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VitaBen
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Biochar
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Biochar
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VitaBen Joeturner KVDP Chriswaterguy
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{{topic header| Biochar2.jpg | Biochar }} {{merge from|Biochar Technology}} '''Biochar''' is a name for [[charcoal]] when it is used for particular purposes, especially as a soil amendment. Some of the world's most productive soils (e.g. Canadian prairies, Russian [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chernozem Chernozem] / or "black earth") are very rich in organic carbon. This is now thought to be pyrogenic in origin, likely originating from prairie or forest fires. This carbon is often thousands of years old, demonstrating its stability in soil. For more extensive background on Biochar, please consult the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biochar Wikipedia entry on biochar]. According to the [http://www.biochar-international.org/aboutbiochar.html International Biochar Initiative]: ''Biochar is a fine-grained charcoal high in organic carbon and largely resistant to decomposition. It is produced from pyrolysis of plant and waste feedstocks. As a soil amendment, biochar creates a recalcitrant soil carbon pool that is carbon-negative, serving as a net withdrawal of atmospheric carbon dioxide stored in highly recalcitrant soil carbon stocks. The enhanced nutrient retention capacity of biochar-amended soil not only reduces the total fertilizer requirements but also the climate and environmental impact of croplands. Char-amended soils have shown 50 - 80 percent reductions in nitrous oxide emissions and reduced runoff of phosphorus into surface waters and leaching of nitrogen into groundwater. As a soil amendment, biochar significantly increases the efficiency of and reduces the need for traditional chemical fertilizers, while greatly enhancing crop yields. Renewable oils and gases co-produced in the pyrolysis process can be used as fuel or fuel feedstocks. Biochar thus offers promise for its soil productivity and climate benefits.'' ===Biochar as a method of carbon sequestration=== The [[earth]] absorbs around 18 times the amount of [[carbon]] emitted by [[humans]] each year.{{fact}}{{w|Carbon cycle}} However, about the same amount (one figure given is 99.9%) of this carbon is released to the atmosphere through [[decomposition]]. This cycle can be closed by a process known as [[pyrolysis]], in which biomass is heated in the absence of oxygen, creating charcoal and locking carbon in the form of biochar.{{w|Biochar}} Locking carbon away from the atmosphere and the carbon cycle described is referred to as [[carbon sequestration]]. Biochar can potentially lock away carbon carbon for hundreds or even thousands of years. If a real commitment were made, massive reductions in atmospheric carbon could be achieved - locking down carbon emissions and increasing the wealth of our soils. In conjunction with other geoengineering projects, biochar may truly hold the key to saving our earth from climate catastrophe. Biochar is also an effective and ecologically friendly soil amendment. It may also have applications in [[energy production]]{{fact}} and as a dietary supplement for animals. Its production was practiced by pre-Columbian Amazonian natives (''"terra preta"''), and natural processes appear to have created a similar affect in other parts of the world, creating rich soils. Biochar is not a solution on its own, but it appears to be an important element in comprehensive solution. ''See [[Measures to stop global warming]].'' === The Biochar Economy === [[Image:2959038953 31a102dc5d.jpg|thumb|right|Image from Flickr user '''visionshare''' by CC license]] ==== List of uses of biochar==== *Inexpensive soil amelioration for degraded land (i.e. biochar as a liming agent) *Need less land = lower startup costs for a Sustainable Village *Increased biomass productivity *Efficient use of biomass waste for energy generation *Reduced need for fertilizer input (e.g. manure) *Combine biochar with vermicompost to make superb fertilizer. *Pyrolysis gas can be used for energy and as a heat source *Bio-oil and tars are also by-products of pyrolysis, can be turned into biodiesel *Add charcoal to compost heap to speed up composting (probably works via enhanced microbial activity) *Biochar for sale as a source of income for an emerging community *Combine with solar thermal heat source to make a ''solar pyrolysis unit'' for charcoal production === Biochar Technology === (for merged content from [[Biochar Technology]] page) === Biochar Reactors === Several small-scale units have been devised for baking charcoal, many with simple common materials. Charcoal making ([[pyrolisis]]) dates back thousands of years in human history, traditionally practiced via earthen pits and mounds. Today, steel drums of different sizes are most commonly utilized due to portability, airflow control options, heat resistance, and availability. See articles below for some examples, and a new page here on [[Simple Biochar Kilns]]. === Suitable feedstocks === A variety of feedstocks can be used. Since these often constitute agricultural residues in [[rural communities]], a form of waste is turned into an asset. Possible feedstocks include: *'''agricultural leftovers:''' straw, rice hulls, corn stalks, chicken/cattle poop *'''Fast-growing biomass:''' bamboo, switchgrass, miscanthus, *'''Other:''' leaf litter, grasses, macroalgae, bones (high P content), === Criticism === Critics are concerned that large-scale biochar production may increase deforestation. However, a variety of biomass feedstocks other than wood can be used (see above). Old-growth forest is likely not a good feedstock because of extensive pre-processing that would be required. Small biomass pieces such as pellets or cherry pits make excellent feedstock. == Terra preta == [[Terra preta]] is a type of very dark, fertile anthropogenic soil found in the Amazon Basin. It is basically a mixture of charcoal, bone, and manure. It is very stable and remains in the soil for thousands of years. == External links == * Wikipedia page on Biochar [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biochar] * Gardening with Biochar FAQ [http://biochar.pbwiki.com/] * BioEnergy Lists: Terra Preta (Biochar) [http://terrapreta.bioenergylists.org/] * International Biochar Initiative (IBI) [http://www.biochar-international.org/] * Biochar Fund [http://biocharfund.org] * Folke Günther's "the simplest of the simple" [http://www.holon.se/folke/carbon/simplechar/simplechar.shtml two-barrel charcoal retort] * Biochar Industries Community Biochar Project[http://www.biocharproject.org/] == Academia in biochar research == * Lehmann, J., Gaunt, J., and Rondon, M..Bio-char and adaptation strategies for global change. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change (2006). 11: 403-427. [http://www.biochar.info/52/downloads/MitAdaptStratGlobChange_Lehmann_2006.pdf] Other Research: * Cornell University Dept. of Crop and Soil Sciences [http://www.css.cornell.edu/faculty/lehmann/research/index.html] * Biochar Farms [http://biocharfarms.org/presentations/] * International Biochar Initiative [http://www.biochar-international.org/research/education] {{attrib wiki|wikiname=Open Source Ecology|link=[http://opensourceecology.org/wiki/Biochar Biochar]|license=[http://opensourceecology.org/wiki/Open_Source_Ecology:Copyright Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 United States License.]}} [[Category:Biochar]] [[Category:Fertilizers]] [[Category:Soil]]
New page wikitext, after the edit (new_wikitext)
{{topic header| Biochar2.jpg | Biochar }} {{merge from|Biochar Technology}} '''Biochar''' is a name for [[charcoal]] when it is used for particular purposes, especially as a soil amendment. Charcoal has many effects on soil fertility, although it is not much of a nutrient in itself. Some of the world's most productive soils (e.g. Canadian prairies, Russian [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chernozem Chernozem] / or "black earth") are very rich in organic carbon. This is now thought to be pyrogenic in origin, likely originating from prairie or forest fires. This carbon is often thousands of years old, demonstrating its stability in soil. Besides improving agricultural productivity, charcoal in the soil may serve as a long-term carbon sink, trapping elements that would otherwise contribute to greenhouse climate effects. For more extensive background on Biochar, please consult the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biochar Wikipedia entry on biochar]. === The Biochar Economy === [[Image:2959038953 31a102dc5d.jpg|thumb|right|Image from Flickr user '''visionshare''' by CC license]] ==== List of uses of biochar==== *Inexpensive soil amelioration for degraded land (i.e. biochar as a liming agent) *Need less land = lower startup costs for a Sustainable Village *Increased biomass productivity *Efficient use of biomass waste for energy generation *Reduced need for fertilizer input (e.g. manure) *Combine biochar with vermicompost to make superb fertilizer. *Pyrolysis gas can be used for energy and as a heat source *Bio-oil and tars are also by-products of pyrolysis, can be turned into biodiesel *Add charcoal to compost heap to speed up composting (probably works via enhanced microbial activity) *Biochar for sale as a source of income for an emerging community *Combine with solar thermal heat source to make a ''solar pyrolysis unit'' for charcoal production ===Biochar as a method of carbon sequestration=== The [[earth]] absorbs around 18 times the amount of [[carbon]] emitted by [[humans]] each year.{{fact}}{{w|Carbon cycle}} However, about the same amount (one figure given is 99.9%) of this carbon is released to the atmosphere through [[decomposition]]. This cycle can be closed by a process known as [[pyrolysis]], in which biomass is heated in the absence of oxygen, creating charcoal and locking carbon in the form of biochar.{{w|Biochar}} Locking carbon away from the atmosphere and the carbon cycle described is referred to as [[carbon sequestration]]. Biochar can potentially lock away carbon carbon for hundreds or even thousands of years. If a real commitment were made, massive reductions in atmospheric carbon could be achieved - locking down carbon emissions and increasing the wealth of our soils. In conjunction with other geoengineering projects, biochar may truly hold the key to saving our earth from climate catastrophe. Biochar is also an effective and ecologically friendly soil amendment. It may also have applications in [[energy production]]{{fact}} and as a dietary supplement for animals. Its production was practiced by pre-Columbian Amazonian natives (''"terra preta"''), and natural processes appear to have created a similar affect in other parts of the world, creating rich soils. Biochar is not a solution on its own, but it appears to be an important element in comprehensive solution. ''See [[Measures to stop global warming]].'' === Biochar Technology === (for merged content from [[Biochar Technology]] page) == Terra preta == [[Terra preta]] is a type of very dark, fertile anthropogenic soil found in the Amazon Basin. It is basically a mixture of charcoal, bone, and manure. It is very stable and remains in the soil for thousands of years. === Biochar Reactors === Several small-scale units have been devised for baking charcoal, many with simple common materials. Charcoal making ([[pyrolisis]]) dates back thousands of years in human history, traditionally practiced via earthen pits and mounds. Today, steel drums of different sizes are most commonly utilized due to portability, airflow control options, heat resistance, and availability. See articles below for some examples, and a new page here on [[Simple Biochar Kilns]]. === Suitable feedstocks === A variety of feedstocks can be used. Since these often constitute agricultural residues in [[rural communities]], a form of waste is turned into an asset. Possible feedstocks include: *'''agricultural leftovers:''' straw, rice hulls, corn stalks, chicken/cattle poop *'''Fast-growing biomass:''' bamboo, switchgrass, miscanthus, *'''Other:''' leaf litter, grasses, macroalgae, bones (high P content), === Criticism === Critics are concerned that large-scale biochar production may increase deforestation. However, a variety of biomass feedstocks other than wood can be used (see above). Old-growth forest is likely not a good feedstock because of extensive pre-processing that would be required. Small biomass pieces such as pellets or cherry pits make excellent feedstock. == External links == * Gardening with Biochar FAQ [http://biochar.pbwiki.com/] * BioEnergy Lists: Terra Preta (Biochar) [http://terrapreta.bioenergylists.org/] * International Biochar Initiative (IBI) [http://www.biochar-international.org/] * Biochar Fund [http://biocharfund.org] * Biochar Industries Community Biochar Project[http://www.biocharproject.org/] == Academic Research == * Lehmann, J., Gaunt, J., and Rondon, M..Bio-char and adaptation strategies for global change. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change (2006). 11: 403-427. [http://www.biochar.info/52/downloads/MitAdaptStratGlobChange_Lehmann_2006.pdf] Other Research: * Cornell University Dept. of Crop and Soil Sciences [http://www.css.cornell.edu/faculty/lehmann/research/index.html] * Biochar Farms [http://biocharfarms.org/presentations/] * International Biochar Initiative [http://www.biochar-international.org/research/education] {{attrib wiki|wikiname=Open Source Ecology|link=[http://opensourceecology.org/wiki/Biochar Biochar]|license=[http://opensourceecology.org/wiki/Open_Source_Ecology:Copyright Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 United States License.]}} [[Category:Biochar]] [[Category:Fertilizers]] [[Category:Soil]]
Unified diff of changes made by edit (edit_diff)
@@ -5,20 +5,8 @@ '''Biochar''' is a name for [[charcoal]] when it is used for particular purposes, especially as a soil amendment. -Some of the world's most productive soils (e.g. Canadian prairies, Russian [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chernozem Chernozem] / or "black earth") are very rich in organic carbon. This is now thought to be pyrogenic in origin, likely originating from prairie or forest fires. This carbon is often thousands of years old, demonstrating its stability in soil. For more extensive background on Biochar, please consult the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biochar Wikipedia entry on biochar]. +Charcoal has many effects on soil fertility, although it is not much of a nutrient in itself. Some of the world's most productive soils (e.g. Canadian prairies, Russian [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chernozem Chernozem] / or "black earth") are very rich in organic carbon. This is now thought to be pyrogenic in origin, likely originating from prairie or forest fires. This carbon is often thousands of years old, demonstrating its stability in soil. -According to the [http://www.biochar-international.org/aboutbiochar.html International Biochar Initiative]: +Besides improving agricultural productivity, charcoal in the soil may serve as a long-term carbon sink, trapping elements that would otherwise contribute to greenhouse climate effects. For more extensive background on Biochar, please consult the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biochar Wikipedia entry on biochar]. -''Biochar is a fine-grained charcoal high in organic carbon and largely resistant to decomposition. It is produced from pyrolysis of plant and waste feedstocks. As a soil amendment, biochar creates a recalcitrant soil carbon pool that is carbon-negative, serving as a net withdrawal of atmospheric carbon dioxide stored in highly recalcitrant soil carbon stocks. The enhanced nutrient retention capacity of biochar-amended soil not only reduces the total fertilizer requirements but also the climate and environmental impact of croplands. Char-amended soils have shown 50 - 80 percent reductions in nitrous oxide emissions and reduced runoff of phosphorus into surface waters and leaching of nitrogen into groundwater. As a soil amendment, biochar significantly increases the efficiency of and reduces the need for traditional chemical fertilizers, while greatly enhancing crop yields. Renewable oils and gases co-produced in the pyrolysis process can be used as fuel or fuel feedstocks. Biochar thus offers promise for its soil productivity and climate benefits.'' - -===Biochar as a method of carbon sequestration=== -The [[earth]] absorbs around 18 times the amount of [[carbon]] emitted by [[humans]] each year.{{fact}}{{w|Carbon cycle}} However, about the same amount (one figure given is 99.9%) of this carbon is released to the atmosphere through [[decomposition]]. This cycle can be closed by a process known as [[pyrolysis]], in which biomass is heated in the absence of oxygen, creating charcoal and locking carbon in the form of biochar.{{w|Biochar}} - -Locking carbon away from the atmosphere and the carbon cycle described is referred to as [[carbon sequestration]]. Biochar can potentially lock away carbon carbon for hundreds or even thousands of years. If a real commitment were made, massive reductions in atmospheric carbon could be achieved - locking down carbon emissions and increasing the wealth of our soils. In conjunction with other geoengineering projects, biochar may truly hold the key to saving our earth from climate catastrophe. - -Biochar is also an effective and ecologically friendly soil amendment. It may also have applications in [[energy production]]{{fact}} and as a dietary supplement for animals. - -Its production was practiced by pre-Columbian Amazonian natives (''"terra preta"''), and natural processes appear to have created a similar affect in other parts of the world, creating rich soils. - -Biochar is not a solution on its own, but it appears to be an important element in comprehensive solution. ''See [[Measures to stop global warming]].'' === The Biochar Economy === @@ -37,7 +25,21 @@ *Biochar for sale as a source of income for an emerging community *Combine with solar thermal heat source to make a ''solar pyrolysis unit'' for charcoal production + +===Biochar as a method of carbon sequestration=== +The [[earth]] absorbs around 18 times the amount of [[carbon]] emitted by [[humans]] each year.{{fact}}{{w|Carbon cycle}} However, about the same amount (one figure given is 99.9%) of this carbon is released to the atmosphere through [[decomposition]]. This cycle can be closed by a process known as [[pyrolysis]], in which biomass is heated in the absence of oxygen, creating charcoal and locking carbon in the form of biochar.{{w|Biochar}} + +Locking carbon away from the atmosphere and the carbon cycle described is referred to as [[carbon sequestration]]. Biochar can potentially lock away carbon carbon for hundreds or even thousands of years. If a real commitment were made, massive reductions in atmospheric carbon could be achieved - locking down carbon emissions and increasing the wealth of our soils. In conjunction with other geoengineering projects, biochar may truly hold the key to saving our earth from climate catastrophe. + +Biochar is also an effective and ecologically friendly soil amendment. It may also have applications in [[energy production]]{{fact}} and as a dietary supplement for animals. + +Its production was practiced by pre-Columbian Amazonian natives (''"terra preta"''), and natural processes appear to have created a similar affect in other parts of the world, creating rich soils. + +Biochar is not a solution on its own, but it appears to be an important element in comprehensive solution. ''See [[Measures to stop global warming]].'' === Biochar Technology === (for merged content from [[Biochar Technology]] page) + +== Terra preta == +[[Terra preta]] is a type of very dark, fertile anthropogenic soil found in the Amazon Basin. It is basically a mixture of charcoal, bone, and manure. It is very stable and remains in the soil for thousands of years. === Biochar Reactors === @@ -55,17 +57,13 @@ Critics are concerned that large-scale biochar production may increase deforestation. However, a variety of biomass feedstocks other than wood can be used (see above). Old-growth forest is likely not a good feedstock because of extensive pre-processing that would be required. Small biomass pieces such as pellets or cherry pits make excellent feedstock. -== Terra preta == -[[Terra preta]] is a type of very dark, fertile anthropogenic soil found in the Amazon Basin. It is basically a mixture of charcoal, bone, and manure. It is very stable and remains in the soil for thousands of years. == External links == -* Wikipedia page on Biochar [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biochar] * Gardening with Biochar FAQ [http://biochar.pbwiki.com/] * BioEnergy Lists: Terra Preta (Biochar) [http://terrapreta.bioenergylists.org/] * International Biochar Initiative (IBI) [http://www.biochar-international.org/] * Biochar Fund [http://biocharfund.org] -* Folke Günther's "the simplest of the simple" [http://www.holon.se/folke/carbon/simplechar/simplechar.shtml two-barrel charcoal retort] * Biochar Industries Community Biochar Project[http://www.biocharproject.org/] -== Academia in biochar research == +== Academic Research == * Lehmann, J., Gaunt, J., and Rondon, M..Bio-char and adaptation strategies for global change. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change (2006). 11: 403-427. [http://www.biochar.info/52/downloads/MitAdaptStratGlobChange_Lehmann_2006.pdf]
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Charcoal has many effects on soil fertility, although it is not much of a nutrient in itself. Some of the world's most productive soils (e.g. Canadian prairies, Russian [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chernozem Chernozem] / or "black earth") are very rich in organic carbon. This is now thought to be pyrogenic in origin, likely originating from prairie or forest fires. This carbon is often thousands of years old, demonstrating its stability in soil. Besides improving agricultural productivity, charcoal in the soil may serve as a long-term carbon sink, trapping elements that would otherwise contribute to greenhouse climate effects. For more extensive background on Biochar, please consult the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biochar Wikipedia entry on biochar]. ===Biochar as a method of carbon sequestration=== The [[earth]] absorbs around 18 times the amount of [[carbon]] emitted by [[humans]] each year.{{fact}}{{w|Carbon cycle}} However, about the same amount (one figure given is 99.9%) of this carbon is released to the atmosphere through [[decomposition]]. This cycle can be closed by a process known as [[pyrolysis]], in which biomass is heated in the absence of oxygen, creating charcoal and locking carbon in the form of biochar.{{w|Biochar}} Locking carbon away from the atmosphere and the carbon cycle described is referred to as [[carbon sequestration]]. Biochar can potentially lock away carbon carbon for hundreds or even thousands of years. If a real commitment were made, massive reductions in atmospheric carbon could be achieved - locking down carbon emissions and increasing the wealth of our soils. In conjunction with other geoengineering projects, biochar may truly hold the key to saving our earth from climate catastrophe. Biochar is also an effective and ecologically friendly soil amendment. It may also have applications in [[energy production]]{{fact}} and as a dietary supplement for animals. Its production was practiced by pre-Columbian Amazonian natives (''"terra preta"''), and natural processes appear to have created a similar affect in other parts of the world, creating rich soils. Biochar is not a solution on its own, but it appears to be an important element in comprehensive solution. ''See [[Measures to stop global warming]].'' == Terra preta == [[Terra preta]] is a type of very dark, fertile anthropogenic soil found in the Amazon Basin. It is basically a mixture of charcoal, bone, and manure. It is very stable and remains in the soil for thousands of years. == Academic Research ==
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Some of the world's most productive soils (e.g. Canadian prairies, Russian [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chernozem Chernozem] / or "black earth") are very rich in organic carbon. This is now thought to be pyrogenic in origin, likely originating from prairie or forest fires. This carbon is often thousands of years old, demonstrating its stability in soil. For more extensive background on Biochar, please consult the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biochar Wikipedia entry on biochar]. According to the [http://www.biochar-international.org/aboutbiochar.html International Biochar Initiative]: ''Biochar is a fine-grained charcoal high in organic carbon and largely resistant to decomposition. It is produced from pyrolysis of plant and waste feedstocks. As a soil amendment, biochar creates a recalcitrant soil carbon pool that is carbon-negative, serving as a net withdrawal of atmospheric carbon dioxide stored in highly recalcitrant soil carbon stocks. The enhanced nutrient retention capacity of biochar-amended soil not only reduces the total fertilizer requirements but also the climate and environmental impact of croplands. Char-amended soils have shown 50 - 80 percent reductions in nitrous oxide emissions and reduced runoff of phosphorus into surface waters and leaching of nitrogen into groundwater. As a soil amendment, biochar significantly increases the efficiency of and reduces the need for traditional chemical fertilizers, while greatly enhancing crop yields. Renewable oils and gases co-produced in the pyrolysis process can be used as fuel or fuel feedstocks. Biochar thus offers promise for its soil productivity and climate benefits.'' ===Biochar as a method of carbon sequestration=== The [[earth]] absorbs around 18 times the amount of [[carbon]] emitted by [[humans]] each year.{{fact}}{{w|Carbon cycle}} However, about the same amount (one figure given is 99.9%) of this carbon is released to the atmosphere through [[decomposition]]. This cycle can be closed by a process known as [[pyrolysis]], in which biomass is heated in the absence of oxygen, creating charcoal and locking carbon in the form of biochar.{{w|Biochar}} Locking carbon away from the atmosphere and the carbon cycle described is referred to as [[carbon sequestration]]. Biochar can potentially lock away carbon carbon for hundreds or even thousands of years. If a real commitment were made, massive reductions in atmospheric carbon could be achieved - locking down carbon emissions and increasing the wealth of our soils. In conjunction with other geoengineering projects, biochar may truly hold the key to saving our earth from climate catastrophe. Biochar is also an effective and ecologically friendly soil amendment. It may also have applications in [[energy production]]{{fact}} and as a dietary supplement for animals. Its production was practiced by pre-Columbian Amazonian natives (''"terra preta"''), and natural processes appear to have created a similar affect in other parts of the world, creating rich soils. Biochar is not a solution on its own, but it appears to be an important element in comprehensive solution. ''See [[Measures to stop global warming]].'' == Terra preta == [[Terra preta]] is a type of very dark, fertile anthropogenic soil found in the Amazon Basin. It is basically a mixture of charcoal, bone, and manure. It is very stable and remains in the soil for thousands of years. * Wikipedia page on Biochar [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biochar] * Folke Günther's "the simplest of the simple" [http://www.holon.se/folke/carbon/simplechar/simplechar.shtml two-barrel charcoal retort] == Academia in biochar research ==
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<div class="mw-parser-output"><table style="background-color:&#32;; border-color:&#32;;" class="noprint plainlinks mbox mbox-notice"> <tbody><tr> <td class="mbox-image" width="40"> <img alt="" src="/images/thumb/4/43/Biochar2.jpg/53px-Biochar2.jpg" decoding="async" width="53" height="40" srcset="/images/thumb/4/43/Biochar2.jpg/80px-Biochar2.jpg 1.5x, /images/thumb/4/43/Biochar2.jpg/106px-Biochar2.jpg 2x" /></td> <td class="mbox-text"><div class="mbox-text-div"><strong>This page is a topic header.</strong><span class="mbox-tap">Tap for more</span><div class="hide-when-compact">See <a href="/Category:Biochar" title="Category:Biochar">Category: Biochar </a> for subtopics, how-tos, project pages, designs, organization pages and more.</div></div></td> </tr> </tbody></table><style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r415477">.mw-parser-output .mbox{border-collapse:collapse;background-color:#fbfbfb;border-bottom:1px solid #aaa;border-left:1px solid #CCC;border-right:1px solid #CCC;font-size:95%;margin:1em 10%}.mw-parser-output .mbox-text{padding:0.25em 0.5em;width:100%}.mw-parser-output .mbox-image{padding:2px 0 2px 0.5em;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output .mbox-imageright{padding:2px 0.5em 2px 0;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output .mbox-tap{display:none;float:right}@media screen and (max-width:600px){.mw-parser-output .mbox{margin:.5em 0}.mw-parser-output .mbox-tap{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .mbox:hover .mbox-tap{display:none}.mw-parser-output .mbox:hover .hide-when-compact{display:block}}.mw-parser-output .mbox-notice{border-top:5px solid #608ec2}.mw-parser-output .mbox-protection{border-top:5px solid #bba}.mw-parser-output .mbox-serious{border-top:5px solid #b22222}.mw-parser-output .mbox-content{border-top:5px solid #f28500}.mw-parser-output .mbox-style{border-top:5px solid #f4c430}.mw-parser-output .mbox-merge{border-top:5px solid #8c08a4}.mw-parser-output .mbox-growth{border-top:5px solid #47a30d}</style> <dl><dd><div class="floatleft"><a href="/File:Mergefrom.gif" class="image"><img alt="Mergefrom.gif" src="/images/a/ae/Mergefrom.gif" decoding="async" width="50" height="20" /></a></div> <i>It has been suggested that </i><a href="/Biochar_Technology" title="Biochar Technology">Biochar Technology</a><i> be <a href="/Help:Merging_pages" title="Help:Merging pages">merged</a> into this page or section. (<a href="/Talk:Biochar" title="Talk:Biochar">Discuss</a>).</i></dd></dl> <p><br /> <b>Biochar</b> is a name for <a href="/Charcoal" title="Charcoal">charcoal</a> when it is used for particular purposes, especially as a soil amendment. </p><p>Charcoal has many effects on soil fertility, although it is not much of a nutrient in itself. Some of the world's most productive soils (e.g. Canadian prairies, Russian <a class="external text" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chernozem">Chernozem</a> / or "black earth") are very rich in organic carbon. This is now thought to be pyrogenic in origin, likely originating from prairie or forest fires. This carbon is often thousands of years old, demonstrating its stability in soil. </p><p>Besides improving agricultural productivity, charcoal in the soil may serve as a long-term carbon sink, trapping elements that would otherwise contribute to greenhouse climate effects. For more extensive background on Biochar, please consult the <a class="external text" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biochar">Wikipedia entry on biochar</a>. </p><p><br /> </p> <div id="toc" class="toc"><input type="checkbox" role="button" id="toctogglecheckbox" class="toctogglecheckbox" style="display:none" /><div class="toctitle" lang="en" dir="ltr"><h2>Contents</h2><span class="toctogglespan"><label class="toctogglelabel" for="toctogglecheckbox"></label></span></div> <ul> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-1"><a href="#The_Biochar_Economy"><span class="tocnumber">1</span> <span class="toctext">The Biochar Economy</span></a> <ul> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-2"><a href="#List_of_uses_of_biochar"><span class="tocnumber">1.1</span> <span class="toctext">List of uses of biochar</span></a></li> </ul> </li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-3"><a href="#Biochar_as_a_method_of_carbon_sequestration"><span class="tocnumber">2</span> <span class="toctext">Biochar as a method of carbon sequestration</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-4"><a href="#Biochar_Technology"><span class="tocnumber">3</span> <span class="toctext">Biochar Technology</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-5"><a href="#Terra_preta"><span class="tocnumber">4</span> <span class="toctext">Terra preta</span></a> <ul> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-6"><a href="#Biochar_Reactors"><span class="tocnumber">4.1</span> <span class="toctext">Biochar Reactors</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-7"><a href="#Suitable_feedstocks"><span class="tocnumber">4.2</span> <span class="toctext">Suitable feedstocks</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-8"><a href="#Criticism"><span class="tocnumber">4.3</span> <span class="toctext">Criticism</span></a></li> </ul> </li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-9"><a href="#External_links"><span class="tocnumber">5</span> <span class="toctext">External links</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-10"><a href="#Academic_Research"><span class="tocnumber">6</span> <span class="toctext">Academic Research</span></a></li> </ul> </div> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="The_Biochar_Economy">The Biochar Economy</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/index.php?title=Biochar&amp;action=edit&amp;section=1" title="Edit section: The Biochar Economy">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3> <div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:302px;"><a href="/File:2959038953_31a102dc5d.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="/images/thumb/b/b8/2959038953_31a102dc5d.jpg/300px-2959038953_31a102dc5d.jpg" decoding="async" width="300" height="229" class="thumbimage" srcset="/images/thumb/b/b8/2959038953_31a102dc5d.jpg/450px-2959038953_31a102dc5d.jpg 1.5x, /images/b/b8/2959038953_31a102dc5d.jpg 2x" /></a> <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/File:2959038953_31a102dc5d.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Image from Flickr user <b>visionshare</b> by CC license</div></div></div> <h4><span class="mw-headline" id="List_of_uses_of_biochar">List of uses of biochar</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/index.php?title=Biochar&amp;action=edit&amp;section=2" title="Edit section: List of uses of biochar">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4> <ul><li>Inexpensive soil amelioration for degraded land (i.e. biochar as a liming agent)</li> <li>Need less land = lower startup costs for a Sustainable Village</li> <li>Increased biomass productivity</li> <li>Efficient use of biomass waste for energy generation</li> <li>Reduced need for fertilizer input (e.g. manure)</li> <li>Combine biochar with vermicompost to make superb fertilizer.</li> <li>Pyrolysis gas can be used for energy and as a heat source</li> <li>Bio-oil and tars are also by-products of pyrolysis, can be turned into biodiesel</li> <li>Add charcoal to compost heap to speed up composting (probably works via enhanced microbial activity)</li> <li>Biochar for sale as a source of income for an emerging community</li> <li>Combine with solar thermal heat source to make a <i>solar pyrolysis unit</i> for charcoal production</li></ul> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Biochar_as_a_method_of_carbon_sequestration">Biochar as a method of carbon sequestration</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/index.php?title=Biochar&amp;action=edit&amp;section=3" title="Edit section: Biochar as a method of carbon sequestration">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3> <p>The <a href="/Earth" title="Earth">earth</a> absorbs around 18 times the amount of <a href="/Carbon" title="Carbon">carbon</a> emitted by <a href="/index.php?title=Humans&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Humans (page does not exist)">humans</a> each year.<sup title="The text in the vicinity of this tag needs verification." class="noprint">&#91;<a href="/Template:Fact" title="Template:Fact"><i>verification&#160;needed</i></a>&#93;</sup><sup><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_cycle" class="extiw" title="wikipedia:Carbon cycle">W</a></sup> However, about the same amount (one figure given is 99.9%) of this carbon is released to the atmosphere through <a href="/index.php?title=Decomposition&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Decomposition (page does not exist)">decomposition</a>. This cycle can be closed by a process known as <a href="/index.php?title=Pyrolysis&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Pyrolysis (page does not exist)">pyrolysis</a>, in which biomass is heated in the absence of oxygen, creating charcoal and locking carbon in the form of biochar.<sup><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biochar" class="extiw" title="wikipedia:Biochar">W</a></sup> </p><p>Locking carbon away from the atmosphere and the carbon cycle described is referred to as <a href="/Carbon_sequestration" title="Carbon sequestration">carbon sequestration</a>. Biochar can potentially lock away carbon carbon for hundreds or even thousands of years. If a real commitment were made, massive reductions in atmospheric carbon could be achieved - locking down carbon emissions and increasing the wealth of our soils. In conjunction with other geoengineering projects, biochar may truly hold the key to saving our earth from climate catastrophe. </p><p>Biochar is also an effective and ecologically friendly soil amendment. It may also have applications in <a href="/index.php?title=Energy_production&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Energy production (page does not exist)">energy production</a><sup title="The text in the vicinity of this tag needs verification." class="noprint">&#91;<a href="/Template:Fact" title="Template:Fact"><i>verification&#160;needed</i></a>&#93;</sup> and as a dietary supplement for animals. </p><p>Its production was practiced by pre-Columbian Amazonian natives (<i>"terra preta"</i>), and natural processes appear to have created a similar affect in other parts of the world, creating rich soils. </p><p>Biochar is not a solution on its own, but it appears to be an important element in comprehensive solution. <i>See <a href="/Measures_to_stop_global_warming" title="Measures to stop global warming">Measures to stop global warming</a>.</i> </p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Biochar_Technology">Biochar Technology</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/index.php?title=Biochar&amp;action=edit&amp;section=4" title="Edit section: Biochar Technology">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3> <p>(for merged content from <a href="/Biochar_Technology" title="Biochar Technology">Biochar Technology</a> page) </p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Terra_preta">Terra preta</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/index.php?title=Biochar&amp;action=edit&amp;section=5" title="Edit section: Terra preta">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2> <p><a href="/Terra_preta" class="mw-redirect" title="Terra preta">Terra preta</a> is a type of very dark, fertile anthropogenic soil found in the Amazon Basin. It is basically a mixture of charcoal, bone, and manure. It is very stable and remains in the soil for thousands of years. </p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Biochar_Reactors">Biochar Reactors</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/index.php?title=Biochar&amp;action=edit&amp;section=6" title="Edit section: Biochar Reactors">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3> <p>Several small-scale units have been devised for baking charcoal, many with simple common materials. Charcoal making (<a href="/index.php?title=Pyrolisis&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Pyrolisis (page does not exist)">pyrolisis</a>) dates back thousands of years in human history, traditionally practiced via earthen pits and mounds. Today, steel drums of different sizes are most commonly utilized due to portability, airflow control options, heat resistance, and availability. See articles below for some examples, and a new page here on <a href="/Simple_Biochar_Kilns" title="Simple Biochar Kilns">Simple Biochar Kilns</a>. </p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Suitable_feedstocks">Suitable feedstocks</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/index.php?title=Biochar&amp;action=edit&amp;section=7" title="Edit section: Suitable feedstocks">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3> <p>A variety of feedstocks can be used. Since these often constitute agricultural residues in <a href="/Rural_communities" class="mw-redirect" title="Rural communities">rural communities</a>, a form of waste is turned into an asset. Possible feedstocks include: </p> <ul><li><b>agricultural leftovers:</b> straw, rice hulls, corn stalks, chicken/cattle poop</li> <li><b>Fast-growing biomass:</b> bamboo, switchgrass, miscanthus,</li> <li><b>Other:</b> leaf litter, grasses, macroalgae, bones (high P content),</li></ul> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Criticism">Criticism</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/index.php?title=Biochar&amp;action=edit&amp;section=8" title="Edit section: Criticism">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3> <p>Critics are concerned that large-scale biochar production may increase deforestation. However, a variety of biomass feedstocks other than wood can be used (see above). Old-growth forest is likely not a good feedstock because of extensive pre-processing that would be required. Small biomass pieces such as pellets or cherry pits make excellent feedstock. </p><p><br /> </p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="External_links">External links</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/index.php?title=Biochar&amp;action=edit&amp;section=9" title="Edit section: External links">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2> <ul><li>Gardening with Biochar FAQ <a class="external autonumber" href="http://biochar.pbwiki.com/">[1]</a></li> <li>BioEnergy Lists: Terra Preta (Biochar) <a class="external autonumber" href="http://terrapreta.bioenergylists.org/">[2]</a></li> <li>International Biochar Initiative (IBI) <a class="external autonumber" href="http://www.biochar-international.org/">[3]</a></li> <li>Biochar Fund <a class="external autonumber" href="http://biocharfund.org">[4]</a></li> <li>Biochar Industries Community Biochar Project<a class="external autonumber" href="http://www.biocharproject.org/">[5]</a></li></ul> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Academic_Research">Academic Research</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/index.php?title=Biochar&amp;action=edit&amp;section=10" title="Edit section: Academic Research">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2> <ul><li>Lehmann, J., Gaunt, J., and Rondon, M..Bio-char and adaptation strategies for global change. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change (2006). 11: 403-427. <a class="external autonumber" href="http://www.biochar.info/52/downloads/MitAdaptStratGlobChange_Lehmann_2006.pdf">[6]</a></li></ul> <p>Other Research: </p> <ul><li>Cornell University Dept. of Crop and Soil Sciences <a class="external autonumber" href="http://www.css.cornell.edu/faculty/lehmann/research/index.html">[7]</a></li> <li>Biochar Farms <a class="external autonumber" href="http://biocharfarms.org/presentations/">[8]</a></li> <li>International Biochar Initiative <a class="external autonumber" href="http://www.biochar-international.org/research/education">[9]</a></li></ul> <p><br /> </p> <table style="background-color:&#32;; border-color:&#32;;" class="noprint plainlinks mbox mbox-notice"> <tbody><tr> <td class="mbox-image" width="40"> <img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/28/Commons-emblem-notice.svg/40px-Commons-emblem-notice.svg.png" decoding="async" width="40" height="40" srcset="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/28/Commons-emblem-notice.svg/60px-Commons-emblem-notice.svg.png 1.5x, https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/28/Commons-emblem-notice.svg/80px-Commons-emblem-notice.svg.png 2x" /></td> <td class="mbox-text"><div class="mbox-text-div"><strong>Attribution: This page includes content from <i><a class="external text" href="http://opensourceecology.org/wiki/Biochar">Biochar</a></i> on <i>Open Source Ecology</i>, licensed as <a class="external text" href="http://opensourceecology.org/wiki/Open_Source_Ecology:Copyright">Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 United States License.</a>.</strong><span class="mbox-tap">Tap for more</span><div class="hide-when-compact">The licence allows reuse under Appropedia's CC-BY-SA license. A full list of contributors to that wiki page page can be found through the history tab at the original location.</div></div></td> </tr> </tbody></table><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r415477"/> <!-- NewPP limit report Cached time: 20200921130515 Cache expiry: 86400 Dynamic content: false [SMW] In‐text annotation parser time: 0.008 seconds CPU time usage: 0.122 seconds Real time usage: 0.135 seconds Preprocessor visited node count: 229/1000000 Preprocessor generated node count: 1334/1000000 Post‐expand include size: 5073/2097152 bytes Template argument size: 1514/2097152 bytes Highest expansion depth: 7/40 Expensive parser function count: 3/100 Unstrip recursion depth: 0/20 Unstrip post‐expand size: 2414/5000000 bytes --> <!-- Transclusion expansion time report (%,ms,calls,template) 100.00% 66.360 1 -total 84.02% 55.757 1 Template:Topic_header 81.04% 53.777 1 Template:Ambox 6.60% 4.380 1 Template:Attrib_wiki 3.29% 2.183 1 Template:Merge_from 2.81% 1.865 1 Template:Mbox 2.49% 1.651 2 Template:Fact 2.30% 1.524 2 Template:W --> </div>
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This page is a topic header.Tap for moreSee Category: Biochar for subtopics, how-tos, project pages, designs, organization pages and more. .mw-parser-output .mbox{border-collapse:collapse;background-color:#fbfbfb;border-bottom:1px solid #aaa;border-left:1px solid #CCC;border-right:1px solid #CCC;font-size:95%;margin:1em 10%}.mw-parser-output .mbox-text{padding:0.25em 0.5em;width:100%}.mw-parser-output .mbox-image{padding:2px 0 2px 0.5em;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output .mbox-imageright{padding:2px 0.5em 2px 0;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output .mbox-tap{display:none;float:right}@media screen and (max-width:600px){.mw-parser-output .mbox{margin:.5em 0}.mw-parser-output .mbox-tap{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .mbox:hover .mbox-tap{display:none}.mw-parser-output .mbox:hover .hide-when-compact{display:block}}.mw-parser-output .mbox-notice{border-top:5px solid #608ec2}.mw-parser-output .mbox-protection{border-top:5px solid #bba}.mw-parser-output .mbox-serious{border-top:5px solid #b22222}.mw-parser-output .mbox-content{border-top:5px solid #f28500}.mw-parser-output .mbox-style{border-top:5px solid #f4c430}.mw-parser-output .mbox-merge{border-top:5px solid #8c08a4}.mw-parser-output .mbox-growth{border-top:5px solid #47a30d} It has been suggested that Biochar Technology be merged into this page or section. (Discuss). Biochar is a name for charcoal when it is used for particular purposes, especially as a soil amendment. Charcoal has many effects on soil fertility, although it is not much of a nutrient in itself. Some of the world's most productive soils (e.g. Canadian prairies, Russian Chernozem / or "black earth") are very rich in organic carbon. This is now thought to be pyrogenic in origin, likely originating from prairie or forest fires. This carbon is often thousands of years old, demonstrating its stability in soil. Besides improving agricultural productivity, charcoal in the soil may serve as a long-term carbon sink, trapping elements that would otherwise contribute to greenhouse climate effects. For more extensive background on Biochar, please consult the Wikipedia entry on biochar. Contents 1 The Biochar Economy 1.1 List of uses of biochar 2 Biochar as a method of carbon sequestration 3 Biochar Technology 4 Terra preta 4.1 Biochar Reactors 4.2 Suitable feedstocks 4.3 Criticism 5 External links 6 Academic Research The Biochar Economy[edit] Image from Flickr user visionshare by CC license List of uses of biochar[edit] Inexpensive soil amelioration for degraded land (i.e. biochar as a liming agent) Need less land = lower startup costs for a Sustainable Village Increased biomass productivity Efficient use of biomass waste for energy generation Reduced need for fertilizer input (e.g. manure) Combine biochar with vermicompost to make superb fertilizer. Pyrolysis gas can be used for energy and as a heat source Bio-oil and tars are also by-products of pyrolysis, can be turned into biodiesel Add charcoal to compost heap to speed up composting (probably works via enhanced microbial activity) Biochar for sale as a source of income for an emerging community Combine with solar thermal heat source to make a solar pyrolysis unit for charcoal production Biochar as a method of carbon sequestration[edit] The earth absorbs around 18 times the amount of carbon emitted by humans each year.&#91;verification&#160;needed&#93;W However, about the same amount (one figure given is 99.9%) of this carbon is released to the atmosphere through decomposition. This cycle can be closed by a process known as pyrolysis, in which biomass is heated in the absence of oxygen, creating charcoal and locking carbon in the form of biochar.W Locking carbon away from the atmosphere and the carbon cycle described is referred to as carbon sequestration. Biochar can potentially lock away carbon carbon for hundreds or even thousands of years. If a real commitment were made, massive reductions in atmospheric carbon could be achieved - locking down carbon emissions and increasing the wealth of our soils. In conjunction with other geoengineering projects, biochar may truly hold the key to saving our earth from climate catastrophe. Biochar is also an effective and ecologically friendly soil amendment. It may also have applications in energy production&#91;verification&#160;needed&#93; and as a dietary supplement for animals. Its production was practiced by pre-Columbian Amazonian natives ("terra preta"), and natural processes appear to have created a similar affect in other parts of the world, creating rich soils. Biochar is not a solution on its own, but it appears to be an important element in comprehensive solution. See Measures to stop global warming. Biochar Technology[edit] (for merged content from Biochar Technology page) Terra preta[edit] Terra preta is a type of very dark, fertile anthropogenic soil found in the Amazon Basin. It is basically a mixture of charcoal, bone, and manure. It is very stable and remains in the soil for thousands of years. Biochar Reactors[edit] Several small-scale units have been devised for baking charcoal, many with simple common materials. Charcoal making (pyrolisis) dates back thousands of years in human history, traditionally practiced via earthen pits and mounds. Today, steel drums of different sizes are most commonly utilized due to portability, airflow control options, heat resistance, and availability. See articles below for some examples, and a new page here on Simple Biochar Kilns. Suitable feedstocks[edit] A variety of feedstocks can be used. Since these often constitute agricultural residues in rural communities, a form of waste is turned into an asset. Possible feedstocks include: agricultural leftovers: straw, rice hulls, corn stalks, chicken/cattle poop Fast-growing biomass: bamboo, switchgrass, miscanthus, Other: leaf litter, grasses, macroalgae, bones (high P content), Criticism[edit] Critics are concerned that large-scale biochar production may increase deforestation. However, a variety of biomass feedstocks other than wood can be used (see above). Old-growth forest is likely not a good feedstock because of extensive pre-processing that would be required. Small biomass pieces such as pellets or cherry pits make excellent feedstock. External links[edit] Gardening with Biochar FAQ [1] BioEnergy Lists: Terra Preta (Biochar) [2] International Biochar Initiative (IBI) [3] Biochar Fund [4] Biochar Industries Community Biochar Project[5] Academic Research[edit] Lehmann, J., Gaunt, J., and Rondon, M..Bio-char and adaptation strategies for global change. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change (2006). 11: 403-427. [6] Other Research: Cornell University Dept. of Crop and Soil Sciences [7] Biochar Farms [8] International Biochar Initiative [9] Attribution: This page includes content from Biochar on Open Source Ecology, licensed as Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 United States License..Tap for moreThe licence allows reuse under Appropedia's CC-BY-SA license. A full list of contributors to that wiki page page can be found through the history tab at the original location.
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<div class="mw-parser-output"><table style="background-color:&#32;; border-color:&#32;;" class="noprint plainlinks mbox mbox-notice"> <tbody><tr> <td class="mbox-image" width="40"> <img alt="" src="/images/thumb/4/43/Biochar2.jpg/53px-Biochar2.jpg" decoding="async" width="53" height="40" srcset="/images/thumb/4/43/Biochar2.jpg/80px-Biochar2.jpg 1.5x, /images/thumb/4/43/Biochar2.jpg/106px-Biochar2.jpg 2x" /></td> <td class="mbox-text"><div class="mbox-text-div"><strong>This page is a topic header.</strong><span class="mbox-tap">Tap for more</span><div class="hide-when-compact">See <a href="/Category:Biochar" title="Category:Biochar">Category: Biochar </a> for subtopics, how-tos, project pages, designs, organization pages and more.</div></div></td> </tr> </tbody></table><style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r415477">.mw-parser-output .mbox{border-collapse:collapse;background-color:#fbfbfb;border-bottom:1px solid #aaa;border-left:1px solid #CCC;border-right:1px solid #CCC;font-size:95%;margin:1em 10%}.mw-parser-output .mbox-text{padding:0.25em 0.5em;width:100%}.mw-parser-output .mbox-image{padding:2px 0 2px 0.5em;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output .mbox-imageright{padding:2px 0.5em 2px 0;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output .mbox-tap{display:none;float:right}@media screen and (max-width:600px){.mw-parser-output .mbox{margin:.5em 0}.mw-parser-output .mbox-tap{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .mbox:hover .mbox-tap{display:none}.mw-parser-output .mbox:hover .hide-when-compact{display:block}}.mw-parser-output .mbox-notice{border-top:5px solid #608ec2}.mw-parser-output .mbox-protection{border-top:5px solid #bba}.mw-parser-output .mbox-serious{border-top:5px solid #b22222}.mw-parser-output .mbox-content{border-top:5px solid #f28500}.mw-parser-output .mbox-style{border-top:5px solid #f4c430}.mw-parser-output .mbox-merge{border-top:5px solid #8c08a4}.mw-parser-output .mbox-growth{border-top:5px solid #47a30d}</style> <dl><dd><div class="floatleft"><a href="/File:Mergefrom.gif" class="image"><img alt="Mergefrom.gif" src="/images/a/ae/Mergefrom.gif" decoding="async" width="50" height="20" /></a></div> <i>It has been suggested that </i><a href="/Biochar_Technology" title="Biochar Technology">Biochar Technology</a><i> be <a href="/Help:Merging_pages" title="Help:Merging pages">merged</a> into this page or section. (<a href="/Talk:Biochar" title="Talk:Biochar">Discuss</a>).</i></dd></dl> <p><br /> <b>Biochar</b> is a name for <a href="/Charcoal" title="Charcoal">charcoal</a> when it is used for particular purposes, especially as a soil amendment. </p><p>Some of the world's most productive soils (e.g. Canadian prairies, Russian <a class="external text" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chernozem">Chernozem</a> / or "black earth") are very rich in organic carbon. This is now thought to be pyrogenic in origin, likely originating from prairie or forest fires. This carbon is often thousands of years old, demonstrating its stability in soil. For more extensive background on Biochar, please consult the <a class="external text" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biochar">Wikipedia entry on biochar</a>. </p><p>According to the <a class="external text" href="http://www.biochar-international.org/aboutbiochar.html">International Biochar Initiative</a>: </p><p><i>Biochar is a fine-grained charcoal high in organic carbon and largely resistant to decomposition. It is produced from pyrolysis of plant and waste feedstocks. As a soil amendment, biochar creates a recalcitrant soil carbon pool that is carbon-negative, serving as a net withdrawal of atmospheric carbon dioxide stored in highly recalcitrant soil carbon stocks. The enhanced nutrient retention capacity of biochar-amended soil not only reduces the total fertilizer requirements but also the climate and environmental impact of croplands. Char-amended soils have shown 50 - 80 percent reductions in nitrous oxide emissions and reduced runoff of phosphorus into surface waters and leaching of nitrogen into groundwater. As a soil amendment, biochar significantly increases the efficiency of and reduces the need for traditional chemical fertilizers, while greatly enhancing crop yields. Renewable oils and gases co-produced in the pyrolysis process can be used as fuel or fuel feedstocks. Biochar thus offers promise for its soil productivity and climate benefits.</i> </p> <div id="toc" class="toc"><input type="checkbox" role="button" id="toctogglecheckbox" class="toctogglecheckbox" style="display:none" /><div class="toctitle" lang="en" dir="ltr"><h2>Contents</h2><span class="toctogglespan"><label class="toctogglelabel" for="toctogglecheckbox"></label></span></div> <ul> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-1"><a href="#Biochar_as_a_method_of_carbon_sequestration"><span class="tocnumber">1</span> <span class="toctext">Biochar as a method of carbon sequestration</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-2"><a href="#The_Biochar_Economy"><span class="tocnumber">2</span> <span class="toctext">The Biochar Economy</span></a> <ul> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-3"><a href="#List_of_uses_of_biochar"><span class="tocnumber">2.1</span> <span class="toctext">List of uses of biochar</span></a></li> </ul> </li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-4"><a href="#Biochar_Technology"><span class="tocnumber">3</span> <span class="toctext">Biochar Technology</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-5"><a href="#Biochar_Reactors"><span class="tocnumber">4</span> <span class="toctext">Biochar Reactors</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-6"><a href="#Suitable_feedstocks"><span class="tocnumber">5</span> <span class="toctext">Suitable feedstocks</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-7"><a href="#Criticism"><span class="tocnumber">6</span> <span class="toctext">Criticism</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-8"><a href="#Terra_preta"><span class="tocnumber">7</span> <span class="toctext">Terra preta</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-9"><a href="#External_links"><span class="tocnumber">8</span> <span class="toctext">External links</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-10"><a href="#Academia_in_biochar_research"><span class="tocnumber">9</span> <span class="toctext">Academia in biochar research</span></a></li> </ul> </div> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Biochar_as_a_method_of_carbon_sequestration">Biochar as a method of carbon sequestration</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/index.php?title=Biochar&amp;action=edit&amp;section=1" title="Edit section: Biochar as a method of carbon sequestration">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3> <p>The <a href="/Earth" title="Earth">earth</a> absorbs around 18 times the amount of <a href="/Carbon" title="Carbon">carbon</a> emitted by <a href="/index.php?title=Humans&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Humans (page does not exist)">humans</a> each year.<sup title="The text in the vicinity of this tag needs verification." class="noprint">&#91;<a href="/Template:Fact" title="Template:Fact"><i>verification&#160;needed</i></a>&#93;</sup><sup><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_cycle" class="extiw" title="wikipedia:Carbon cycle">W</a></sup> However, about the same amount (one figure given is 99.9%) of this carbon is released to the atmosphere through <a href="/index.php?title=Decomposition&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Decomposition (page does not exist)">decomposition</a>. This cycle can be closed by a process known as <a href="/index.php?title=Pyrolysis&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Pyrolysis (page does not exist)">pyrolysis</a>, in which biomass is heated in the absence of oxygen, creating charcoal and locking carbon in the form of biochar.<sup><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biochar" class="extiw" title="wikipedia:Biochar">W</a></sup> </p><p>Locking carbon away from the atmosphere and the carbon cycle described is referred to as <a href="/Carbon_sequestration" title="Carbon sequestration">carbon sequestration</a>. Biochar can potentially lock away carbon carbon for hundreds or even thousands of years. If a real commitment were made, massive reductions in atmospheric carbon could be achieved - locking down carbon emissions and increasing the wealth of our soils. In conjunction with other geoengineering projects, biochar may truly hold the key to saving our earth from climate catastrophe. </p><p>Biochar is also an effective and ecologically friendly soil amendment. It may also have applications in <a href="/index.php?title=Energy_production&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Energy production (page does not exist)">energy production</a><sup title="The text in the vicinity of this tag needs verification." class="noprint">&#91;<a href="/Template:Fact" title="Template:Fact"><i>verification&#160;needed</i></a>&#93;</sup> and as a dietary supplement for animals. </p><p>Its production was practiced by pre-Columbian Amazonian natives (<i>"terra preta"</i>), and natural processes appear to have created a similar affect in other parts of the world, creating rich soils. </p><p>Biochar is not a solution on its own, but it appears to be an important element in comprehensive solution. <i>See <a href="/Measures_to_stop_global_warming" title="Measures to stop global warming">Measures to stop global warming</a>.</i> </p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="The_Biochar_Economy">The Biochar Economy</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/index.php?title=Biochar&amp;action=edit&amp;section=2" title="Edit section: The Biochar Economy">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3> <div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:302px;"><a href="/File:2959038953_31a102dc5d.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="/images/thumb/b/b8/2959038953_31a102dc5d.jpg/300px-2959038953_31a102dc5d.jpg" decoding="async" width="300" height="229" class="thumbimage" srcset="/images/thumb/b/b8/2959038953_31a102dc5d.jpg/450px-2959038953_31a102dc5d.jpg 1.5x, /images/b/b8/2959038953_31a102dc5d.jpg 2x" /></a> <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/File:2959038953_31a102dc5d.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Image from Flickr user <b>visionshare</b> by CC license</div></div></div> <h4><span class="mw-headline" id="List_of_uses_of_biochar">List of uses of biochar</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/index.php?title=Biochar&amp;action=edit&amp;section=3" title="Edit section: List of uses of biochar">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4> <ul><li>Inexpensive soil amelioration for degraded land (i.e. biochar as a liming agent)</li> <li>Need less land = lower startup costs for a Sustainable Village</li> <li>Increased biomass productivity</li> <li>Efficient use of biomass waste for energy generation</li> <li>Reduced need for fertilizer input (e.g. manure)</li> <li>Combine biochar with vermicompost to make superb fertilizer.</li> <li>Pyrolysis gas can be used for energy and as a heat source</li> <li>Bio-oil and tars are also by-products of pyrolysis, can be turned into biodiesel</li> <li>Add charcoal to compost heap to speed up composting (probably works via enhanced microbial activity)</li> <li>Biochar for sale as a source of income for an emerging community</li> <li>Combine with solar thermal heat source to make a <i>solar pyrolysis unit</i> for charcoal production</li></ul> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Biochar_Technology">Biochar Technology</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/index.php?title=Biochar&amp;action=edit&amp;section=4" title="Edit section: Biochar Technology">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3> <p>(for merged content from <a href="/Biochar_Technology" title="Biochar Technology">Biochar Technology</a> page) </p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Biochar_Reactors">Biochar Reactors</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/index.php?title=Biochar&amp;action=edit&amp;section=5" title="Edit section: Biochar Reactors">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3> <p>Several small-scale units have been devised for baking charcoal, many with simple common materials. Charcoal making (<a href="/index.php?title=Pyrolisis&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Pyrolisis (page does not exist)">pyrolisis</a>) dates back thousands of years in human history, traditionally practiced via earthen pits and mounds. Today, steel drums of different sizes are most commonly utilized due to portability, airflow control options, heat resistance, and availability. See articles below for some examples, and a new page here on <a href="/Simple_Biochar_Kilns" title="Simple Biochar Kilns">Simple Biochar Kilns</a>. </p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Suitable_feedstocks">Suitable feedstocks</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/index.php?title=Biochar&amp;action=edit&amp;section=6" title="Edit section: Suitable feedstocks">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3> <p>A variety of feedstocks can be used. Since these often constitute agricultural residues in <a href="/Rural_communities" class="mw-redirect" title="Rural communities">rural communities</a>, a form of waste is turned into an asset. Possible feedstocks include: </p> <ul><li><b>agricultural leftovers:</b> straw, rice hulls, corn stalks, chicken/cattle poop</li> <li><b>Fast-growing biomass:</b> bamboo, switchgrass, miscanthus,</li> <li><b>Other:</b> leaf litter, grasses, macroalgae, bones (high P content),</li></ul> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Criticism">Criticism</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/index.php?title=Biochar&amp;action=edit&amp;section=7" title="Edit section: Criticism">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3> <p>Critics are concerned that large-scale biochar production may increase deforestation. However, a variety of biomass feedstocks other than wood can be used (see above). Old-growth forest is likely not a good feedstock because of extensive pre-processing that would be required. Small biomass pieces such as pellets or cherry pits make excellent feedstock. </p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Terra_preta">Terra preta</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/index.php?title=Biochar&amp;action=edit&amp;section=8" title="Edit section: Terra preta">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2> <p><a href="/Terra_preta" class="mw-redirect" title="Terra preta">Terra preta</a> is a type of very dark, fertile anthropogenic soil found in the Amazon Basin. It is basically a mixture of charcoal, bone, and manure. It is very stable and remains in the soil for thousands of years. </p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="External_links">External links</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/index.php?title=Biochar&amp;action=edit&amp;section=9" title="Edit section: External links">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2> <ul><li>Wikipedia page on Biochar <a class="external autonumber" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biochar">[1]</a></li> <li>Gardening with Biochar FAQ <a class="external autonumber" href="http://biochar.pbwiki.com/">[2]</a></li> <li>BioEnergy Lists: Terra Preta (Biochar) <a class="external autonumber" href="http://terrapreta.bioenergylists.org/">[3]</a></li> <li>International Biochar Initiative (IBI) <a class="external autonumber" href="http://www.biochar-international.org/">[4]</a></li> <li>Biochar Fund <a class="external autonumber" href="http://biocharfund.org">[5]</a></li> <li>Folke Günther's "the simplest of the simple" <a class="external text" href="http://www.holon.se/folke/carbon/simplechar/simplechar.shtml">two-barrel charcoal retort</a></li> <li>Biochar Industries Community Biochar Project<a class="external autonumber" href="http://www.biocharproject.org/">[6]</a></li></ul> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Academia_in_biochar_research">Academia in biochar research</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/index.php?title=Biochar&amp;action=edit&amp;section=10" title="Edit section: Academia in biochar research">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2> <ul><li>Lehmann, J., Gaunt, J., and Rondon, M..Bio-char and adaptation strategies for global change. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change (2006). 11: 403-427. <a class="external autonumber" href="http://www.biochar.info/52/downloads/MitAdaptStratGlobChange_Lehmann_2006.pdf">[7]</a></li></ul> <p>Other Research: </p> <ul><li>Cornell University Dept. of Crop and Soil Sciences <a class="external autonumber" href="http://www.css.cornell.edu/faculty/lehmann/research/index.html">[8]</a></li> <li>Biochar Farms <a class="external autonumber" href="http://biocharfarms.org/presentations/">[9]</a></li> <li>International Biochar Initiative <a class="external autonumber" href="http://www.biochar-international.org/research/education">[10]</a></li></ul> <p><br /> </p> <table style="background-color:&#32;; border-color:&#32;;" class="noprint plainlinks mbox mbox-notice"> <tbody><tr> <td class="mbox-image" width="40"> <img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/28/Commons-emblem-notice.svg/40px-Commons-emblem-notice.svg.png" decoding="async" width="40" height="40" srcset="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/28/Commons-emblem-notice.svg/60px-Commons-emblem-notice.svg.png 1.5x, https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/28/Commons-emblem-notice.svg/80px-Commons-emblem-notice.svg.png 2x" /></td> <td class="mbox-text"><div class="mbox-text-div"><strong>Attribution: This page includes content from <i><a class="external text" href="http://opensourceecology.org/wiki/Biochar">Biochar</a></i> on <i>Open Source Ecology</i>, licensed as <a class="external text" href="http://opensourceecology.org/wiki/Open_Source_Ecology:Copyright">Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 United States License.</a>.</strong><span class="mbox-tap">Tap for more</span><div class="hide-when-compact">The licence allows reuse under Appropedia's CC-BY-SA license. A full list of contributors to that wiki page page can be found through the history tab at the original location.</div></div></td> </tr> </tbody></table><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r415477"/></div>
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This page is a topic header.Tap for moreSee Category: Biochar for subtopics, how-tos, project pages, designs, organization pages and more. .mw-parser-output .mbox{border-collapse:collapse;background-color:#fbfbfb;border-bottom:1px solid #aaa;border-left:1px solid #CCC;border-right:1px solid #CCC;font-size:95%;margin:1em 10%}.mw-parser-output .mbox-text{padding:0.25em 0.5em;width:100%}.mw-parser-output .mbox-image{padding:2px 0 2px 0.5em;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output .mbox-imageright{padding:2px 0.5em 2px 0;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output .mbox-tap{display:none;float:right}@media screen and (max-width:600px){.mw-parser-output .mbox{margin:.5em 0}.mw-parser-output .mbox-tap{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .mbox:hover .mbox-tap{display:none}.mw-parser-output .mbox:hover .hide-when-compact{display:block}}.mw-parser-output .mbox-notice{border-top:5px solid #608ec2}.mw-parser-output .mbox-protection{border-top:5px solid #bba}.mw-parser-output .mbox-serious{border-top:5px solid #b22222}.mw-parser-output .mbox-content{border-top:5px solid #f28500}.mw-parser-output .mbox-style{border-top:5px solid #f4c430}.mw-parser-output .mbox-merge{border-top:5px solid #8c08a4}.mw-parser-output .mbox-growth{border-top:5px solid #47a30d} It has been suggested that Biochar Technology be merged into this page or section. (Discuss). Biochar is a name for charcoal when it is used for particular purposes, especially as a soil amendment. Some of the world's most productive soils (e.g. Canadian prairies, Russian Chernozem / or "black earth") are very rich in organic carbon. This is now thought to be pyrogenic in origin, likely originating from prairie or forest fires. This carbon is often thousands of years old, demonstrating its stability in soil. For more extensive background on Biochar, please consult the Wikipedia entry on biochar. According to the International Biochar Initiative: Biochar is a fine-grained charcoal high in organic carbon and largely resistant to decomposition. It is produced from pyrolysis of plant and waste feedstocks. As a soil amendment, biochar creates a recalcitrant soil carbon pool that is carbon-negative, serving as a net withdrawal of atmospheric carbon dioxide stored in highly recalcitrant soil carbon stocks. The enhanced nutrient retention capacity of biochar-amended soil not only reduces the total fertilizer requirements but also the climate and environmental impact of croplands. Char-amended soils have shown 50 - 80 percent reductions in nitrous oxide emissions and reduced runoff of phosphorus into surface waters and leaching of nitrogen into groundwater. As a soil amendment, biochar significantly increases the efficiency of and reduces the need for traditional chemical fertilizers, while greatly enhancing crop yields. Renewable oils and gases co-produced in the pyrolysis process can be used as fuel or fuel feedstocks. Biochar thus offers promise for its soil productivity and climate benefits. Contents 1 Biochar as a method of carbon sequestration 2 The Biochar Economy 2.1 List of uses of biochar 3 Biochar Technology 4 Biochar Reactors 5 Suitable feedstocks 6 Criticism 7 Terra preta 8 External links 9 Academia in biochar research Biochar as a method of carbon sequestration[edit] The earth absorbs around 18 times the amount of carbon emitted by humans each year.&#91;verification&#160;needed&#93;W However, about the same amount (one figure given is 99.9%) of this carbon is released to the atmosphere through decomposition. This cycle can be closed by a process known as pyrolysis, in which biomass is heated in the absence of oxygen, creating charcoal and locking carbon in the form of biochar.W Locking carbon away from the atmosphere and the carbon cycle described is referred to as carbon sequestration. Biochar can potentially lock away carbon carbon for hundreds or even thousands of years. If a real commitment were made, massive reductions in atmospheric carbon could be achieved - locking down carbon emissions and increasing the wealth of our soils. In conjunction with other geoengineering projects, biochar may truly hold the key to saving our earth from climate catastrophe. Biochar is also an effective and ecologically friendly soil amendment. It may also have applications in energy production&#91;verification&#160;needed&#93; and as a dietary supplement for animals. Its production was practiced by pre-Columbian Amazonian natives ("terra preta"), and natural processes appear to have created a similar affect in other parts of the world, creating rich soils. Biochar is not a solution on its own, but it appears to be an important element in comprehensive solution. See Measures to stop global warming. The Biochar Economy[edit] Image from Flickr user visionshare by CC license List of uses of biochar[edit] Inexpensive soil amelioration for degraded land (i.e. biochar as a liming agent) Need less land = lower startup costs for a Sustainable Village Increased biomass productivity Efficient use of biomass waste for energy generation Reduced need for fertilizer input (e.g. manure) Combine biochar with vermicompost to make superb fertilizer. Pyrolysis gas can be used for energy and as a heat source Bio-oil and tars are also by-products of pyrolysis, can be turned into biodiesel Add charcoal to compost heap to speed up composting (probably works via enhanced microbial activity) Biochar for sale as a source of income for an emerging community Combine with solar thermal heat source to make a solar pyrolysis unit for charcoal production Biochar Technology[edit] (for merged content from Biochar Technology page) Biochar Reactors[edit] Several small-scale units have been devised for baking charcoal, many with simple common materials. Charcoal making (pyrolisis) dates back thousands of years in human history, traditionally practiced via earthen pits and mounds. Today, steel drums of different sizes are most commonly utilized due to portability, airflow control options, heat resistance, and availability. See articles below for some examples, and a new page here on Simple Biochar Kilns. Suitable feedstocks[edit] A variety of feedstocks can be used. Since these often constitute agricultural residues in rural communities, a form of waste is turned into an asset. Possible feedstocks include: agricultural leftovers: straw, rice hulls, corn stalks, chicken/cattle poop Fast-growing biomass: bamboo, switchgrass, miscanthus, Other: leaf litter, grasses, macroalgae, bones (high P content), Criticism[edit] Critics are concerned that large-scale biochar production may increase deforestation. However, a variety of biomass feedstocks other than wood can be used (see above). Old-growth forest is likely not a good feedstock because of extensive pre-processing that would be required. Small biomass pieces such as pellets or cherry pits make excellent feedstock. Terra preta[edit] Terra preta is a type of very dark, fertile anthropogenic soil found in the Amazon Basin. It is basically a mixture of charcoal, bone, and manure. It is very stable and remains in the soil for thousands of years. External links[edit] Wikipedia page on Biochar [1] Gardening with Biochar FAQ [2] BioEnergy Lists: Terra Preta (Biochar) [3] International Biochar Initiative (IBI) [4] Biochar Fund [5] Folke Günther's "the simplest of the simple" two-barrel charcoal retort Biochar Industries Community Biochar Project[6] Academia in biochar research[edit] Lehmann, J., Gaunt, J., and Rondon, M..Bio-char and adaptation strategies for global change. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change (2006). 11: 403-427. [7] Other Research: Cornell University Dept. of Crop and Soil Sciences [8] Biochar Farms [9] International Biochar Initiative [10] Attribution: This page includes content from Biochar on Open Source Ecology, licensed as Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 United States License..Tap for moreThe licence allows reuse under Appropedia's CC-BY-SA license. A full list of contributors to that wiki page page can be found through the history tab at the original location.
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