However, slash-and-burn cultivation has been practiced in the Amazon for at least 6000 years; serious deforestation did not begin until the 1970s, largely as the result of Brazilian government programs and policies. However, in this period, it may not have been slash-and-burn agriculture that was practiced, rather slash-and-charW, which with the addition of organic matter produces terra pretaW, one of the richest soils on Earth and the only one that regenerates itself.
- Sponsel, Leslie E. (1986) Amazon ecology and adaptation. Annual Review of Anthropology 15: 67-97.
- Hecht, Susanna and Alexander Cockburn (1989) The Fate of the Forest: developers, destroyers and defenders of the Amazon. New York: Verso.