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Solar Kiosks Literature review [edit]

'Solar Photovoltaic Potential of Scaled Parking Lot Canopies- A Case Study of Walmart U.S.A.'[edit]

Ram Krishnan, Amber Haselhuhn, Joshua M. Pearce Technical Solar Photovoltaic Potential of Scaled Parking Lot Canopies- A Case Study of Walmart U.S.A. RISUS - Journal on Innovation and Sustainability 8(2) - 2017

  • Explains Solar PV Canopies
  • technical and economic potential for converting parking spaces in PV canopies
  • Case Study - investigates the economic effect of installing solar canopies in Walmart Supercenters, USA
  • Methods used for case study
  1. Parking lot Solar Farm Conversion Economic Decision Algorithm
  2. Incident Solar flux
  • Economic and Ecological importance deduced.


'Solar feasibility- Can solar energy compete economically?'[edit]

A. T. Furman and M. H. Rashid, Solar feasibility- Can solar energy compete economically? CONIELECOMP 2011, 21st International Conference on Electrical Communications and Computers, San Andres Cholula, 2011, pp. 10-13. doi: 10.1109/CONIELECOMP.2011.5749323

  • Introduction to solar PV, their growth rates
  • Brief history about the materials used in solar cells, the their implementation into photovoltaics
  • Different PV manufacturing technologies, their payback times
  • Concentration systems for solar power
  1. Two-Tank Direct system
  2. Two-Tank Indirect system
  3. Single tank Thermocline system
  • Scope of Solar power implementation
  • Case study on 400MW solar installation


'Optimal Charging of Plug-in Electric Vehicles for a Car-Park Infrastructure'[edit]

Tan Ma, Student Member, IEEE, and Osama A. Mohammed, Fellow IEEE Optimal Charging of Plug-in Electric Vehicles for a Car-Park Infrastructure IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 50, NO. 4, JULY/AUGUST 2014

  • Growth potential of PHEV's (Plug in hybrid vehicles)
  • Negative impacts on existing distribution system
  • Load management solutions for coordinating the charging process
  • smart method for scheduling the use of available energy storage capacity from PHEV's
  • fully controlled Bidirectional ac-dc converter designed and implemented


'A Comprehensive Study of Key Electric Vehicle (EV) Components, Technologies, Challenges, Impacts, and Future Direction of Development'[edit]

Fuad Un-Noor ,Sanjeevi kumar Padmanaban ,Lucian Mihet-Popa ,Mohammad Nurunnabi Mollah and Eklas Hossain A Comprehensive Study of Key Electric Vehicle (EV) Components, Technologies, Challenges, Impacts, and Future Direction of Development published in the Special Issue "Energy Storage Systems and Power Conversion Electronics for E-Transportation and Smart Grid"

The paper gives a detailed information on the Electric Vehicles alongwith their scope

  • Types of EV's and the technologies used
  • Charging systems & Power conversion techniques
  • Impacts of EV's the environment, power system, and economy
  • Trends, Outcomes and Future scope


'The 2.1 kW photovoltaic electric vehicle charging station in the city of Santa Monica, California'[edit]

J.G. Ingersoll, C.A. Perkins The 2.1 kW photovoltaic electric vehicle charging station in the city of Santa Monica, California Conference Record of the Twenty Fifth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference - 1996

  • The typical energy consumption of a converted electric vehicle (EV) is on the order of 0.22 kWh per km (0.35 kWh per mile), including slow battery charging efficiency
  • The city EVs are used five days a week for several short trips with a 16 km (10 mile) average daily total distance driven
  • The average annual driving distance per EV of about 4,000 km (2,500 miles) is also consistent
  • The estimated present annual electricity use per EV is 910 kWh requiring a PV array size for charging of 0.488 kW per EV
  • detailed computer simulation and analysis of the entire system was to optimize the PV array electricity output under the existing design constraints
  • Santa Monica EV charging station is comprised of 42 of Amorphous PV panels
  • The solar array AC output is fed to a 200A Utility panel which feeds the seven charging ports and supplies the power for the exhibit lighting.Each charging port has either a 120V/20A or a 240V/30A circuit
  • A schematic diagram of the Santa Monica photovoltaic EV charging station is shown
  • The annual electricity generation from this facility is 3840 KWh which when used for a period of 30 years will generate about 120,000 KWh


'Sizing of a Car Parking Photovoltaic System: An Economic Analysis'[edit]

Nawal Nader Al Awadhi ; Yacouba Moumouni ; Ahmed Khodary Sizing of a Car Parking Photovoltaic System: An Economic Analysis 2019 Advances in Science and Engineering Technology International Conferences (ASET)

The paper represents a simple case study of small sized parking lot canopy structure and describes the whole procedure starting from the selection of materials, selection of the area to the very output of the resultant PV Canopy along with the cost analysis and payback period.


'V2G Parking Lot With PV Rooftop for Capacity Enhancement of a Distribution System'[edit]

Uwakwe C. Chukwu, Member, IEEE, and Satish M. Mahajan, Senior Member, IEEE V2G Parking Lot With PV Rooftop for Capacity Enhancement of a Distribution System IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, VOL. 5, NO. 1, JANUARY 2014

  • The V2G ( Vehicle to grid) system and the power capacity of a typical parking lot are modeled under three scenarios
  1. V2G system demand model
  2. V2G system supply model
  3. Heterogeneous car pool system
  • PV Rooftop system model is being discussed on a brief note
  1. The time varying characteristics associated with a PV system are considered and a New equation for net power produced has been stated
  • The impact of Energy markets has been studied thoroughly and various demand and supply models for the V2G network as well as the PV rooftop effect on V2G have been addressed
  • Impacts of Weather conditions, Energy market dynamics and the traffic capability have been investigated


'Design Criteria for Structural Solar Supports for Parking Canopies Installations'[edit]

Design Criteria for Structural Solar Supports for Parking Canopies Installations

A detailed information on the PV canopies, their structures can be obtained from this paper such as

  • The four main criteria's for installing PV canopies
  1. Durability
  2. Functionality
  3. Attractiveness
  4. Affordability
  • Structural details of a Solar PV canopy such as dimensions, Eave Height, Location (Distance to electrical connection)
  • The design and constructional aspect as well as the advantages of the solar modules as roofs


'PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY SYSTEMS: A FEASIBILITY STUDY?'[edit]

Youakim Kalaani, Georgia Southern University; William Nichols, Georgia Southern University PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY SYSTEMS: A FEASIBILITY STUDY INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING RESEARCH & INNOVATION VOL.3, NO.1, SPRING/ SUMMER 2011

  • PV installation on a shopping center which operates 24 hrs a day for 7 days in a week
  • Solar insolation and arrangements to tilt angles of the modules during different periods of the year to get higher efficiency are discussed
  • Solar shading analysis is being done by an instrument called 'Solar Pathfinder'
  • Financial analysis of solar PV
  1. Brigham and Ehrhardt’s capital budgeting methods
  2. PV system costs
  3. Cost inflations and its effects
  4. Inverters costs and technicalities


'Optimal Operation of Electric Vehicle Parking Lots with Rooftop Photovoltaics'[edit]

Helena M. D. Espassandim, Mohamed Lotfi, Gerardo J. Osório, Miadreza Shafie-khah, Omar M. Shehata, João P. S. Catalão Optimal Operation of Electric Vehicle Parking Lots with Rooftop Photovoltaics 2019 IEEE International Conference on Vehicular Electronics and Safety (ICVES)

This paper analyses the optimal method that can be implied in a Vehicle parking lot so as to maximise the profits for the parking lots by properly analysing the trends such as effect of seasons, market contributioms etc.


'Technology Roadmap: Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles'[edit]

Technology Roadmap: Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles International Energy Agency (IEA), Paris, France, 2011.

  • Battery costs and limitations, and methods to encourage the use of PHEVs such as installation of fast charging stations accross daily use infrastructures such as shopping centres, Walmarts etc. , Battery swapping stations
  • Technology implemented, limitations, Advantages of PHEVs
  • Technical aspects of Batteries, challenges faced and their future scope
  • Emerging economies and their emerging PHEVs and EVs market study


'Using fleets of electric-drive vehicles for grid support'[edit]

Jasna Tomic, Willett Kempton Using fleets of electric-drive vehicles for grid support Journal of Power Sources Volume 168, Issue 2, 1 June 2007, Pages 459-468

This paper gives us a valuable insight towards the use of V2G power from battery-electric fleets to provide regulation (of ancillary srevices), which is a short-duration but high-value power market.

  • Introduction to hybrid vehicles, and their potential to be as a source to supply power to the grid as a support
  1. Vehicles with batteries are being considered instead of PHEVs
  • Brief description of the need to regulate the ancillary services with the help of vehicle to grid system
  1. Economics associated with the V2G system
  • Calculations for V2G revenues, cost and electrical power capacity


'The use of parking lots to solar-charge electric vehicles'[edit]

Pedro Nunes, Raquel Figueiredo, Miguel C. Brito, The use of parking lots to solar-charge electric vehicles Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews Volume 66, December 2016, Pages 679-693

  • Overview of the parking lots used to charge the EVs ( Electric Vehicles)
  1. Examples of Solar powered parking lots in California and Michigan
  2. Positive Environmental effects such as reduced CO2 emissions, Reduction in Green House Gases, Improvement in the air quality index of the area
  3. Other benefits include, No wait times during charging, protection from snow and rain, Cars remain cooler due to shaded parking etc
  4. Energy production and typical sizes of modules and their net efficiencies
  • Charging types
  1. level 1 - 1.8 to 2.4 KW via 120V AC plug
  2. Level 2 - 19.2 KW via 208V (US Commercial sites), 240V(US & European Residential sites), also this is the popular type among the three and is ideal for supermarts, shopping centres etc.
  3. Level 3 - 50 to 62.5 KW via 480 V AC connection
  • Charging strategies, optmization of power and Smart parking lots (V2G systems) have been discussed


'The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Production'[edit]

Borenstein, S., 2008. The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Production This paper is mainly concerned with the finances associated with the solar PV

'Solar-to-vehicle (S2V) systems for powering commuters of the future'[edit]

Dunbar P. Birnie Solar-to-vehicle (S2V) systems for powering commuters of the future Journal of Power Sources Volume 186, Issue 2, 15 January 2009, Pages 539-542

This paper gives the general understanding about the concept of solar Pv to battery operated vehicels whic could be as an option for day to day commuting for a shorter range of miles or kilometers

  • According to the graphical data from NREL ,most of the insolation occurs during peak day hours of 9am to 5pm
  • Practical solar collectors might be used as a method to collect light and convert it into electricity used for charging the vehicles at the parking lots of huge commercial offices, spaces etc
  • Pay back periods depend upon how big the parking canopy is, the larger the canopy structure lesser is the payback period


'Experimental study of a DC charging station for full electric and plug in hybrid vehicles'[edit]

Clemente Capasso, Ottorino Veneri Experimental study of a DC charging station for full electric and plug in hybrid vehicles Applied Energy Volume 152, 15 August 2015, Pages 131-142

This paper looks into the design, experimental prototypes of charging stations, control strategies od DC micro grid for a fast charging stations.The paper consists of experiments which might be useful to deduce methods to lower the charging times for hybrid vehicles with the support of high power converters, improved storage system technologies


'Electric vehicles charging using photovoltaic: Status and technological review'[edit]

Abdul Rauf Bhatti, Zainal Salam, Mohd Junaidi Bin Abdul Aziz, Kong Pui Yee, Ratil H.Ashique, Electric vehicles charging using photovoltaic: Status and technological review Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews Volume 54, February 2016, Pages 34-47

This paper helps us to understand the Pv charging stations concept giving more emphasis on the power electronics part of the charging station such as MPPT dc–dc converter, bi-directional dc charger and bi-directional inverter. Also, the methods of charging in the Grid systems are described along with the hybrid configurations for standalone systems in PV. Detailed explanation on the power electronics equipments like Batteries, DC-DC Converter with MPPT, Bidirectional chargers, isolated chargers, Bidirectional Inverters, Isolated inverters, various charging modes have been made.Lastly, the future scope alongwith the modeling, Optimization and control has been discussed.


'Walmart Experimental Store Performance Stories'[edit]

Michael Deru, Eric Kozubal, and Paul Norton National Renewable Energy Laboratory Walmart Experimental Store Performance Stories in ACEEE Summer Study, 2010.

Two experimental Walmart stores one in Colorado and one in Texas are being compared to serve as test beds for several parameters of energy systems such as HVAC and combined Heat and Power, Refrigeration, Lighting, Renewable Energy Systems. Looking more into the Renewable energy systems parameters, we can see that the Performance PV systems for both, Thin-film silicon and Poly crystalline silicon PV systems have been observed along with a study of Wind energy systems.


'Flexible Solar Cells'[edit]

Mario Pagliaro Dr., Rosaria Ciriminna Dr., Giovanni Palmisano Flexible Solar Cells

The paper predicts the future scope of flexible solar modules to be implemented like the present rigid surfaced modules. Discussed in the paper are the following types of flexible PV modules

  • The need of Flexible PV Modules
  • Inorganic Thin Film: a-Si modules
  • Inorganic Thin Film: flexible CIGS modules
  • Plastic Solar Cells
  • Organic–Inorganic Thin Films: Flexible DSSCs


'An active cooling system for photovoltaic modules'[edit]

Teo, H.G., Lee, P.S. and Hawlader, M.N.A., 2012 An active cooling system for photovoltaic modules Applied Energy, 90(1), pp.309-315.

  • Discussed in the paper is an active cooling system comprising of blower which blows air at the base of the solar PV modules to cool the Module
  • Comparison between the results of implementing an active cooling system and non active cooling system


'Best Practice Guide – Photovoltaics (PV)'[edit]

Best Practice Guide – Photovoltaics(PV)

  • This paper gives an entire overview of the Solar Photovoltaics domain
  1. The types of materials used to develop a module, their construction,
  2. Technical aspects associated with PV ex - Orientation, location, temperature ranges, Over shading, Tilt angles and the radiations associate with them
  3. Site considerations, Types of PV sytems & their suitability according to the building types
  4. The Efficiencies, Final costs and Sizing of the array
  5. Grid Integration, Metering, Cabling and System considerations
  • Case study of installing a PV System on a theoretical sports complex


'Fast-Charging Electric Vehicles using AC'[edit]

Joachim Skov Johansen Fast-Charging Electric Vehicles using AC Master's Thesis, September 2013, Danish Technical University, DTU-Electro

  • This paper gives a detailed study about the advantages of using AC supply for charging the EVs instead of using the DC supply. The paper introduces to us the advantages of AC supply and tells us how it is better than the likes of DC supply for charging a EV. Use of onboard power converters have been introduced and methods to convert power from the existing electronics without increasing the cost of the production has been given.


'Economic and environmental impacts of a PV powered workplace parking garage charging station'[edit]

Pinak J.Tulpule, Vincenzo Marano, Stephen Yurkovich, Giorgio Rizzoni, Economic and environmental impacts of a PV powered workplace parking garage charging station Applied Energy Volume 108, August 2013, Pages 323-332

This paper is based on a paper presented by authors in IEEE energytech conference [21], but with significant expansion. This paper explains the statistical calculations for vehicle parking demands, charging demands, uncontrolled charging, examines charging algorithms on the economics and emissions associated with Solar PV Roofs and lastly presents the economics and the environmental impacts.


'Design of a solar energy centre for providing lighting and income-generating activities for off-grid rural communities in Kenya'[edit]

O.M.Roche, R.E.Blanchard Design of a solar energy centre for providing lighting and income-generating activities for off-grid rural communities in Kenya Renewable Energy Volume 118, April 2018, Pages 685-694

This paper is clasic case study on rural electrification of village in kenya to provide basic electrical facilities to the citizens like street lights, mobile charging stations, power points for smaal DC appliances etc. The paper designs an off grid PV system based on the need and problems faced by the communities, The study uses softwares like PVsyst to develop an optimum system design, also studied is the economics behind income generating activities, conduction of risk analysis of the designed system with the costs of alternative fuels such as kerosene oil etc to check that the system will remain over the Payback period.


'Solar Panel racking system'[edit]

Eide, K., 2014. Solar panel racking system. U.S. Patent 8,661,747. Solar Panel racking system

This paper describes a patented design of a newly modified racking system for roof top as well as ground mounted solar PV system. The designed discussed in the paper claims to to reduce the existing mounting costs of the solar PV systems by reducing a number of parts in the existing mounting system which reduces the material, labour, system profile. The overall aim being to design and build a strong and firm solar mounting system which not only be light weight but rugged too with reduction in the overall costs which includes cost of material as well as installations, and which also makes less damages to the roof of the structure.


'Portable solar power system'[edit]

Glidden, S.C. and Alker, G.G., Glidden, Steven C., Alker and Guerin G., 1999. Portable solar power system. U.S. Patent 5,969,501. Portable solar power system

The paper present a new approach towards the traditional mountins systems on rooftops or grounds. The design discussed in the paper is a solar PV module that rests on the surface of a trailer, However whats fascinates the most is that, the PV Module is a foldable one that can be folded across the sides of the trailer when not in use. Also, it can mounted by a single person when intended to use. Such systems can be of great importance where there are limitation over a solid structural construction required for mounting a Solar PV system


'Increasing solar panel efficiency in a sustainable manner'[edit]

W. J. C. Melis, S. K. Mallick and P. Relf Increasing solar panel efficiency in a sustainable manner 2014 IEEE International Energy Conference (ENERGYCON), Cavtat, 2014, pp. 912-915. doi: 10.1109/ENERGYCON.2014.6850534

  • Methods to increase the efficiency of the panels have been introduced
  • Dust deposited on the panels lowers the efficiency, therefore water has been used to clean it
  • Usage of water results into cleaning of the panels hence increasing their efficiency, as well as keeping the panels cool which enhance their efficiency.
  • Water pumps system cost to pump the water to the panels have been found economical when compared with the overall gains


'Solar Tracking System: More Efficient Use of Solar Panels'[edit]

Rizk, J.C.A.Y. and Chaiko, Y., 2008 Solar Tracking System: More Efficient Use of Solar Panels World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 41, pp.313-315.

  • A small and robust tracking method has been discussed which may or may not be useful for large scale PV systems but certainly promises to increase the efficiency of the system by 30%
  • Light tracking devices have been made use of to orient the module in almost perpendicular direction to the angle of incidence


'A review on photovoltaic/thermal hybrid solar technology'[edit]

Chow, T.T., 2010 A review on photovoltaic/thermal hybrid solar technology Applied energy, 87(2), pp.365-379

  • The design of integrated Solar PV + Solar thermal system has been discussed
  • Solar PV can be used to produce the Electricity
  • The Solar thermal system can be used to produce heating applications for large spaces thereby reducing the heating costs incurred


'Performance and degradation analysis for long term reliability of solar photovoltaic systems: A review'[edit]

Sharma, V. and Chandel, S.S., 2013 Performance and degradation analysis for long term reliability of solar photovoltaic systems: A review Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 27, pp.753-767

  • Detailed study of PV modules and the various factors affecting the output like Ambient temperature, Solar Irradiation, Tilt angle etc
  • Calculations and analysis of PV characteristics and ratings
  • Reasons leading to the degradation of PV Modules


'A comparison of the cost and financial returns for solar photovoltaic systems installed by businesses in different locations across the United States'[edit]

Swift, K.D., 2013 A comparison of the cost and financial returns for solar photovoltaic systems installed by businesses in different locations across the United States Renewable Energy, 57, pp.137-143.

  • Costs associated with PV systems as well as Electricity costs, Government incentives, financial and economical aspects have been discussed


'The effects of snowfall on solar photovoltaic performance'[edit]

Andrews, R.W., Pollard, A. and Pearce, J.M., 2013. . The effects of snowfall on solar photovoltaic performance Solar Energy, 92, pp.84-97.

  • Effects snow on the Module's performance
  • Orientation of modules and the effects
  • Effects on system Payback
  • Crystalline vs amorphous cells in snow


'A feasibility study of PV installation: Case study at Shaqra University'[edit]

Ahmed A. A. Hafez ; Adel Alblawi A feasibility study of PV installation: Case study at Shaqra University 2018 9th International Renewable Energy Congress (IREC)

The paper presents a parking lot Case study at a university in saudi arabia


'Development of solar charging system for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles'[edit]

Naotaka Kawamura ; Mitsuharu Muta Development of solar charging system for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles 2012 International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications (ICRERA)

The paper presents a case study of Charging stations in Japan

  • To charge the existing PHEVs and HEVs using renewable energy sources
  • Use of charging kiosks as a supply outlet in case of disasters
  • Operation of the system is divided into 4 modes
  • Around 80% of the power produced was to used charge the PHEVs


'Canopying plug-in electric vehicles parking lots with photovoltaic panels'[edit]

Mehdi Rahmani-andebili Canopying plug-in electric vehicles parking lots with photovoltaic panels 2016 21st Conference on Electrical Power Distribution Networks Conference (EPDC)

The paper presents a valuable information on Parking lot PV Canopies while emphasizing the strong need of Batteries for torage of power purposes


'Everything You Need to Know About Solar Carports'[edit]

Everything You Need to Know About Solar Carports The site gives us basic information about

  • The concept of carports
  • Difference between the commercial and residential carports
  • Implemented and currently existing examples of solar carports

'Solar Panels to Charge an Electric Car'[edit]

Solar Panels to Charge an Electric Car The site gives us basic information about

  • Existing solar PV can be used to charge electric vehicles
  • Solar inverters, Battery capacity of EV's, estimate of solar panels used to charge an ideal EV


'Tesla Model 3 Charging Costs: Solar vs. Utility'[edit]

Tesla Model 3 Charging Costs: Solar vs. Utility The site gives us basic information about

  • Types of Tesla models according to battery size
  • Simplified method to determine the number of panels required to charge the Tesla EV


'The potential of photovoltaic carports to cover the energy demand of road passenger transport'[edit]

Hans-Martin Neumann, Daniel Schär and Franz Baumgartner The potential of photovoltaic carports to cover the energy demand of road passenger transport 26TH EU PVSEC, HAMBURG, GERMANY 2011

  • Examine the potential of parking lots for the photovoltaic generation of solar electricity
  • Simulations that were carried out for 48 parking lots in Frauenfeld, a moderate sized Swiss city