Although the trend in manufacturing has been towards centralization to leverage economies of scale, the recent rapid technical development of open-source 3-D printers enables low-cost distributed bespoke production. This paper explores the potential advantages of a distributed manufacturing model of high-value products by investigating the application of 3-D printing to self-refraction eyeglasses. A series of parametric 3-D printable designs is developed, fabricated and tested to overcome limitations identified with mass-manufactured self-correcting eyeglasses designed for the developing world's poor. By utilizing 3-D printable self-adjustable glasses, communities not only gain access to far more diversity in product design, as the glasses can be customized for the individual, but 3-D printing also offers the potential for significant cost reductions. The results show that distributed manufacturing with open-source 3-D printing can empower developing world communities through the ability to print less expensive and customized self-adjusting eyeglasses. This offers the potential to displace both centrally manufactured conventional and self-adjusting glasses while completely eliminating the costs of the conventional optics correction experience, including those of highly-trained optometrists and ophthalmologists and their associated equipment. Although, this study only analyzed a single product, it is clear that other products would benefit from the same approach in isolated regions of the developing world.

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May I recommend building the option of printing stenopeic glasses with this frame design? It would be one layer almost filled with polymer, plus a check box in the UI to include or omit that layer. Such an option would allow the user to get some minimal utility out of this project very quickly, and I imagine keeping a pair as a back-up might come in handy if a lens were ever punctured.--Polyparadigm (talk) 15:21, 17 December 2014 (PST)

Thank you -- that is a great idea - and I think we already developed the code needed to make them for another application -- see this Customizable Perforated Cylindrical Plate. If you have good data the hole array sizing - you can either customize in in OpenSCAD or Customizer. If so please share and we can integrate it. --Joshua (talk) 18:55, 17 December 2014 (PST)
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