="external text" href="http://yosemite.epa.gov/opa/admpress.nsf/6427a6b7538955c585257359003f0230/1a5d6d4953c0627985256fbf006a9578!OpenDocument&amp;Start=9.4&amp;Count=5&amp;Expand=9.4">CAIR News Advisory</a>. REtrieved August 18, 2009.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-101"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-101">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a class="external text" href="http://www.montgomeryparks.org/park_of_the_day/may/parkday_may12.shtm">MNCPPC: Rachel Carson Conservation Park</a>. Retrieved August 26, 2007.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-102"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-102">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a class="external text" href="http://www.fws.gov/northeast/rachelcarson/index.html">Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge</a>. Retrieved September 11, 2007.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-103"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-103">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a class="external text" href="http://nerrs.noaa.gov/NorthCarolina/welcome.html">Rachel Carson Estuarine Research Reserve</a><sup class="noprint Inline-Template"><span title="&#160;since November 2011" style="white-space: nowrap;">&#91;<i><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Link_rot" class="extiw" title="wikipedia:Link rot">dead link</a></i>&#93;</span></sup>. Retrieved October 12, 2007.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-104"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-104">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a class="external text" href="http://rachelcarsonprisen.no/eng/The-Prize/What-is-the-Rachel-Carson-Prize">"What is the Rachel Carson Prize?"</a>.&#32;Rachel Carson-prisen<span class="reference-accessdate">.&#32;Retrieved March 15, 2010</span>.</span></span> </li> <li id="cite_note-105"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-105">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a class="external text" href="http://www.aseh.net/awards/list-of-award-recipients-and-comments">Award Recipients&#160;– American Society for Environmental History</a><sup class="noprint Inline-Template"><span title="&#160;since November 2011" style="white-space: nowrap;">&#91;<i><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Link_rot" class="extiw" title="wikipedia:Link rot">dead link</a></i>&#93;</span></sup>. Retrieved September 11, 2007.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-106"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-106">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a class="external text" href="http://www.4sonline.org/carson.htm">Rachel Carson Book Prize, 4S</a>. Retrieved September 11, 2007.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-107"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-107">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a class="external text" href="http://www.houghtonmifflinbooks.com/catalog/titledetail.cfm?titleNumber=694257">Houghton Mifflin Trade and Reference Division, <i>Courage for the Earth</i> release information</a>. Retrieved September 23, 2007.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-108"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-108">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation news">David A. Fahrenthold&#32;(May 23, 2007).&#32;<a class="external text" href="http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/05/22/AR2007052201574.html">"Bill to honor Rachel Carson Blocked"</a>.&#32;Washington Post.</span></span> </li> <li id="cite_note-109"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><a href="#cite_ref-109">↑</a></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation news">Stephen Moore&#32;(September 19, 2006).&#32;<a class="external text" href="http://coburn.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?FuseAction=LatestNews.NewsStories&amp;ContentRecord_id=c7d00e46-802a-23ad-49b7-d4ec2599d64c">"Doctor Tom's DDT Victory"</a>.&#32;The Wall Street Journal.</span></span> </li> </ol></div></div> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Citations">Citations</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/index.php?title=User:RichardF/Sandbox&amp;action=edit&amp;section=21" title="Edit section: Citations">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3> <ul><li><span class="citation book" id="CITEREFHynes1989">Hynes,&#32;H. Patricia&#32;(1989).&#32;<a class="external text" href="http://books.google.com/?id=MNjaAAAAMAAJ"><i>The Recurring Silent Spring</i></a>.&#32;Athene series.&#32;New York:&#32;Pergamon Press.&#32;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" class="extiw" title="wikipedia:International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/Special:BookSources/0-08-037117-5" title="Special:BookSources/0-08-037117-5">0-08-037117-5</a>.</span></li> <li><span class="citation book" id="CITEREFLear1997">Lear,&#32;Linda&#32;(1997).&#32;<a class="external text" href="http://books.google.com/?id=2kDGQgAACAAJ"><i>Rachel Carson: Witness for Nature</i></a>.&#32;New York:&#32;Henry Holt.&#32;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" class="extiw" title="wikipedia:International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/Special:BookSources/0-8050-3428-5" title="Special:BookSources/0-8050-3428-5">0-8050-3428-5</a>.</span></li> <li><span class="citation book" id="CITEREFLytle2007">Lytle,&#32;Mark Hamilton&#32;(2007).&#32;<a class="external text" href="http://books.google.com/?id=SOSD4PFchmsC"><i>The Gentle Subversive: Rachel Carson, Silent Spring, and the Rise of the Environmental Movement</i></a>.&#32;New York:&#32;Oxford University Press.&#32;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" class="extiw" title="wikipedia:International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/Special:BookSources/0-19-517246-9" title="Special:BookSources/0-19-517246-9">0-19-517246-9</a>.</span></li> <li><span class="citation book" id="CITEREFMurphy2005">Murphy,&#32;Priscilla Coit&#32;(2005).&#32;<a class="external text" href="http://books.google.com/?id=MFWFjvY90PgC"><i>What a Book Can Do: The Publication and Reception of Silent Spring</i></a>.&#32;Amherst:&#32;University of Massachusetts Press.&#32;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" class="extiw" title="wikipedia:International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/Special:BookSources/978-1-55849-582-1" title="Special:BookSources/978-1-55849-582-1">978-1-55849-582-1</a>.</span></li> <li><span class="citation book" id="CITEREFKline">Kline,&#32;B.&#32;<i>First Along the River. Maryland</i>.&#32;Rowma &amp; Littlefield.</span></li> <li><span class="citation book" id="CITEREFLutts1985">Lutts,&#32;R&#32;(1985).&#32;<i>Chemical fallout: Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, Radioactive Fallout, and the Environmental Movement.</i>.&#32;Environmental Review.</span></li> <li><span class="citation book" id="CITEREFgottlieb">gottlieb,&#32;R.&#32;<i>Forging the Spring.</i>.&#32;Washington D.C.:&#32;Island Press.</span></li></ul> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Further_reading">Further reading</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/index.php?title=User:RichardF/Sandbox&amp;action=edit&amp;section=22" title="Edit section: Further reading">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2> <ul><li><span class="citation book">Brooks, Paul&#32;(1972).&#32;<a class="external text" href="http://books.google.com/?id=VIkcZTSh7skC"><i>The House of Life: Rachel Carson at Work</i></a>.&#32;Houghton Mifflin.&#32;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" class="extiw" title="wikipedia:International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/Special:BookSources/0-395-13517-6" title="Special:BookSources/0-395-13517-6">0-395-13517-6</a>.</span> This book is a personal memoir by Carson's <a href="/index.php?title=Houghton_Mifflin&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Houghton Mifflin (page does not exist)">Houghton Mifflin</a> editor and close friend Paul Brooks.</li> <li><span class="citation book"><a href="/index.php?title=Martin_Jezer&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Martin Jezer (page does not exist)">Jezer, Marty</a>&#32;(1988).&#32;<a class="external text" href="http://books.google.com/?id=pBwVPwAACAAJ"><i>Rachel Carson: Biologist and Author</i></a>.&#32;American women of achievement.&#32;Chelsea House Publications.&#32;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" class="extiw" title="wikipedia:International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/Special:BookSources/1-55546-646-X" title="Special:BookSources/1-55546-646-X">1-55546-646-X</a>.</span></li> <li><span class="citation book"><a href="/index.php?title=Peter_Matthiessen&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Peter Matthiessen (page does not exist)">Matthiessen, Peter</a>, ed.&#32;(2007).&#32;<a class="external text" href="http://books.google.com/?id=VNXapJVwbC0C"><i>Courage for the Earth: Writers, Scientists, and Activists Celebrate the Life and Writing of Rachel Carson</i></a>.&#32;Mariner Books.&#32;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" class="extiw" title="wikipedia:International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/Special:BookSources/0-618-87276-0" title="Special:BookSources/0-618-87276-0">0-618-87276-0</a>.</span></li> <li><span class="citation book">Moore, Kathleen Dean&#59;&#32;Sideris, Lisa H.&#32;(2008).&#32;<a class="external text" href="http://books.google.com/?id=awR4kJrhQK0C"><i>Rachel Carson: Legacy and Challenge</i></a>.&#32;<a href="/index.php?title=Albany,_New_York&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Albany, New York (page does not exist)">Albany, New York</a>:&#32;<a href="/index.php?title=SUNY_Press&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="SUNY Press (page does not exist)">SUNY Press</a>.&#32;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" class="extiw" title="wikipedia:International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/Special:BookSources/0-7914-7471-2" title="Special:BookSources/0-7914-7471-2">0-7914-7471-2</a>.</span></li> <li><span class="citation book">Quaratiello, Arlene&#32;(2010).&#32;<a class="external text" href="http://www.amazon.com/Rachel-Carson-Biography-Arlene-Quaratiello/dp/1616141875/ref=sr_1_3?ie=UTF8&amp;s=books&amp;qid=1278211359&amp;sr=8-3"><i>Rachel Carson: A Biography</i></a>.&#32;<a href="/index.php?title=Amherst,_New_York&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Amherst, New York (page does not exist)">Amherst, New York</a>:&#32;Prometheus.&#32;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" class="extiw" title="wikipedia:International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/Special:BookSources/978-1-61614-187-5" title="Special:BookSources/978-1-61614-187-5">978-1-61614-187-5</a>.</span></li> <li><span class="citation Journal">Sideris, Lisa H.&#32;(Fall–Winter 2009).&#32;"Fact and Fiction, Fear and Wonder: The Legacy of Rachel Carson".&#32;<i>Soundings</i>&#32;<b>91</b>&#32;(3-4): 335–69.</span></li></ul> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="External_links">External links</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/index.php?title=User:RichardF/Sandbox&amp;action=edit&amp;section=23" title="Edit section: External links">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2> <ul><li>Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to <a class="external text" href="http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Special:Search/Rachel_Carson"><i><b>Rachel Carson</b></i></a></li> <li>Wikimedia Commons has media related to <a class="external text" href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Rachel_Carson"><i><b>Rachel Carson</b></i></a></li> <li><a class="external text" href="http://hdl.handle.net/10079/fa/beinecke.carson">Rachel Carson Papers</a>. Yale Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University.</li> <li><a class="external text" href="http://www.mindfully.org/Pesticide/Rachel-Carson-Silent-Spring.htm"><i>New York Times</i> obituary</a></li> <li><a class="external text" href="http://www.rachelcarson.org/">RachelCarson.org</a>—website by Carson biographer Linda Lear</li> <li><a class="external text" href="http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,990622,00.html"><i>Time</i>, Mar. 29, 1999, Environmentalist RACHEL CARSON</a></li> <li><a class="external text" href="http://www.pbs.org/moyers/journal/09212007/profile.html">Revisiting Rachel Carson</a>—Bill Moyer's Journal, PBS.org, 9-21-2007</li> <li><a class="external text" href="http://www.pbs.org/moyers/journal/09212007/profile3.html">"A Sense of Wonder"</a> – two-act play about Carson, written and performed by Kaiulani Lee, based on posthumous work of the same name</li> <li><a class="external text" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=isoJxPZH1LQ">YouTube Clip of Bill Moyers television on Lee's one woman show</a></li> <li><a class="external text" href="http://www.montgomeryparks.org/PPSD/ParkTrails/trails_MAPS/Rachel_Carson_Greenway_trails.shtm">The Rachel Carson Greenway Trail</a> in Montgomery County, Maryland</li> <li><a class="external text" href="http://books.google.com/books?id=diEDAAAAMBAJ&amp;pg=RA1-PA14&amp;dq=popular+science+1951+why+our+winters&amp;hl=en&amp;ei=9ALETJujGcf_nAe9r73xCQ&amp;sa=X&amp;oi=book_result&amp;ct=result&amp;resnum=1&amp;ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&amp;q=popular%20science%201951%20why%20our%20winters&amp;f=true">"Why Our Winters Are Getting Warmer", November 1951, <i>Popular Science</i></a> - early article by Rachel Carson about how the ocean currents affected climate (excerpt from her 1951 book, <i>The Sea Around Us</i>).</li> <li><a class="external text" href="http://moviemorlocks.com/2011/02/20/rachel-l-carson-as-interpreted-by-irwin-allen/">(Rachel L. Carson as Interpreted by Irwin Allen – TCM Movie Morlocks on THE SEA AROUND US)</a></li></ul> <p><b>Carson-related organizations</b> </p> <ul><li><a class="external text" href="http://www.rachelcarsonhomestead.org/">The Rachel Carson Homestead</a></li> <li><a class="external text" href="http://www.silentspring.org/">Silent Spring Institute</a></li> <li><a class="external text" href="http://www.rachelcarsontrails.org/">Rachel Carson Trails Conservancy</a></li> <li><a class="external text" href="http://www.chatham.edu/rci/">Rachel Carson Institute</a></li></ul> <table id="persondata" class="persondata" style="border:1px solid #aaa; display:none; speak:none;"> <tbody><tr> <th colspan="2"><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persondata" class="extiw" title="wikipedia:Persondata">Persondata</a> </th></tr> <tr> <td class="persondata-label" style="color:#aaa;">Name </td> <td>Carson, Rachel Louise </td></tr> <tr> <td class="persondata-label" style="color:#aaa;">Alternative names </td> <td> </td></tr> <tr> <td class="persondata-label" style="color:#aaa;">Short description </td> <td>American zoologist, marine biologist, writer and activist </td></tr> <tr> <td class="persondata-label" style="color:#aaa;">Date of birth </td> <td>May 27, 1907 </td></tr> <tr> <td class="persondata-label" style="color:#aaa;">Place of birth </td> <td><a href="/index.php?title=Springdale,_Pennsylvania&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Springdale, Pennsylvania (page does not exist)">Springdale, Pennsylvania</a>, U.S </td></tr> <tr> <td class="persondata-label" style="color:#aaa;">Date of death </td> <td>April 14, 1964 </td></tr> <tr> <td class="persondata-label" style="color:#aaa;">Place of death </td> <td><a href="/index.php?title=Silver_Spring,_Maryland&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Silver Spring, Maryland (page does not exist)">Silver Spring, Maryland</a>, U.S. </td></tr></tbody></table></div>
Old page text, stripped of any markup (old_text)
Rachel Carson Rachel Carson, 1940 Fish &amp; Wildlife Service employee photoBorn Rachel Louise CarsonMay 27, 1907(1907-05-27)Springdale, Pennsylvania, U.S.Died April 14, 1964(1964-04-14) (aged&#160;56)Silver Spring, Maryland, U.S.Nationality AmericanAlma mater Chatham University,Johns Hopkins UniversityOccupation [Marine biologist, writer and environmentalist Rachel Louise Carson (May 27, 1907&#160;– April 14, 1964) was an American marine biologist and conservationist whose book Silent Spring and other writings are credited with advancing the global environmental movement. Carson began her career as a biologist in the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries, and became a full-time nature writer in the 1950s. Her widely praised 1951 bestseller The Sea Around Us won her a U.S. National Book Award,&#91;1&#93; recognition as a gifted writer, and financial security. Her next book, The Edge of the Sea, and the reissued version of her first book, Under the Sea Wind, were also bestsellers. That so-called sea trilogy explores the whole of ocean life from the shores to the surface to the depths. Late in the 1950s Carson turned her attention to conservation, especially environmental problems she believed were caused by synthetic pesticides. The result was Silent Spring (1962), which brought environmental concerns to an unprecedented share of the American people. Although Silent Spring met with fierce opposition by chemical companies, it spurred a reversal in national pesticide policy, which led to a nationwide ban on DDT and other pesticides, and it inspired a grassroots environmental movement that led to the creation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Carson was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by Jimmy Carter. Contents 1 Life and work 1.1 Early life and education 1.2 Early career and publications 1.3 Relationship with Dorothy Freeman 1.4 The Edge of the Sea and transition to conservation work 1.5 Silent Spring 1.5.1 Research and writing 1.5.2 Argument 1.5.3 Promotion and reception 1.6 Death 2 Legacy 2.1 Collected papers and posthumous publications 2.2 Grassroots environmentalism and the EPA 2.3 Science, nature, DDT, and food production 2.4 Criticisms of environmentalism and DDT restrictions 2.5 Posthumous honors 2.5.1 Centennial events 3 List of works 4 See also 5 References 5.1 Citations 6 Further reading 7 External links Life and work[edit] Early life and education[edit] Rachel Carson was born on May 27, 1907, on a small family farm near Springdale, Pennsylvania, just up the Allegheny River from Pittsburgh. An avid reader, she also spent a lot of time exploring around her family's 65 acre farm. She began writing stories (often involving animals) at age eight, and had her first story published at age eleven. She especially enjoyed the St. Nicholas Magazine (which carried her first published stories), the works of Beatrix Potter, and the novels of Gene Stratton Porter, and in her teen years, Herman Melville, Joseph Conrad and Robert Louis Stevenson. The natural world, particularly the ocean, was the common thread of her favorite literature. Carson attended Springdale's small school through tenth grade, then completed high school in nearby Parnassus, Pennsylvania, graduating in 1925 at the top of her class of forty-five students.&#91;2&#93; At the Pennsylvania College for Women (today known as Chatham University), as in high school, Carson was somewhat of a loner. She originally studied English, but switched her major to biology in January 1928, though she continued contributing to the school's student newspaper and literary supplement. Though admitted to graduate standing at Johns Hopkins University in 1928, she was forced to remain at the Pennsylvania College for Women for her senior year due to financial difficulties; she graduated magna cum laude in 1929. After a summer course at the Marine Biological Laboratory, she continued her studies in zoology and genetics at Johns Hopkins in the fall of 1929.&#91;3&#93; After her first year of graduate school, Carson became a part-time student, taking an assistantship in Raymond Pearl's laboratory, where she worked with rats and Drosophila, to earn money for tuition. After false starts with pit vipers and squirrels, she completed a dissertation project on the embryonic development of the pronephros in fish. She earned a master's degree in zoology in June 1932. She had intended to continue for a doctorate, but in 1934 Carson was forced to leave Johns Hopkins to search for a full-time teaching position to help support her family. In 1935, her father died suddenly, leaving Carson to care for her aging mother and making the financial situation even more critical. At the urging of her undergraduate biology mentor Mary Scott Skinker, she settled for a temporary position with the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries, writing radio copy for a series of weekly educational broadcasts entitled "Romance Under the Waters". The series of fifty-two seven-minute programs focused on aquatic life and was intended to generate public interest in fish biology and in the work of the bureau—a task the several writers before Carson had not managed. Carson also began submitting articles on marine life in the Chesapeake Bay, based on her research for the series, to local newspapers and magazines.&#91;4&#93; Carson's supervisor, pleased with the success of the radio series, asked her to write the introduction to a public brochure about the fisheries bureau; he also worked to secure her the first full-time position that became available. Sitting for the civil service exam, she outscored all other applicants and in 1936 became only the second woman to be hired by the Bureau of Fisheries for a full-time, professional position, as a junior aquatic biologist.&#91;5&#93; Early career and publications[edit] At the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries, Carson's main responsibilities were to analyze and report field data on fish populations, and to write brochures and other literature for the public. Using her research and consultations with marine biologists as starting points, she also wrote a steady stream of articles for The Baltimore Sun and other newspapers. However, her family responsibilities further increased in January 1937 when her older sister died, leaving Carson as the sole breadwinner for her mother and two nieces.&#91;6&#93; In July 1937, the Atlantic Monthly accepted a revised version of an essay, "The World of Waters", that she had originally written for her first fisheries bureau brochure; her supervisor had deemed it too good for that purpose. The essay, published as "Undersea", was a vivid narrative of a journey along the ocean floor. It marked a major turning point in Carson's writing career. Publishing house Simon &amp; Schuster, impressed by "Undersea", contacted Carson and suggested that she expand it into book form. Several years of writing resulted in Under the Sea Wind (1941), which received excellent reviews but sold poorly. In the meantime, Carson's article-writing success continued—her features appeared in Sun Magazine, Nature, and Collier's.&#91;7&#93; Carson attempted to leave the Bureau (by then transformed into the Fish and Wildlife Service) in 1945, but few jobs for naturalists were available as most money for science was focused on technical fields in the wake of the Manhattan Project. In mid-1945, Carson first encountered the subject of DDT, a revolutionary new pesticide (lauded as the "insect bomb" after the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki) that was only beginning to undergo tests for safety and ecological effects. DDT was but one of Carson's many writing interests at the time, and editors found the subject unappealing; she published nothing on DDT until 1962.&#91;8&#93; Carson rose within the Fish and Wildlife Service, supervising a small writing staff by 1945 and becoming chief editor of publications in 1949. Though her position provided increasing opportunities for fieldwork and freedom in choosing her writing projects, it also entailed increasingly tedious administrative responsibilities. By 1948, Carson was working on material for a second book and had made the conscious decision to begin a transition to writing full-time. That year, she took on a literary agent, Marie Rodell; they formed a close professional relationship that would last the rest of Carson's career.&#91;9&#93; Oxford University Press expressed interest in Carson's book proposal for a life history of the ocean, spurring her to complete the manuscript of what would become The Sea Around Us by early 1950.&#91;10&#93; Chapters appeared in Science Digest and the Yale Review—the latter chapter, "The Birth of an Island", winning the American Association for the Advancement of Science's George Westinghouse Science Writing Prize. Nine chapters were serialized in The New Yorker beginning June 1951 and the book was published July 2, 1951, by Oxford University Press. The Sea Around Us remained on the New York Times Best Seller List for 86 weeks, was abridged by Reader's Digest, won the 1952 National Book Award for Nonfiction&#91;1&#93; and the Burroughs Medal, and resulted in Carson's being awarded two honorary doctorates. She also licensed a documentary film based on it. The Sea's success led to the republication of Under the Sea Wind, which became a bestseller itself. With success came financial security, and Carson was able to give up her job in 1952 to concentrate on writing full time.&#91;11&#93; Carson was inundated with speaking engagements, fan mail and other correspondence regarding The Sea Around Us, along with work on the documentary script that she had secured the right to review.&#91;12&#93; She was very unhappy with the final version of the script by writer, director and producer Irwin Allen; she found it untrue to the atmosphere of the book and scientifically embarrassing, describing it as "a cross between a believe-it-or-not and a breezy travelogue."&#91;13&#93; She discovered, however, that her right to review the script did not extend to any control over its content. Allen proceeded in spite of Carson's objections to produce a very successful documentary. It won the 1953 Oscar for Best Documentary, but Carson was so embittered by the experience that she never again sold film rights to her work.&#91;14&#93; Relationship with Dorothy Freeman[edit] Carson moved with her mother to Southport Island, Maine, in 1953, and in July of that year met Dorothy Freeman (1898–1978) — the beginning of an extremely close relationship that would last the rest of Carson's life. The nature of the relationship between Carson and Freeman has been the subject of speculation. Carson met Freeman, a summer resident of the island along with her husband, after Freeman had written to Carson to welcome her. Freeman had read The Sea Around Us, a gift from her son, and was excited to have the prominent author as a neighbor. Carson's biographer, Linda Lear, writes that "Carson sorely needed a devoted friend and kindred spirit who would listen to her without advising and accept her wholly, the writer as well as the woman."&#91;15&#93; She found this in Freeman. The two women had a number of common interests, nature chief among them, and began exchanging letters regularly while apart. They would share summers for the remainder of Carson's life, and meet whenever else their schedules permitted.&#91;16&#93; Though Lear does not explicitly describe the relationship as romantic, others (such as the encyclopedia glbtq&#91;17&#93;) have noted that Carson and Freeman realized the letters could be interpreted as lesbian, even though "the expression of their love was limited almost wholly to letters and very occasional farewell kisses or holding of hands".&#91;18&#93; Freeman shared parts of Carson's letters with her husband to help him understand the relationship, but much of their correspondence was carefully guarded.&#91;19&#93; Shortly before Carson's death, she and Freeman destroyed hundreds of letters. The surviving correspondence was published in 1995 as Always, Rachel: The Letters of Rachel Carson and Dorothy Freeman, 1952–1964: An Intimate Portrait of a Remarkable Friendship, edited by Freeman's granddaughter. According to one reviewer, the pair "fit Carolyn Heilbrun's characterization of a strong female friendship, where what matters is 'not whether friends are homosexual or heterosexual, lovers or not, but whether they share the wonderful energy of work in the public sphere'".&#91;20&#93; The Edge of the Sea and transition to conservation work[edit] Early in 1953 Carson began library and field research on the ecology and organisms of the Atlantic shore.&#91;21&#93; In 1955, she completed the third volume of her sea trilogy, The Edge of the Sea, which focuses on life in coastal ecosystems (particularly along the Eastern Seaboard). It appeared in The New Yorker in two condensed installments shortly before its October 26 book release by Houghton Mifflin (again a new publisher). By this time, Carson's reputation for clear and poetical prose was well established; The Edge of the Sea received highly favorable reviews, if not quite as enthusiastic as for The Sea Around Us.&#91;22&#93; Through 1955 and 1956, Carson worked on a number of projects—including the script for an Omnibus episode, "Something About the Sky"—and wrote articles for popular magazines. Her plan for the next book was to address evolution, but the publication of Julian Huxley's Evolution in Action—and her own difficulty in finding a clear and compelling approach to the topic—led her to abandon the project. Instead, her interests were turning to conservation. She considered an environment-themed book project tentatively entitled Remembrance of the Earth and became involved with The Nature Conservancy and other conservation groups. She also made plans to buy and preserve from development an area in Maine she and Freeman called the "Lost Woods".&#91;23&#93; Early in 1957, family tragedy struck a third time when one of the nieces she had cared for in the 1940s died at the age of 31, leaving a five-year-old orphan son, Roger Christie. Carson took on that responsibility, adopting the boy, alongside continuing to care for her aging mother; this took a considerable toll on Carson. She moved to Silver Spring, Maryland, to care for Roger, and much of 1957 was spent putting their new living situation in order and focusing on specific environmental threats.&#91;24&#93; By fall 1957, Carson was closely following federal proposals for widespread pesticide spraying; the USDA planned to eradicate fire ants, and other spraying programs involving chlorinated hydrocarbons and organophosphates were on the rise.&#91;25&#93; For the rest of her life, Carson's main professional focus would be the dangers of pesticide overuse. Silent Spring[edit] Main article: Silent SpringW See also: Timeline of environmental eventsW, DDTW and Merchants of DoubtW Silent Spring is a book written by Rachel Carson and published by Houghton Mifflin on 27 September 1962.&#91;26&#93; The book is widely credited with helping launch the environmental movement.&#91;27&#93; In 1994 an edition of Silent Spring was published in which vice president Al Gore wrote the introduction. Research and writing[edit] Starting in the mid-1940s, Carson had become concerned about the use of synthetic pesticides, many of which had been developed through the military funding of science since World War II. It was the USDA's 1957 fire ant eradication program, however, that prompted Carson to devote her research, and her next book, to pesticides and environmental poisons. The fire ant program involved aerial spraying of DDT and other pesticides (mixed with fuel oil), including the spraying of private land. Landowners in Long Island filed a suit to have the spraying stopped, and many in affected regions followed the case closely. Though the suit was lost, the Supreme Court granted petitioners the right to gain injunctions against potential environmental damage in the future; this laid the basis for later successful environmental actions.&#91;28&#93; The Washington, D.C. chapter of the Audubon Society also actively opposed such spraying programs, and recruited Carson to help make public the government's exact spraying practices and the related research.&#91;29&#93; Carson began the four-year project of what would become Silent Spring by gathering examples of environmental damage attributed to DDT. She also attempted to enlist others to join the cause: essayist E. B. White, and a number of journalists and scientists. By 1958, Carson had arranged a book deal, with plans to co-write with Newsweek science journalist Edwin Diamond. However, when The New Yorker commissioned a long and well-paid article on the topic from Carson, she began considering writing more than simply the introduction and conclusion as planned; soon it was a solo project. (Diamond would later write one of the harshest critiques of Silent Spring.)&#91;30&#93; As her research progressed, Carson found a sizable community of scientists who were documenting the physiological and environmental effects of pesticides. She also took advantage of her personal connections with many government scientists, who supplied her with confidential information. From reading the scientific literature and interviewing scientists, Carson found two scientific camps when it came to pesticides: those who dismissed the possible danger of pesticide spraying barring conclusive proof, and those who were open to the possibility of harm and willing to consider alternative methods such as biological pest control.&#91;31&#93; By 1959, the USDA's Agricultural Research Service responded to the criticism by Carson and others with a public service film, Fire Ants on Trial; Carson characterized it as "flagrant propaganda" that ignored the dangers that spraying pesticides (especially dieldrin and heptachlor) posed to humans and wildlife. That spring, Carson wrote a letter, published in The Washington Post, that attributed the recent decline in bird populations—in her words, the "silencing of birds"—to pesticide overuse.&#91;32&#93; That was also the year of the "Great Cranberry Scandal": the 1957, 1958, and 1959 crops of U.S. cranberries were found to contain high levels of the herbicide aminotriazole (which caused cancer in laboratory rats) and the sale of all cranberry products was halted. Carson attended the ensuing FDA hearings on revising pesticide regulations; she came away discouraged by the aggressive tactics of the chemical industry representatives, which included expert testimony that was firmly contradicted by the bulk of the scientific literature she had been studying. She also wondered about the possible "financial inducements behind certain pesticide programs".&#91;33&#93; Research at the Library of Medicine of the National Institutes of Health brought Carson into contact with medical researchers investigating the gamut of cancer-causing chemicals. Of particular significance was the work of National Cancer Institute researcher and founding director of the environmental cancer section Wilhelm Hueper, who classified many pesticides as carcinogens. Carson and her research assistant Jeanne Davis, with the help of NIH librarian Dorothy Algire, found evidence to support the pesticide-cancer connection; to Carson the evidence for the toxicity of a wide array of synthetic pesticides was clear-cut, though such conclusions were very controversial beyond the small community of scientists studying pesticide carcinogenesis.&#91;34&#93; By 1960, Carson had more than enough research material, and the writing was progressing rapidly. In addition to the thorough literature search, she had investigated hundreds of individual incidents of pesticide exposure and the human sickness and ecological damage that resulted. However, in January, a duodenal ulcer followed by several infections kept her bedridden for weeks, greatly delaying the completion of Silent Spring. As she was nearing full recovery in March (just as she was completing drafts of the two cancer chapters of her book), she discovered cysts in her left breast, one of which necessitated a mastectomy. Though her doctor described the procedure as precautionary and recommended no further treatment, by December Carson discovered that the tumor was in fact malignant and the cancer had metastasized.&#91;35&#93; Her research was also delayed by revision work for a new edition of The Sea Around Us, and by a collaborative photo essay with Erich Hartmann.&#91;36&#93; Most of the research and writing was done by the fall of 1960, except for the discussion of recent research on biological controls and investigations of a handful of new pesticides. However, further health troubles slowed the final revisions in 1961 and early 1962.&#91;37&#93; It was difficult finding a title for the book; "Silent Spring" was initially suggested as a title for the chapter on birds. By August 1961, Carson finally agreed to the suggestion of her literary agent Marie Rodell: Silent Spring would be a metaphorical title for the entire book—suggesting a bleak future for the whole natural world—rather than a literal chapter title about the absence of birdsong.&#91;38&#93; With Carson's approval, editor Paul Brooks at Houghton Mifflin arranged for illustrations by Louis and Lois Darling, who also designed the cover. The final writing was the first chapter, "A Fable for Tomorrow", which was intended to provide a gentler introduction to what might otherwise be a forbiddingly serious topic. By mid-1962, Brooks and Carson had largely finished the editing, and were laying the groundwork for promoting the book by sending the manuscript out to select individuals for final suggestions.&#91;39&#93; Argument[edit] As biographer Mark Hamilton Lytle writes, Carson "quite self-consciously decided to write a book calling into question the paradigm of scientific progress that defined postwar American culture." The overriding theme of Silent Spring is the powerful—and often negative—effect humans have on the natural world.&#91;40&#93; Carson's main argument is that pesticides have detrimental effects on the environment; they are more properly termed "biocides", she argues, because their effects are rarely limited to the target pests. DDT is a prime example, but other synthetic pesticides come under scrutiny as well—many of which are subject to bioaccumulation. Carson also accuses the chemical industry of intentionally spreading disinformation and public officials of accepting industry claims uncritically. Most of the book is devoted to pesticides' effects on natural ecosystems, but four chapters also detail cases of human pesticide poisoning, cancer, and other illnesses attributed to pesticides.&#91;41&#93; About DDT and cancer, the subject of so much subsequent debate, Carson says only a little: In laboratory tests on animal subjects, DDT has produced suspicious liver tumors. Scientists of the Food and Drug Administration who reported the discovery of these tumors were uncertain how to classify them, but felt there was some "justification for considering them low grade hepatic cell carcinomas." Dr. Hueper [author of Occupational Tumors and Allied Diseases] now gives DDT the definite rating of a "chemical carcinogen."&#91;42&#93; — Rachel Carson, Silent Spring, p. 225 Carson predicts increased consequences in the future, especially as targeted pests develop resistance to pesticides while weakened ecosystems fall prey to unanticipated invasive species. The book closes with a call for a biotic approach to pest control as an alternative to chemical pesticides.&#91;43&#93; Promotion and reception[edit] Carson and the others involved with publication of Silent Spring expected fierce criticism. They were particularly concerned about the possibility of being sued for libel. Carson was also undergoing radiation therapy to combat her spreading cancer, and expected to have little energy to devote to defending her work and responding to critics. In preparation for the anticipated attacks, Carson and her agent attempted to amass as many prominent supporters as possible before the book's release.&#91;44&#93; Most of the book's scientific chapters were reviewed by scientists with relevant expertise, among whom Carson found strong support. Carson attended the White House Conference on Conservation in May, 1962; Houghton Mifflin distributed proof copies of Silent Spring to many of the delegates, and promoted the upcoming New Yorker serialization. Among many others, Carson also sent a proof copy to Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas, a long-time environmental advocate who had argued against the court's rejection of the Long Island pesticide spraying case (and who had provided Carson with some of the material included in her chapter on herbicides).&#91;45&#93; Though Silent Spring had generated a fairly high level of interest based on pre-publication promotion, this became much more intense with the serialization in The New Yorker, which began in the June 16, 1962 issue. This brought the book to the attention of the chemical industry and its lobbyists, as well as a wide swath of the American populace. Around that time Carson also learned that Silent Spring had been selected as the Book-of-the-Month for October; as she put it, this would "carry it to farms and hamlets all over that country that don't know what a bookstore looks like—much less The New Yorker."&#91;46&#93; Other publicity included a positive editorial in The New York Times and excerpts of the serialized version in Audubon Magazine, with another round of publicity in July and August as chemical companies responded. The story of the birth defect-causing drug thalidomide broke just before the book's publication as well, inviting comparisons between Carson and Frances Oldham Kelsey, the Food and Drug Administration reviewer who had blocked the drug's sale in the United States.&#91;47&#93; In the weeks leading up to the September 27 publication there was strong opposition to Silent Spring. DuPont (a main manufacturer of DDT and 2,4-D) and Velsicol Chemical Company (exclusive manufacturer of chlordane and heptachlor) were among the first to respond. DuPont compiled an extensive report on the book's press coverage and estimated impact on public opinion. Velsicol threatened legal action against Houghton Mifflin as well as The New Yorker and Audubon Magazine unless the planned Silent Spring features were canceled. Chemical industry representatives and lobbyists also lodged a range of non-specific complaints, some anonymously. Chemical companies and associated organizations produced a number of their own brochures and articles promoting and defending pesticide use. However, Carson's and the publishers' lawyers were confident in the vetting process Silent Spring had undergone. The magazine and book publications proceeded as planned, as did the large Book-of-the-Month printing (which included a pamphlet endorsing the book by William O. Douglas).&#91;48&#93; American Cyanamid biochemist Robert White-Stevens and former Cyanamid chemist Thomas Jukes were among the most aggressive critics, especially of Carson's analysis of DDT.&#91;49&#93; According to White-Stevens, "If man were to follow the teachings of Miss Carson, we would return to the Dark Ages, and the insects and diseases and vermin would once again inherit the earth."&#91;50&#93; Others went further, attacking Carson's scientific credentials (because her training was in marine biology rather than biochemistry) and her personal character. White-Stevens labeled her "a fanatic defender of the cult of the balance of nature",&#91;51&#93; while former Secretary of Agriculture Ezra Taft Benson—in a letter to Dwight D. Eisenhower—reportedly concluded that because she was unmarried despite being physically attractive, she was "probably a Communist".&#91;52&#93; Many critics repeatedly asserted that she was calling for the elimination of all pesticides. Yet Carson had made it clear she was not advocating the banning or complete withdrawal of helpful pesticides, but was instead encouraging responsible and carefully managed use with an awareness of the chemicals' impact on the entire ecosystem.&#91;53&#93; In fact, she concludes her section on DDT in Silent Spring not by urging a total ban, but with advice for spraying as little as possible to limit the development of resistance.&#91;54&#93; The academic community—including prominent defenders such as H. J. Muller, Loren Eisley, Clarence Cottam, and Frank Egler—by and large backed the book's scientific claims; public opinion soon turned Carson's way as well. The chemical industry campaign backfired, as the controversy greatly increased public awareness of potential pesticide dangers, as well as Silent Spring book sales. Pesticide use became a major public issue, especially after the CBS Reports TV special "The Silent Spring of Rachel Carson" that aired April 3, 1963. The program included segments of Carson reading from Silent Spring and interviews with a number of other experts, mostly critics (including White-Stevens); according to biographer Linda Lear, "in juxtaposition to the wild-eyed, loud-voiced Dr. Robert White-Stevens in white lab coat, Carson appeared anything but the hysterical alarmist that her critics contended."&#91;55&#93; Reactions from the estimated audience of ten to fifteen million were overwhelmingly positive, and the program spurred a congressional review of pesticide dangers and the public release of a pesticide report by the President's Science Advisory Committee.&#91;56&#93; Within a year or so of publication, the attacks on the book and on Carson had largely lost momentum.&#91;57&#93;&#91;58&#93; In one of her last public appearances, Carson had testified before President Kennedy's Science Advisory Committee. The committee issued its report on May 15, 1963, largely backing Carson's scientific claims.&#91;59&#93; Following the report's release, she also testified before a Senate subcommittee to make policy recommendations. Though Carson received hundreds of other speaking invitations, she was unable to accept the great majority of them. Her health was steadily declining as her cancer outpaced the radiation therapy, with only brief periods of remission. She spoke as much as she was physically able, however, including a notable appearance on The Today Show and speeches at several dinners held in her honor. In late 1963, she received a flurry of awards and honors: the Audubon Medal (from the National Audubon Society), the Cullum Medal (from the American Geographical Society), and induction into the American Academy of Arts and Letters.&#91;60&#93; Death[edit] Weakened from breast cancer and her treatment regimen, Carson became ill with a respiratory virus in January 1964. Her condition worsened, and in February, doctors found that she had severe anemia from her radiation treatments and in March discovered that the cancer had reached her liver. She died of a heart attack on April 14, 1964.&#91;61&#93; She was interred at Parklawn Memorial Park and Menorah Gardens in Rockville, Maryland. Legacy[edit] Collected papers and posthumous publications[edit] Carson bequeathed her manuscripts and papers to Yale University, to take advantage of the new state-of-the-art preservations facilities of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library. Her longtime agent and literary executor Marie Rodell spent nearly two years organizing and cataloging Carson's papers and correspondence, distributing all the letters to their senders so that only what each correspondent approved of would be submitted to the archive.&#91;62&#93; In 1965, Rodell arranged for the publication of an essay Carson had intended to expand into a book: A Sense of Wonder. The essay, which was combined with photographs by Charles Pratt and others, exhorts parents to help their children experience the "lasting pleasures of contact with the natural world", which "are available to anyone who will place himself under the influence of earth, sea and sky and their amazing life."&#91;63&#93; In addition to the letters in Always Rachel, in 1998 a volume of Carson's previously unpublished work was published as Lost Woods: The Discovered Writing of Rachel Carson, edited by Linda Lear. All of Carson's books remain in print.&#91;63&#93; Grassroots environmentalism and the EPA[edit] Carson's work had a powerful impact on the environmental movement. Silent Spring, in particular, was a rallying point for the fledgling social movement in the 1960s. According to environmental engineer and Carson scholar H. Patricia Hynes, "Silent Spring altered the balance of power in the world. No one since would be able to sell pollution as the necessary underside of progress so easily or uncritically."&#91;64&#93; Carson's work, and the activism it inspired, are at least partly responsible for the deep ecology movement, and the overall strength of the grassroots environmental movement since the 1960s. It was also influential on the rise of ecofeminism and on many feminist scientists.&#91;65&#93; Carson's most direct legacy in the environmental movement was the campaign to ban the use of DDT in the United States (and related efforts to ban or limit its use throughout the world). Though environmental concerns about DDT had been considered by government agencies as early as Carson's testimony before the President's Science Advisory Committee, the 1967 formation of the Environmental Defense Fund was the first major milestone in the campaign against DDT. The organization brought lawsuits against the government to "establish a citizen's right to a clean environment", and the arguments employed against DDT largely mirrored Carson's. By 1972, the Environmental Defense Fund and other activist groups had succeeded in securing a phase-out of DDT use in the United States (except in emergency cases).&#91;66&#93; The creation of the Environmental Protection Agency by the Nixon administration in 1970 addressed another concern that Carson had brought to light. Until then, the same agency (the USDA) was responsible both for regulating pesticides and promoting the concerns of the agriculture industry; Carson saw this as a conflict of interest, since the agency was not responsible for effects on wildlife or other environmental concerns beyond farm policy. Fifteen years after its creation, one journalist described the EPA as "the extended shadow of Silent Spring". Much of the agency's early work, such as enforcement of the 1972 Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, was directly related to Carson's work.&#91;67&#93; Science, nature, DDT, and food production[edit] Carson came into her own during a time in America when the majority of the population believed all science was inherently good. Carson came to challenge the idea that it was "man against nature" as explained by historian Thomas Dunlap. "Americans assumed that science was good, that chemicals were necessary, that their use would be governed by experts, that these experts could be trusted, and that the side-effects of chemical use would be negligible." &#91;68&#93; An excellent example of this is the widespread use of DDT after World War II. "DDT was hailed as the success story of World War II. During the war, the chemical helped to exterminate lice and insect-borne disease, and saved much-needed food crops. When the war ended, the United States sought to become the top food supplier and the Department of Agriculture saw DDT as a means to achieve that end." &#91;69&#93; It is clear that financial superiority was the top priority after the war. These companies did not want people to start believing her; which would therefore lower or stop their production. The chemical companies, government and many of its scientists believed it would be ok to allow the people of the United States, and therefore the world (since at this time other countries looked to see what the USA was conducting) that the unmitigated use of DDT was not only the safest, but the most prudent way of gaining that superiority. Carson's works challenged these institutions and the assumptions they encouraged. Rachel Carson believed the modern environmental movement of the time overused pesticides. She deplored the "culture of American abundance" as incurred by the capitalist economy whose expanding nature led to the destruction of many wildlife habitats. &#91;70&#93; Carson did not take the use of chemicals such as DDT at face value like most of the public. This is not to say that she did not want to enhance the life of the American people, or humans as a whole, but she did not support the destruction of the environment to attain that goal. "Because it is more comfortable to believe in pleasant things, most of us continue today to believe that in our country there will always be plenty. . . This is the comfortable dream of the average American. But it is a fallacious dream. It is a dangerous dream. . . Only so long as we are vigilant to cherish and safeguard [our resources] against waste, against over exploitation, and against destruction will our country continue strong and free." &#91;71&#93; This quote exemplifies the mindset of the average American who was looking to attain the "American Dream." This also illustrates why the people allowed the use of DDT without learning what it was doing to their environment as the quotes explains that it is more comfortable to believe in pleasant things as long as we are able to prosper. Carson also disliked the idea that Americans were ok with a "quick fix": "One great trouble — I suppose it is the fault of the American public as a whole — is this desire for the quick and easy way of doing something, without any consideration of the consequences. Even if the consequences are strongly implied or known, there is still a great temptation to go ahead and get the job done and let the future take care of itself. Maybe we will come up with a pill to take care of it, or something like that!" &#91;72&#93; Carson believed that this idea of the quick fix is what allowed the Americans to get into the Environmental predicament that had found themselves in. By allowing "the future to worry about itself " as Carson said, it freed scientists up to only come up with results as opposed to the best or the safest results. They were reacting after the fact and trying to fix the problem, instead of working to prevent the problem before it starts. Rachel Carson was significant in the history of the contemporary American environmental movement because through her writing and different publications she was able to change the mindset of the everyday American person. Although her job seems like it was simple and a quick fix, it took a lot of struggle on Carson’s part to get her point across. She was able to point out that the quick fix for something was not the only way to accomplish a goal and usually was not the best. In the case of DDT, the quick fix was harming the environment more than it was helping; with the help of Carson’s writing the public was able to see this error in the scientific world. Criticisms of environmentalism and DDT restrictions[edit] Carson and the environmental movement were—and continue to be—criticized by some conservatives and libertarians as well as chemical industry trade groups, who argue that restrictions placed on pesticides, specifically DDT, have caused tens of millions of needless deaths and hampered agriculture (and, implicitly, that Carson bears responsibility for inciting such restrictions).&#91;73&#93;&#91;74&#93;&#91;75&#93; In the 1980s, the policies of the Reagan Administration emphasized economic growth at the expense of environmental regulation, rolling back many of the environmental policies adopted in response to Carson and her work.&#91;76&#93; Carson's vocal expressions of concern about the human health effects and environmental impact of DDT has come under the most intense fire. Political scientist Charles Rubin was one of the most vociferous critics in the 1980s and 1990s, though he accused her merely of selective use of source and fanaticism (rather than the more severe criticism Carson received upon Silent Spring's release). In the 2000s, however, criticism of the real and alleged ban(s) of DDT her work prompted became much more intense.&#91;77&#93;&#91;78&#93; The conservative magazine Human Events gave Silent Spring an honorable mention for the "Ten Most Harmful Books of the 19th and 20th Centuries".&#91;79&#93; In 2009 the libertarian think tank Competitive Enterprise Institute set up a website Rachelwaswrong.org, asserting "Millions of people around the world suffer the painful and often deadly effects of malaria because one person sounded a false alarm. That person is Rachel Carson."&#91;78&#93; A 2012 review article in Nature by Rob Dunn&#91;80&#93; commemorating the 50th anniversary of Silent Spring prompted a response in a letter written by Anthony Trewavas and co-signed by 10 others, including Christopher Leaver, Bruce Ames, Richard Tren and Peter Lachmann, who quote estimates of 60 to 80 million deaths "as a result of misguided fears based on poorly understood evidence".&#91;81&#93; Biographer Mark Hamilton Lytle believes these estimates unrealistic, even assuming that Carson can be "blamed" for worldwide DDT policies.&#91;82&#93; John Quiggin and Tim Lambert have written that "the most striking feature of the claim against Carson is the ease with which it can be refuted." DDT was never banned for anti-malarial use,&#91;83&#93; (its ban for agricultural use in the United States in 1972 did not apply outside the US or to anti-malaria spraying;&#91;84&#93; the international treaty that banned most uses of DDT and other organochlorine pesticides — the 2001 Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants — included an exemption for DDT for the use of malaria control until affordable substitutes could be found.&#91;77&#93;) Mass outdoor spraying of DDT was abandoned in poor countries subject to malaria, such as Sri Lanka, in the 1970s and 1980s, not because of government prohibitions, but because the DDT had lost its ability to kill the mosquitoes.&#91;77&#93; (Because of insects very short breeding cycle and large number of offspring, the most resistant insects that survive and pass on their genetic traits to their offspring replace the pesticide-slain insects relatively rapidly. Agricultural spraying of pesticides produces resistance to the pesticide in seven to ten years.&#91;85&#93;) Other defenders point out Carson never actually called for an outright ban on DDT, and part of the argument she made in Silent Spring was that even if DDT and other insecticides had no environmental side effects, their indiscriminate overuse was counter-productive because it would created insect resistance to the pesticide(s), making them (the pesticides) useless in eliminating the target insect populations: No responsible person contends that insect-borne disease should be ignored. The question that has now urgently presented itself is whether it is either wise or responsible to attack the problem by methods that are rapidly making it worse. The world has heard much of the triumphant war against disease through the control of insect vectors of infection, but it has heard little of the other side of the story—the defeats, the short-lived triumphs that now strongly support the alarming view that the insect enemy has been made actually stronger by our efforts. Even worse, we may have destroyed our very means of fighting.&#91;86&#93; — Rachel Carson, Silent Spring, p. 266 Carson further noted that "Malaria programmes are threatened by resistance among mosquitoes"&#91;87&#93; and emphasized the advice given by the director of Holland's Plant Protection Service: "Practical advice should be 'Spray as little as you possibly can' rather than 'Spray to the limit of your capacity'…Pressure on the pest population should always be as slight as possible." &#91;88&#93; Consequently, some experts have argued that restrictions placed on the agricultural use of DDT have increased its effectiveness as a tool for battling malaria. According to pro-DDT advocate Amir Attaran the result of the 2004 Stockholm Convention banning DDT's use in agriculture "is arguably better than the status quo ... For the first time, there is now an insecticide which is restricted to vector control only, meaning that the selection of resistant mosquitoes will be slower than before."&#91;89&#93; But though Carson's legacy has been closely tied to DDT, Roger Bate of the DDT advocacy organization Africa Fighting Malaria warns that "A lot of people have used Carson to push their own agendas. We just have to be a little careful when you're talking about someone who died in 1964."&#91;90&#93; Posthumous honors[edit] A variety of groups ranging from government institutions to environmental and conservation organizations to scholarly societies have celebrated Carson's life and work since her death. Perhaps most significantly, on June 9, 1980, Carson was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian honor in the United States&#91;91&#93; A 17¢ Great Americans series postage stamp was issued in her honor the following year; several other countries have since issued Carson postage as well.&#91;92&#93; Carson's birthplace and childhood home in Springdale, Pennsylvania&#160;— now known as the Rachel Carson Homestead—became a National Register of Historic Places site, and the nonprofit Rachel Carson Homestead Association was created in 1975 to manage it.&#91;93&#93; Her home in Colesville, Maryland where she wrote Silent Spring was named a National Historic Landmark in 1991.&#91;94&#93; Near Pittsburgh, a 35.7 mi hiking trail, maintained by the Rachel Carson Trails Conservancy, was dedicated to Carson in 1975.&#91;95&#93; A Pittsburgh bridge was also renamed in Carson's honor as the Rachel Carson Bridge.&#91;96&#93; The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection State Office Building in Harrisburg is named in her honor. An elementary school in Gaithersburg, Montgomery County, Maryland, was named in her honor,&#91;97&#93; as was a Rachel Carson Middle School in Herndon, Virginia,&#91;98&#93; and another elementary school in Sammamish, Washington.&#91;99&#93; The ceremonial auditorium on the third floor of U.S. EPA's main headquarters, the Ariel Rios Building, is named after Rachel Carson. The Rachel Carson room is just a few feet away from the EPA administrator's office and has been the site of numerous important announcements, including the Clean Air Interstate Rule, since the Agency moved to Ariel Rios in 2001.&#91;100&#93; A number of conservation areas have been named for Carson as well. Between 1964 and 1990, 650 acres near Brookeville in Montgomery County, Maryland were acquired and set aside as the Rachel Carson Conservation Park, administered by the Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission.&#91;101&#93; In 1969, the Coastal Maine National Wildlife Refuge became the Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge; expansions will bring the size of the refuge to about 9,125 acres.&#91;102&#93; In 1985, North Carolina renamed one of its estuarine reserves in honor of Carson, in Beaufort.&#91;103&#93; Carson is also a frequent namesake for prizes awarded by philanthropic, educational and scholarly institutions. The Rachel Carson Prize, founded in Stavanger, Norway in 1991, is awarded to women who have made a contribution in the field of environmental protection.&#91;104&#93; The American Society for Environmental History has awarded the Rachel Carson Prize for Best Dissertation since 1993.&#91;105&#93; Since 1998, the Society for Social Studies of Science has awarded an annual Rachel Carson Book Prize for "a book length work of social or political relevance in the area of science and technology studies."&#91;106&#93; Centennial events[edit] 2007 was the centennial of Carson's birth. On Earth Day (April 22, 2007), Courage for the Earth: Writers, Scientists, and Activists Celebrate the Life and Writing of Rachel Carson was released as "a centennial appreciation of Rachel Carson's brave life and transformative writing", thirteen essays by prominent environmental writers and scientists.&#91;107&#93; Democratic Senator Benjamin L. Cardin of Maryland had intended to submit a resolution celebrating Carson for her "legacy of scientific rigor coupled with poetic sensibility" on the 100th anniversary of her birth. The resolution was blocked by Republican Senator Tom Coburn of Oklahoma,&#91;108&#93; who said that "The junk science and stigma surrounding DDT—the cheapest and most effective insecticide on the planet—have finally been jettisoned."&#91;109&#93; The Rachel Carson Homestead Association held a May 27 birthday party and sustainable feast at her birthplace and home in Springdale, Pennsylvania, and the first Rachel Carson Legacy Conference in Pittsburgh with E.O. Wilson as keynote speaker. Both Rachel's Sustainable Feast and the conference continue as annual events. List of works[edit] Under the Sea Wind, 1941, Simon &amp; Schuster, Penguin Group, 1996, ISBN 0-14-025380-7 "Fishes of the Middle West"&#32;(PDF).&#32;United States Government Printing Office.&#32;1943. "Fish and Shellfish of the Middle Atlantic Coast"&#32;(PDF).&#32;United States Government Printing Office.&#32;1945. "Chincoteague: A National Wildlife Refuge"&#32;(PDF).&#32;United States Government Printing Office.&#32;1947. "Mattamuskeet: A National Wildlife Refuge"&#32;(PDF).&#32;United States Government Printing Office.&#32;1947. "Parker River: A National Wildlife Refuge"&#32;(PDF).&#32;United States Government Printing Office.&#32;1947. "Bear River: A National Wildlife Refuge"&#32;(PDF).&#32;United States Government Printing Office.&#32;1950. (with Vanez T. Wilson) The Sea Around Us, Oxford University Press, 1951; Oxford University Press, 1991, ISBN 0-19-506997-8 The Edge of the Sea, Houghton Mifflin 1955; Mariner Books, 1998, ISBN 0-395-92496-0 Silent Spring, Houghton Mifflin, 1962; Mariner Books, 2002, ISBN 0-618-24906-0 Silent Spring initially appeared serialized in three parts in the June 16, June 23, and June 30, 1962 issues of The New Yorker magazine The Sense of Wonder, 1965, HarperCollins, 1998: ISBN 0-06-757520-X published posthumously Always, Rachel: The Letters of Rachel Carson and Dorothy Freeman 1952–1964 An Intimate Portrait of a Remarkable Friendship, Beacon Press, 1995, ISBN 0-8070-7010-6 edited by Martha Freeman (granddaughter of Dorothy Freeman) Lost Woods: The Discovered Writing of Rachel Carson, Beacon Press, 1998, ISBN 0-8070-8547-2 Bedrock: Writers on the Wonders of Geology, edited by Lauret E. Savoy, Eldridge M. Moores, and Judith E. Moores, Trinity University Press, 2006, ISBN 1-59534-022-X See also[edit] EnvironmentalismW References[edit] ↑ 1.0 1.1 "National Book Awards – 1952". National Book Foundation. Retrieved March 19, 2012. (With acceptance speech by Carson and essay by Neil Baldwin from the Awards 50-year anniversary publications.) ↑ Lear 1997, pp.&#160;7–24 ↑ Lear 1997, pp.&#160;27–62 ↑ Lear 1997, pp.&#160;63–79 ↑ Lear 1997, pp.&#160;79–82 ↑ Lear 1997, pp.&#160;82–5 ↑ Lear 1997, pp.&#160;85–113 ↑ Lear 1997, pp.&#160;114–120 ↑ Lear 1997, pp.&#160;121–160 ↑ Lear 1997, pp.&#160;163–4. • An apocryphal story holds that the book was rejected by over twenty publishers before Oxford University Press. In fact, it may have only been sent to one other publisher before being accepted, though Rodell and Carson worked extensively to place chapters and excerpts in periodicals. ↑ Lear 1997, pp.&#160;164–241 ↑ Lear 1997, pp.&#160;206–234 ↑ Lear 1997, pp.&#160;215–6, 238–9. Quotation from a letter to Carson's film agent Shirley Collier, November 9, 1952. Quoted in Lear, 239. ↑ Lear 1997, pp.&#160;239–240 ↑ Lear 1997, p.&#160;248 ↑ Lear 1997, pp.&#160;243–288 ↑ Caryn E. Neumann, "Carson, Rachel (1907–1964)", glbtq: an encyclopedia of gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, &amp; queer culture; retrieved February 22, 2007 ↑ Montefiore, Janet&#32;(2001).&#32;"'The fact that possesses my imagination': Rachel Carson, Science and Writing".&#32;Women: A Cultural Review&#32;12&#32;(1): 48. ↑ Lear 1997, pp.&#160;255–6 ↑ Tjossem, Sarah F.&#32;(1995).&#32;"Review of Always Rachel: The Letters of Rachel Carson and Dorothy Freeman, 1952–1964".&#32;Isis&#32;86&#32;(4): 687–8.&#32;doi:10.1086/357392. quoting from: Heilbrun, Carolyn&#32;(1988).&#32;Writing a Woman's Life.&#32;Ballantine.&#32;p.&#160;108.&#32;ISBN&#160;0-345-36256-X. ↑ Lear 1997, pp.&#160;223–244 ↑ Lear 1997, pp.&#160;261–276 ↑ Lear 1997, pp.&#160;276–300 ↑ Lear 1997, pp.&#160;300–9 ↑ Lear 1997, pp.&#160;305–313 ↑ McLaughlin, Dorothy.&#32;"Fooling with Nature: Silent Spring Revisited".&#32;Frontline.&#32;PBS.&#32;Retrieved August 24, 2010. ↑ Josie Glausiusz. (2007), Better Planet: Can A Maligned Pesticide Save Lives? Discover Magazine. Page 34. ↑ "Obituary of Marjorie Spock".&#32;Ellsworthmaine.com.&#32;January 30, 2008.&#32;Retrieved March 16, 2009.&#91;dead link&#93; ↑ Lear 1997, pp.&#160;312–7 ↑ Lear 1997, pp.&#160;317–327 ↑ Lear 1997, pp.&#160;327–336 ↑ Lear 1997, pp.&#160;342–6 ↑ Lear 1997, pp.&#160;358–361 ↑ Lear 1997, pp.&#160;355–8 ↑ Lear 1997, pp.&#160;360–8 ↑ Lear 1997, pp.&#160;372–3. The photo essay, "The Sea", was published in Johns Hopkins Magazine, May/June 1961; Carson provided the captions for Hartmann's photographs. ↑ Lear 1997, pp.&#160;376–7 ↑ Lear 1997, pp.&#160;375, 377–8, 386–7, 389 ↑ Lear 1997, pp.&#160;390–7 ↑ Lytle 2007, pp.&#160;166–7 ↑ Lytle 2007, pp.&#160;166–172 ↑ Carson, Silent Spring, 225 ↑ Lytle 2007, pp.&#160;169, 173 ↑ Lear 1997, pp.&#160;397–400 ↑ Lear 1997, pp.&#160;375, 377, 400–7. Douglas's dissenting opinion on the rejection of the case, Robert Cushman Murphy et al., v. Butler et al., from the Second Circuit Court of Appeals, is from March 28, 1960. ↑ Lear 1997, pp.&#160;407–8. Quotation (p. 408) from a June 13, 1962 letter from Carson to Dorothy Freeman. ↑ Lear 1997, pp.&#160;409–413 ↑ Lear 1997, pp.&#160;412–420 ↑ Lear 1997, pp.&#160;433–4 ↑ Fooling with nature: special reports: Silent Spring revisited:. Retrieved September 23, 2007. ↑ Quoted in Lear 1997, p.&#160;434 ↑ Lear 1997, pp.&#160;429–430. Benson's supposed comments were widely repeated at the time, but have not been directly confirmed. ↑ Murphy &amp; 2005 9 ↑ Carson, Silent Spring, 275 ↑ Lear 1997, pp.&#160;437–449; quotation from 449. ↑ Lear 1997, pp.&#160;449–450 ↑ The Time 100: Scientists and Thinkers, accessed September 23, 2007 ↑ Lear 1997, p.&#160;461 ↑ 2003 National Women's History Month Honorees: Rachel Carlson. Retrieved September 23, 2007. ↑ Lear 1997, pp.&#160;451–461, 469–473 ↑ Lear 1997, pp.&#160;476–480 ↑ Lear 1997, pp.&#160;467–8, 477, 482–3 See also the Beinecke finding aid for the Rachel Carson Papers. ↑ 63.0 63.1 Murphy, 25; quotations from A Sense of Wonder, 95. The essay was originally published in 1956 in Woman's Home Companion. ↑ Hynes 1989, p.&#160;3 ↑ Hynes 1989, pp.&#160;8–9 ↑ Hynes 1989, pp.&#160;46–7 ↑ Hynes 1989, pp.&#160;47–8, 148–163 ↑ (Lutts, 1985) ↑ (Gottlieb, R. Forcing the Spring. Washington D.C.: Island Press) ↑ (Lear, Rachel Carson Witness for Nature, 1997) ↑ (Kline, B. First Along the River. Maryland: Rowma &amp; Littlefield.) ↑ (Lutts, R. (1985. Chemical Fallout: Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, Radioactive Fallout, and the Environmental Movement, Environmental Review, 210-225.) ↑ Lytle 2007, p.&#160;217 ↑ Baum,&#32;Rudy M.&#32;(June 4, 2007).&#32;"Rachel Carson".&#32;Chemical and Engineering News&#32;(American Chemical Society)&#32;85&#32;(23): 5. ↑ Examples of recent criticism include:(a) Rich Karlgaard, "But Her Heart Was Good", Forbes.com, May 18, 2007. Accessed September 23, 2007.(b) Keith Lockitch, "Rachel Carson's Genocide", Capitalism Magazine, May 23, 2007. Accessed May 24, 2007(c) David Roberts, "My one and only post on the Rachel Carson nonsense" Grist.com, May 24, 2007. Accessed September 23, 2007.(d) Paul Driessen, "Forty Years of Perverse 'Responsibility,'", The Washington Times, April 29, 2007. Accessed May 30, 2007.(e) Iain Murray, "Silent Alarmism: A Centennial We Could Do Without", National Review, May 31, 2007. Accessed May 31, 2007. ↑ Lytle 2007, pp.&#160;217–220; Jeffrey K. Stine, "Natural Resources and Environmental Policy" in The Reagan Presidency: Pragmatic Conservatism and Its Legacies, edited by W. Elliott Browlee and Hugh Davis Graham. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press, 2003. ISBN 0-7006-1268-8 ↑ 77.0 77.1 77.2 John Quiggin, Tim Lambert&#32;(24 May 2008).&#32;"Rehabilitating Carson".&#32;Prospect&#32;(146). ↑ 78.0 78.1 Erik M. Conway, Naomi Oreskes, Merchants of Doubt, 2010, p.217 ↑ Ten Most Harmful Books of the 19th and 20th Centuries. Retrieved August 24, 2007. ↑ Dunn, R. (2012) In retrospect: Silent Spring, Nature 485(7400), 578-579. ↑ Trewavas, T., Leaver, C., Ames, B., Lachmann, P., Tren, R., Meiners, R., Miller, H.I., et al. (2012) Environment: Carson no 'beacon of reason' on DDT, Nature 486(7404), 473. ↑ Lytle 2007, pp.&#160;220–8 ↑ "Malaria Prevention and Control".&#32;East African Community Health. ↑ Erik M. Conway, Naomi Oreskes, Merchants of Doubt, 2010, p.226 ↑ Erik M. Conway, Naomi Oreskes, Merchants of Doubt, 2010, p.223-4 ↑ Silent Spring, p. 266 ↑ Silent Spring, p. 267 ↑ Silent Spring, p. 275 ↑ Malaria Foundation International. Retrieved March 15, 2006. ↑ Rachel Carson and DDT, Bill Moyers Journal, September 21, 2007. Retrieved September 29, 2007. ↑ Chronological List of Medal of Freedom Awards, archived October 18, 2007. Retrieved August 1, 2009. ↑ Marshall Is 2000, Palau 1998, Zambia 2000 ↑ Rachel Carson Homestead. Retrieved September 7, 2007. ↑ "Maryland Historical Trust".&#32;National Register of Historic Places: Properties in Montgomery County.&#32;Maryland Historical Trust.&#32;June 8, 2008. ↑ Rachel Carson Trail. Retrieved September 26, 2007. ↑ Jerome L. Sherman, "Environmentalist Rachel Carson's legacy remembered on Earth Day", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 23, 2006. Retrieved September 23, 2007. ↑ Rachel Carson Elementary School. Retrieved February 22, 2008. ↑ Rachel Carson Middle School. Retrieved February 28, 2008. ↑ Rachel Carson Elementary. Retrieved 15 June 2011. ↑ CAIR News Advisory. REtrieved August 18, 2009. ↑ MNCPPC: Rachel Carson Conservation Park. Retrieved August 26, 2007. ↑ Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge. Retrieved September 11, 2007. ↑ Rachel Carson Estuarine Research Reserve&#91;dead link&#93;. Retrieved October 12, 2007. ↑ "What is the Rachel Carson Prize?".&#32;Rachel Carson-prisen.&#32;Retrieved March 15, 2010. ↑ Award Recipients&#160;– American Society for Environmental History&#91;dead link&#93;. Retrieved September 11, 2007. ↑ Rachel Carson Book Prize, 4S. Retrieved September 11, 2007. ↑ Houghton Mifflin Trade and Reference Division, Courage for the Earth release information. Retrieved September 23, 2007. ↑ David A. Fahrenthold&#32;(May 23, 2007).&#32;"Bill to honor Rachel Carson Blocked".&#32;Washington Post. ↑ Stephen Moore&#32;(September 19, 2006).&#32;"Doctor Tom's DDT Victory".&#32;The Wall Street Journal. Citations[edit] Hynes,&#32;H. Patricia&#32;(1989).&#32;The Recurring Silent Spring.&#32;Athene series.&#32;New York:&#32;Pergamon Press.&#32;ISBN&#160;0-08-037117-5. Lear,&#32;Linda&#32;(1997).&#32;Rachel Carson: Witness for Nature.&#32;New York:&#32;Henry Holt.&#32;ISBN&#160;0-8050-3428-5. Lytle,&#32;Mark Hamilton&#32;(2007).&#32;The Gentle Subversive: Rachel Carson, Silent Spring, and the Rise of the Environmental Movement.&#32;New York:&#32;Oxford University Press.&#32;ISBN&#160;0-19-517246-9. Murphy,&#32;Priscilla Coit&#32;(2005).&#32;What a Book Can Do: The Publication and Reception of Silent Spring.&#32;Amherst:&#32;University of Massachusetts Press.&#32;ISBN&#160;978-1-55849-582-1. Kline,&#32;B.&#32;First Along the River. Maryland.&#32;Rowma &amp; Littlefield. Lutts,&#32;R&#32;(1985).&#32;Chemical fallout: Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, Radioactive Fallout, and the Environmental Movement..&#32;Environmental Review. gottlieb,&#32;R.&#32;Forging the Spring..&#32;Washington D.C.:&#32;Island Press. Further reading[edit] Brooks, Paul&#32;(1972).&#32;The House of Life: Rachel Carson at Work.&#32;Houghton Mifflin.&#32;ISBN&#160;0-395-13517-6. This book is a personal memoir by Carson's Houghton Mifflin editor and close friend Paul Brooks. Jezer, Marty&#32;(1988).&#32;Rachel Carson: Biologist and Author.&#32;American women of achievement.&#32;Chelsea House Publications.&#32;ISBN&#160;1-55546-646-X. Matthiessen, Peter, ed.&#32;(2007).&#32;Courage for the Earth: Writers, Scientists, and Activists Celebrate the Life and Writing of Rachel Carson.&#32;Mariner Books.&#32;ISBN&#160;0-618-87276-0. Moore, Kathleen Dean&#59;&#32;Sideris, Lisa H.&#32;(2008).&#32;Rachel Carson: Legacy and Challenge.&#32;Albany, New York:&#32;SUNY Press.&#32;ISBN&#160;0-7914-7471-2. Quaratiello, Arlene&#32;(2010).&#32;Rachel Carson: A Biography.&#32;Amherst, New York:&#32;Prometheus.&#32;ISBN&#160;978-1-61614-187-5. Sideris, Lisa H.&#32;(Fall–Winter 2009).&#32;"Fact and Fiction, Fear and Wonder: The Legacy of Rachel Carson".&#32;Soundings&#32;91&#32;(3-4): 335–69. External links[edit] Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to Rachel Carson Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rachel Carson Rachel Carson Papers. Yale Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University. New York Times obituary RachelCarson.org—website by Carson biographer Linda Lear Time, Mar. 29, 1999, Environmentalist RACHEL CARSON Revisiting Rachel Carson—Bill Moyer's Journal, PBS.org, 9-21-2007 "A Sense of Wonder" – two-act play about Carson, written and performed by Kaiulani Lee, based on posthumous work of the same name YouTube Clip of Bill Moyers television on Lee's one woman show The Rachel Carson Greenway Trail in Montgomery County, Maryland "Why Our Winters Are Getting Warmer", November 1951, Popular Science - early article by Rachel Carson about how the ocean currents affected climate (excerpt from her 1951 book, The Sea Around Us). (Rachel L. Carson as Interpreted by Irwin Allen – TCM Movie Morlocks on THE SEA AROUND US) Carson-related organizations The Rachel Carson Homestead Silent Spring Institute Rachel Carson Trails Conservancy Rachel Carson Institute Persondata Name Carson, Rachel Louise Alternative names Short description American zoologist, marine biologist, writer and activist Date of birth May 27, 1907 Place of birth Springdale, Pennsylvania, U.S Date of death April 14, 1964 Place of death Silver Spring, Maryland, U.S.
context
filter
Unix timestamp of change (timestamp)
1342032426