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Neem A Tree for Solving Global Problems (BOSTID, 1992, 127 p.)
A Safety Tests
In 1985, as was mentioned in the introduction, the Environmental Protection Agency approved a commercial neem-based insecticide for certain nonfood uses. Called Margosan-O@, the product is currently available in limited quantities, but demand for it is said to be high and its use is increasing quickly.
Currently, Margosan-O@ is registered for control of whiteflies, thrips, mealy bug, leafminers, looper, caterpillars, beet armyworms, aphids, ants, flies, cockroaches, fleas, weevils, psyllids, webworms, horn worms, spruce budworms, pin sawflies, and gypsy moths in greenhouses, commercial nurseries, forests, and homes. This is based on the results of toxicity studies required by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).(Information in this appendix courtesy Robert Larson.)
Margosan-O@ is an ethanolic neem extract concentrate having 3,000 ppm azadirachtin (+ 10 percent) and is based on the original process developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) in Beltsville, Maryland. In a collaborative effort, Vikwood, Ltd. of Sheboygan, Wisconsin, undertook the challenge to stabilize and enhance the extract and attempt to bring it to the commercial market. In pilot plant runs, stability has been achieved up to l year under ambient conditions, and in excess of 3 years under refrigeration. Efficacy tests run by the USDA-Beltsville, Maryland, show activity in excess of 21 days. EPA registration has been granted for use on nonfood crops, and a U.S. patent has been granted on the product.
Following are the toxicity tests ordered by the EPA to gain registration for Margosan-O@ to be used on nonfood crops.
Test 1 - Avian Single-Dose Oral LD50. Margosan-O@ was administered to mallard ducks in order to determine a dose lethal to 50 percent of the duck population. Dose levels of Margosan-O@ ranged at 1-16 ml/kg of body weight. Observations showed no negative effects and all ducks remained active and healthy throughout the 14-day experimental period. The acute LD50 of Margosan-O@ to mallard ducks is in excess of 16.0 ml/kg.
Test 2-Avian Dietary LC50 (lethal concentration) with bobwhite quail. The birds were given their basal diet, with additions of Margosan-O@ ranging from 1,000 to 7,000 ppm. Observations showed no negative effects and the quail were active and healthy throughout the 5-day test period and 3-day recovery phase. The acute oral LC50 of the Margosan-O@ to bobwhite quail is therefore in excess of 7,000 ppm.
Test 3 - Avian Dietary LC50 Study with mallard ducks. The ducks were given a basal diet, plus Margosan-O@ ranging from 1,000 to 7,000 ppm concentrate for 5 days. No mortalities resulted. The ducks were active and healthy throughout the test and recovery phases. The acute LC50 of the test material to mallard ducks is therefore in excess of 7,000 ppm.
Test 4 - (No. 1), Acute Toxicity of Margosan-O@ to rainbow trout. This test involved a 96-hour LC50 of Margosan-O@ at various concentrations. The LC50 was 8.8 ml of Margosan-O@ per lifer of water, and the 96-hour no-observed-effect concentration was 5 mg/l.
Test 4 - (No. 2), Acute Toxicity of Margosan-O@ to bluegill sunfish. The results showed a 96-hour LC50 of 37 mg/l and a noobserved-effect 96-hour level of 20 mg/l. In the fish bioassay tests with trout and sunfish there were behavioral responses in static water that could probably not occur in moving water.
Test 5 - Acute Toxicity of Margosan-O@ to Daphnia magna, the water flea. The test was done on newly molted instars less than 20 hours old which were placed in a fresh aquatic habitat for up to 48 hours. The LC50 was 13 mg/l and the no-observed-effect concentration at 48 hours was less than 10 mg/l. Therefore, the toxicity value obtained was well within the expected range, but it indicates that Margosan-O@ will affect primitive aquatic invertebrates under static conditions.
Test 6 - Acute Oral Toxicity. Rats were dosed once and then observed for 14 days for abnormal behavior or mortality. No negative effects were observed and the acute oral toxicity of the test material was in excess of 5 ml/kg, the limit of the required test.
Test 7 - (No. I ), Acute Dermal Toxicity. A nonpermeable patch containing 2 ml/kg body weight of Margosan-O@ was placed over small shaved areas on a group of albino rabbits. No mortality resulted and acute dermal toxicity (LC50) of Margosan-O@ was in excess of 2 ml/kg.
Test 7 - (No. 2), Primary Skin Irritation. Albino rabbits were treated with Margosan-O@ applied under patches on shaved areas and on abraded areas. The results showed low to moderate primary irritation to the shaved area patch and high to moderate irritation to the abraded area.
Test 8 - Acute Inhalation Study. Albino rats were exposed to a total of 15.8 g of test material (estimated concentration of 43.9 ma/ l/hr) for 4 hours. (This test was recently repeated and reported in terminology more acceptable to the EPA.) The LC50 for the Margosan-O@ in the inhalation test was in excess of 43.9 ma/ l/hr, the limit of the test.
Test 9 - Modified Eye Irritation. Margosan-O@ was administered to one washed and one unwashed eye of albino rabbits. Over 7 days both eyes showed minimal irritation.
Test 10 - Immune Response. The effect of Margosan-O@ on the hematology and serum electrophoretic pattern of rats, strain Sprague-Dawley, was determined. Eight male and eight female rats, each weighing between 200 and 250 g, were anesthetized by means of CO' and weighed. A 3-ml sample of blood was taken via cardiac puncture and the blood studied. Five male and five female rats received 0.5 ml of Margosan-O@ by intraperitoneal injection. The remaining six (control) rats were left untreated. The rats were maintained until the 14th day after substance administration. At that time, they were again anesthetized and weighed and a blood sample was taken as on day 0. Blood samples were submitted to repeat the analyses conducted at the study initiation, that is, complete blood counts with differential and serum protein electrophoresis.
Body weights on day 0 and day 14 were combined for each of the four groups and a mean and standard deviation were calculated. All surviving rats gained weight and appeared active and healthy. No differences were evident between test and control animals. There were no significant changes in the hematology of the treated rats between day 0 and day 14, although statistical analysis of the electrophoretic pattern showed differences (P<0.05) in the globulin fractions during that period. The differential count showed a statistically significant change in the polymorphonuclear count, but none of the other differential counts differed statistically.
Comparison of the changes in blood values of the control rats over 14 days with those in the treated rats did not uncover significant differences among any of the parameters measured. This suggests that the changes noted above were not treatment-related, but rather that they were normal and not unusual. The results of this study suggest that the test material does not cause an adverse immune response.
Test 11 - Sensitization. This test was done on guinea pigs, which were shaved and patched with Margosan-O@ test material for 6 hours. The procedure was repeated on alternate days for a total of nine applications. A retest dose was applied after 14 days with duplicate patches, and the reaction was read 24 hours later. Margosan-O@ does not produce sensitization.
Test 12 - Mutagenicity. This is the traditional Ames mutagenicity study used in the United States on five strains of Salmonella typhimurium. Results of this test indicate that the Margosan-O@ concentrate is nonmutagenic.
Test 13 - Adult Toxicity Test. This test was done voluntarily and was not ordered by the EPA. With the assistance of the University of California's Apiary at Riverside, California, Vikwood, Ltd. ordered a "Bee Adult Toxicity Test" on honeybee worker adults. Margosan-O@ was administered as a direct contact chemical using field dosages up to 4,478 ppm A.I./ha. It was found to be benign to honeybees at well above the recommended dosage of 20 ppm (diluted, as a foliar spray) for a common pest? the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.).
B Breakthroughs In Population Control?
Most observers conclude that today's skyrocketing growth in human population is creating a serious underlying threat to the well-being of the world's natural and economic resources. Between 1990 and 2025, for instance, the number of people on the planet is expected to rise by 3.2 billion.(United Nations Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. 1989. World) Population Prospects, 1988. Population Studies No. 106. United Nations, New York. And by the year 2000, it is projected that 1.7 billion people will be added to countries that can barely support their populations now, let alone create an economic climate to raise everyone out of poverty.
Whether neem can help reduce runaway population growth is uncertain. However, as noted earlier, exploratory research has indicated that certain neem ingredients have contraceptive properties. Thus it is possible that, given research attention, products from this tree could come into widespread use for the reduction of unwanted pregnancies. This could be an important breakthrough because perhaps 2 billion of the projected population increase before 2025 will occur in regions where neem can be grown.
Eventually, contraception could perhaps become the greatest of neem's contributions. Because of the importance of any breakthrough in this area, we reproduce in this appendix the abstracts of three recent research papers that point toward the possibility of neem providing cheap, widely available contraceptives for even the remotest regions of many of the already overpopulated nations. (Other antifertility effects of neem are summarized in Jacobson, 1988, pages 145-147.)
NEEMOIL FOR THE "MORNING AFTER"
Shakti N. Upadhyay, Charu Kaushic, and G.P. Talwar. 1990. Antifertility effects of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil by single intrauterine administration: a novel method for contraception. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences 242:175-179.
A novel use of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil, a traditional plant product, for long-term and reversible blocking of fertility after a single intrauterine application is described. Female Wistar rats of proven fertility were given a single dose (100 Âµl) of neem oil by intrauterine route; control animals received the same volume of peanut oil. Whereas all control animals became pregnant and delivered normal litters, the rats treated with neem oil remained infertile for variable periods ranging from 107 to 180 days even after repeated matings with males of proven fertility. The block in fertility was, however, reversible, as half of the animals regained fertility and delivered normal litters by five months after treatment, without any apparent teratogenic effects. Unilateral administration of neem oil in the uterus blocked pregnancy only on the side of application, whereas the contralateral uterine horn treated with peanut oil had normally developing foetuses; no sign of implantation or foetal resorption was noted in the neem-oil-treated horn. The ovaries on both sides had 4 -6 corpora lutea, indicating no effect of treatment on ovarian functions. The animals treated with neem oil showed a significant leukocytic infiltration in the uterine epithelium between days 3 and 5 post coitum, i.e., during the pre-implantation period. Intrauterine application of neem oil appears to induce a pre-implantation block in fertility; the possible mechanisms of the antifertility action are discussed.
NEEM OIL AS SPERMICIDE
Gp. Capt K.C. Sinha and Lt. Col. S.S. Riar. 1985. Neem oil - an ideal contraceptive. Biological Memoirs 10(1 and 2):107-114.
Neem oil in vitro proved to be a strong spermicidal agent. Rhesus monkey and human spermatozoa became totally immotile within 30 seconds of contact with the undiluted oil.
In vivo studies in rats, rabbits, rhesus monkeys, and human volunteers proved that neem oil applied intravaginally before sexual intercourse prevented pregnancy in all the species.
Neem oil has also been found to have anti-implantation/abortifacient effect in rats and rabbits if applied intravaginally on day 2 to day 7 of expected pregnancy. The minimum effective dose is 25 Âµl for rats. One month after the stoppage of neem oil application there was complete reversibility in fertility in these animals. It had no deleterious effect on the subsequent pregnancies and the offsprings.
Histopathological studies on rats, vagina, cervix, and uterus showed no ill effects of neem oil in these tissues. In contrast, nonyl-phenoxy polyethoxy ethanol, a popular vaginal contraceptive cream, showed signs of severe irritant reaction in these tissues. Radioisotope studies indicated that neem oil was not absorbed from the vagina; it thus ruled out its possible systemic effects.
Results of the present study indicate than neem oil is an "ideal" female contraceptive, being easily available, cheap, and nontoxic. Therefore, its mass acceptance is anticipated.
NEEM-LEAF EXTRACT TO REDUCE MALE FERTILITY
N.L. Sadre, Vibhavari Y. Deshpande, K.N. Mendulkar, and D.H. Nandal. 1983. Male antifertility activity of Azadirachta indica in different species. Pages 473-482 in H. Schmutterer and K.R.S. Ascher. eds. 1984. Natural Pesticides from the Neem Tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and other tropical plants. Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), Eschborn, Germany.
Male antifertility activity of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) was studied in mice, rats, rabbits, and guinea pigs by daily oral feeding of a cold-water extract of fresh green neem leaves. The infertility effect was seen in treated male rats, as there was a 66.7 percent reduction in fertility after 6 weeks, 80 percent after 9 weeks, and 100 percent after 11 weeks. There was no inhibition of spermatogenesis. During this period there was no decrease in body weight and no other manifestation of toxicity were observed. There was a marked decrease in the motility of spermatozoa. The infertility in rats was not associated with loss of libido or with impotence and the animals maintained normal mating behavior. The male antifertility activity was reversible in 4 to 6 weeks and the active principle from the extract was observed to be thermostable. Neem extract also shows reversible male antifertility activity in mice without inhibition of spermatogenesis. In guinea pigs and rabbits, however, it exhibited toxicity, as demonstrated by 66.6 percent and 74.9 percent mortality in guinea pigs and 80 percent and 90 percent mortality in rabbits at the end of 4 and 6 weeks, respectively.
C References And Selected Readings
By 1991 the scientific literature dealing specifically with neem and its products had reached more than 1400 articles. In this appendix we highlight just a few of the more general reviews as well as the articles referred to in each chapter.
Three international neem conferences have been held at Rottach-Egern, Germany, in 1980; at Rauischholzhausen, Germany, in 1983, and at Nairobi, Kenya, in 1986. The proceedings from each are available from the German Agency for Technical Cooperation, Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), Eschborn, Germany. The citations are as follows:
Schmutterer, H., K.R.S. Ascher, and H. Rembold, eds. 1981. Natural Pesticides from the Neem Tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.).
Schmutterer, H. and K.R.S. Ascher, eds. 1984. Natural Pesticides from the Neem Tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Other Tropical Plants.
Schmutterer, H. and K.R.S. Ascher, eds. 1987. Natural Pesticides from the Neem Tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Other Tropical Plants.
Two neem conferences have been held recently in the United States:
Locke, J.C. and R.H. Lawson, eds. 1990. Neem's Potential in Pest Management Programs, Proceedings of the USDA Neern Workshop. United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, ARS-86, 136 pp. Copies are available from James Locke, Plant Pathologist, Florist and Nursery Crops Laboratory, USDA/ARS, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville Maryland 20705-2350, USA.
Ahmed, S., ed. In press. Neem (Azadirachta indica) for pest control and rural development in Asia and the Pacific. Special session on neem from the 17th Pacific Science Congress, May 27 to June 2, 1991.
Since 1984, a team of dedicated Indian scientists(1) have published the Neem Newsletter. This quarterly newsletter is supplied free of charge to those engaged in neem research and utilization. Copies are available from the Division of Agricultural Chemicals, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110 012, India.
At least one comprehensive bibliography of recent neem articles is available:
U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). 1989. The Neen Tree: An Inhibitor of Insect Feeding and Growth, January 1982-April 1989. NAL-BIBL. QB 89-89, Updates QB 86-27, July, 1989. Quick Bibliography Series. USDA, Beltsville, Maryland, USA.
THE VISION (Chapter 1)
A number of books and review articles describing neem and various aspects of its promise are available These include the following:
Ahmed, S. 1985. Utilizing Indigenous Plant Resources in Rural Development: Potential of the Neem Tree. East-West Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii.
Arnason, T.J., B.J.R. Philogene, and P. Morand, eds. 1988. Insecticides of Plant Origin. American Chemical Society (ACS) Symposium Series, Vol. 387. Symposium on Insecticides of Plant Origin at the Third Chemical Congress of North America, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, June 5-11, 1988. ACS, Washington, D.C.
Benge, M. 1986. Neem: The Cornucopia Tree. S&T/FENR Agro-Forestation Technical Series No. 5. Agency for International Development, Washington, D.C.
Cutler, H.G., ed. 1988. Biologically Active Natural Products: Potential Use in Agriculture. American Chemical Society (ACS) Symposium Series, Volume 380. Symposium on Biologically Active Natural Products, 194th meeting of the American Chemical Society, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, August 30 to September4, 1987. ACS, Washington, D.C. 483 pp.
Jacobson, M., ed. 1988. 1988 Focus on Phitochemical Pesticides: Volume I, the Neem Tree. CRC Press. Inc., Boca Raton, Florida, USA
Ketkar, C.M. 1976. Utilization of Neen(Azadirachta indica Juss.) and Its By-products. Final technical report of Directorate of Non-Edible Oils and Soap Industry, Khadi and Village Industries Commission. Published by V. Lahshmikanthan. Irla Road, Vile Parle, Bombay 400 056.
Radwanski, S. 1977a. Neem tree 2: Uses and potential uses. World Crops and Livestock; 29:111-113.
Radwanski, S. 1977b. Neem tree 3: Further uses and potential uses. World Crops and Livestock 29: 167- 168.
Radwanski, S.A. and G.E. Wickens. 1981. Vegetative fallows and potential value of neem tree in the tropics. Economic Botany 35(4):398-414.
Schmutterer, H. 1990. Properties and potential of natural pesticides from the neem tree Azadirachta indica. Annual Review of Entomology 35:271-297.
THE REALITY (Chapter 2)
Ali, B.H. 1987. The toxicity of Azadirachta Indica leaves in goats and guinea pigs. Veterinary and Human Toxicology 29(1):16-19.
Jotwani, M.C. and K.P. Srivastava. 1981. Neem: insecticide of the future. III. Chemistry, toxicology and future strategy. Pesticides 15(12):12.
Sadre,N.L. V.Y. Deshpande, K.N. Mendulkar, D.H. Nandal. 1984. Male antifertility activity of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) in different species. Pages 473-482 in Schmutterer and Ascher, 1984 (see under above conference reports).
Sinniah, D. and G. Baskaran. 1981. Margosa oil poisoning as a cause of Reye's syndrome. The Lancet February 28,1981:487-489.
Sinniah, D., G. Baskaran, L.M. Looi, and K.L. Leong. 1982. Reye-like syndrome due to margosa oil poisoning: report of a case with postmortem findings. American Journal of Gastroenterology 77(3):158-161.
Sinniah, D., P.H. Schwartz, R.A. Mitchell, and E.L. Arcinue. 1985. Investigation of an animal model of a Reye-like syndrome caused by margosa oil. Pediatric Research 19(21):1346 1355.
THE TREE (Chapter 3)
Bakshi, B. K. 1976. Forest Pathology: Principles and Practice in Forestry. Controller of Publications, Delhi,
Benge, 1986. (See above under chapter 1.)
CAB International Institute of Biological Control (CAB-IIBC). 1987. Prospects for Biological Control of the Oriental Yellow Scale, Aonidiella orientallis (Newstead) as a Pest of Neern in Africa. Ascot, Berkshire, UK.
Desai, S.G. et al. 1966. A new bacterial leaf spot and blight of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Indian Phytopathology 19(3):322-3.
Roberts, H. 1965. A Preliminary Check List of Pests and Diseases of Plantation Trees in Nigeria. Federal Department of Forestry Research, Ibadan, Nigeria.
Sankaram, A.V.B., M.M. Murthy, K. Bhaskaraiah, M. Subramanyam, N. Sultana, H.C. Sharma, 'K. Leuschner, G. Ramaprasad, S. Sitaramaiah, C. Rukmini, and P.U. Rao. 1987. Chemistry, biological activity, and utilization of some promising neem extracts. Pages 127-148 in Schmutterer and Aseher, 1987 (see under above conference reports).
Schmutterer, H. 1990. Observations on pests of Azadirachta indica (neem tree) and of some Melia species. Journal of Applied Entomology 109:390-400.
Zech, W. 1984. Investigations on the occurrence of potassium and zinc deficiencies in plantations of Gmelina arbores, Azadirachta indica and Anacardium occidentale in semi-arid areas of West Africa. In Potash Review, No. 1. International Potash Institute, Berne, Switzerland.
WHAT'S IN A NEEM (Chapter 4)
Jacobson (1986b), Schmutterer (1984), and Jacobson et al (1984) review the chemical work on seed oil extracts.
Shin-Foon Chiu. 1984. The active principles and insecticidal properties of some Chinese plants, with special reference to Meliaceae. Pages 255-262 in Schmutterer and Ascher, 1984 (see under above conference reports).
Cutler, 1988. (See above under chapter 1.)
Feuerhake, K.J. 1984. Effectiveness and selectivity of technical solvents for the extraction of neem seed components with insecticidal activity. Pages 103-114 in Schmutterer and Ascher, 1984 (see above under conference reports).
Jacobson, M. 1986a. Natural pesticides. Pages 144-148 in Natural Resources: The 1986 Yearbook of Agriculture. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
Jacobson, M. 1986b. The neem tree: natural resistance par excellence. Pages 220-232 in Natural Resistance of Plants to Insects, ed. M.B. Green and P.A. Hedin. American Chemical Society (ACS) Symposium Series No. 296. ACS, Washington, D.C.
Jacobson, M. 1987. Neem research and cultivation in the western hemisphere. Pages 33-44 in Schmutterer and Ascher, 1987 (see above under conference reports).
Sanguanpong, U. and H. Schmutterer. In press. Laboratory trials on the effects of neem oil and neem-seed extracts against the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch. Zeitschrft fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz.
Sehmutterer, H. 1984. Neem research in the Federal Republic of Germany since the first international neem conference. Pages 21-30 in Schmutterer and Ascher, 1984 (see above under conference reports).
Stoll, G. 1986. Natural Crop Protection Based on Local Resources in the Tropics. Josef Margraf, Publisher, Aichtal, Germany. 186 pp.
EFFECTS ON INSECTS (Chapter 5)
Adler, V.E. and E.C. Uebel. 1985. Effects of a formulation of neem extract on six species of cockroaches (Orthoptera: Blaberidae, Blattidae, and Blattellidae). Phytoparasitica 13(1):3-8.
Akou-Edi, D. 1984. Effects of neem seed powder and oil on Tribolium confusum and Sitophilus zeamais. Pages 445-451 in Schmutterer and Ascher, 1984 (see above under conference reports).
Arnason, J.T., B.J.R. Philogene, N. Donskov, M. Hudon, C. McDougall, G. Fortier, P. Morand, D. Gardner, J. Lambert, C. Morris, and C. Nozzolillo. 1985. Antifeedant and insecticidal properties of azadirachtin to the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 38(1):29-34.
Champagne, D.E., M.B. Isman, and G.H.N. Towers. 1989. Insecticidal activity of phytochemicals and extracts of the Meliaceae. Pages 95-109 in Arnason et al., 1988 (see above under general reviews).
Devakumar, C., B.K. Goswami, and S.K. Mukerjee. 1985. Nematicidal principles from neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss). 1. Screening of neem kernel fractions against Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood. Indian Journal of Nematology 15(1):121-124.
Lange, W. and K. Feuerhake. 1984. Increased activity of enriched neem seed extracts with synergist piperonyl butoxide under laboratory conditions. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie 98:368.
Locke and Lawson, 1990. (See above under conference reports.)
Mansour, F., K.R.S. Ascher, and N. Omari. 1987. Effects of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernel extracts from different solvents on the predacious mite Phvtoseiulus persimilis and the phytophagous mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus. Phytoparasitica 15(2):125-130.
Plant Protection Directorate. n.d. The Preservation of Beans (Cowpeas) with Neern Oil. Technical Leaflet Plant Protection No. 3. Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH. B.P. 1263, Lome-Cacaveli, Togo.
Plant Protection Directorate. n.d. Treatment of Cabbage and Gboma Against Pests with Neem Seed Extract. Technical Leaflet Plant Protection No. 2. Deutsche Gesellschafl fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH. B.P. 1263, Lome-Cacaveli, Togo.
Rembold, H. 1989. Kairomones - chemical signals related to plant resistance against insect attack. Pages 352-264 in New Crops for Food and Industry, ed. G.E. Wickens, N. Haq, and P. Day. Chapman and Hall, London.
Romeo, J.T. and M.S.J. Simmonds. 1989. Nonprotein amino acids feeding deterrents from Calliandra. Pages 59-68 in Arnason et al., 1988 (see above under general reviews).
Saxena, R.C. 1989. Insecticides from neem. Pages 110-135 in Arnason et al., 1988 (see above under general reviews).
Saxena, R.C., P.B. Epino, Tu Cheng-Wen, and B.C. Puma. 1984. Neem, chinaberry and custard apple: antifeedant and insecticidal effects on leafhopper and planthopper pests of rice. Pages 403412 in Schmutterer and Ascher, 1984 (see above under conference reports).
Schmutterer, 1990. (See above under chapter 1.)
Schmutterer, H. and T. Freres. 1990. Influence of neem-seed oil on metamorphosis, color and behavior of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria (Forsk.), and of the African migratory locust, Locusta migmtoria migratorioides (R. & F.). Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pfianzenschutz 97(4):431-438.
Steffens, R.J. and H. Schmutterer. 1982. The effect of a crude methanolic neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernel extract on metamorphosis and quality of adults of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wied. (Diptera, Tephutdae). Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie 94:98-103. von der Heyde, 1., R.C. Saxena, and H. Schmutterer. 1984. Neem oil and neem extracts as potential insecticides for control of hemipterous rice pests. Schrifteureiche GTZ 161:377.
Warthen, Jr., J.D. 1989. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss): organisms affected and reference list update. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 91(3):367-388.
Zehrer, W. 1984. The effect of the traditional preservatives used in Northern Togo and of neem oil for control of storage pests. Pages 453 460 in Schmutterer and Ascher, 1984 (see above under conference reports).
EFFECTS ON OTHER ORGANISMS (Chapter 6)
Devakumar et al., 1985. (See above under chapter 5.)
Grant, I.F. and H. Schmutterer. 1987. Effects of aqueous neem seed kernel extracts on ostracods (class Crustacea) development and population density in lowland rice fields. Pages 591-607 in Schmutterer and Ascher, 1987 (see above under conference reports).
Hoelmer, K.A., L.S. Osborne, and R.K. Yokomi. 1990. Effects of neem extracts on beneficial insects in greenhouse culture. Pages 100-102 in Locke and Lawson, 1990 (see above under conference reports).
Indian Leaf Tobacco Co. Ltd. Tobacco Mosaic - Its Control with Neem Leaf Decoction. Pamphlet No. 24 RJY 6'73 3,000 Indian Leaf Tobacco Co. Ltd.
Isman, M.B., D.T. Lowery, and O. Koul. In press. Laboratory and field evaluations of neem for control of aphid and lepidopteran pests. In Resources for Sustainable Agriculture: The Use of Neem and Other Plant Materials for Pest Control and Rural Development. Proceedings of the Symposium, XVII Pacific Science Congress, Honolulu, Hawaii, May 26 to June 2, 1991.
Ketkar, C.M. and M.S. Ketkar. 1984. Potential of neem oil and neem cake production in India. Proceedings of Research Planning Workshop Botanical Pest Control Project, August 6-10, 1984, Los Bahos, Philippines. International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Los Bahos, Philippines. 30 PP.
Locke, J.C. 1990. Activity of extracted neem seed oil against fungal plant pathogens. Pages 132-136 in Locke and Lawson, 1990 (see above under conference reports).
Mansour, F., K.R.S. Ascher, and N. Omari. 1987. Effect of neem seed kernel extracts from different solvents on the predacious mite Phytoseialus persimilis and the phytophagous mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus as well as on the predatory spider Chiracanthium mildei. Pages 577-587 in Schmutterer and Ascher, 1987 (see above under conference reports.)
Mariappan, V. and R.C. Saxena. 1984. Custard apple oil, neem oil and their mixtures: effect on survival of Nephotettix virescens and on rice tungro virus transmission. Pages 413-429 in Schmutterer et al., 1981 (see above under conference reports).
Muley, E.V. 1978. Biological and chemical control of the snail vector Melania scabra (Gastropoda: Prosobrachia). Bulletin of the Zoological Surrey of India 1:1-5.
Rossner, J. and C.P.W. Zebitz. 1987a. Effect of neem products on nematodes and growth of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants. Pages 611-621 in Schmutterer and Ascher, 1987 (see above under conference reports).
Rossner, J. and C.P.W. Zebitz. 1987b. Effect of soil treatment with neem products on earthworms (Lumbricidae). Pages 627-632 in Schmutterer and Ascher, 1987 (see above under conference reports).
Saxena, R.C. 1987. Neem seed derivatives for management of rice insect pests: a review of recent studies. Pages 81-93 in Schmutterer and Ascher, 1987 (see above under conference reports).
Saxena, R.C., N.J. Liquido, and H.D. Justo. 1981. Neem seed oil a potential antifeedant for the control of the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens. Pages 171-188 in Schmutterer et al., 1981 (see above under conference reports).
Saxena, R.C., H.D. Justo, Jr., and P.B. Epino. 1984. Evaluation and utilization of neem cake against the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Homoptera: Delphacidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 77:502-507.
Saxena, R.C., Z.R. Khan, and N.B. Bajet. 1987. Reduction of tungro virus transmission by Nephotettix virescens (Homoptera: Cicadellidea) in neem cake-treated rice seedlings. Journal of Economic Entomology 80:1079-1082.
Schmutterer, H. and H. Holst. 1987. On the effect of enriched and formulated neem seed kernel extract AZT-VR-K on the honeybee Apis mellifera. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie 103:208-213,
Singh, R. 1971. Inactivation of potato virus X by plant extracts. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 10:21 1-213.
Singh, U.P., H.B. Singh, and R.B. Singh. 1980. The fungicidal effect of neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts on some soil-borne pathogens of gram (Cicer arietinum). Mycologia 72:1077-1093.
Singh, S.P., V. Pant, A.M. Khan, and S.K. Saxena. 1985. Changes in the phenolic contents, related rhizosphere mycoflora, and nematode population in tomato inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita as a result of soil amendment with organic matter. Indian Journal of Nematology 15(2):197-201.
Tripathi, R.K.R. and R.N. Tripathi. 1982. Reduction in bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) infectivity vis-a-vis crude leaf extract of some higher plants. Experientia 38:349.
MEDICINALS (Chapter 7)
Badam, L., R.P. Deolankar, M.M. Kulkarni, B.A. Nagsampgi, and U.V. Wagh. 1987. In vitro antimalarial activity of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) leaf and seed extracts. Indian Journal of Malariology 24:111-117.
Elvin-Lewis, M. 1980. Plants used for teeth cleaning throughout the world. Journal of Preventive Dentistry, 6:61-70.
Gandhi, M, R. Lal, A. Sankaranarayanan, C.K. Banerjee, and P.L. Sharma. 1988. Acute toxicity study of the oil from Azadirachta indica seed (neem oil). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 23:39-51.
Ganesalingham, V.K. 1987. Use of the neem plant in Sri Lanka at the farmer's level. Pages 95-100 in Schmutterer and Ascher, 1987 (see above under conference reports).
Garcia, E.S., P. Azambuja, H. Forester, and H. Rembold.1984. Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung 39C: 1 155.
Gill, J.S. 1972. Studies on Insect Feeding Deterrents with Special Reference to the Fruit Extracts of the Neem Tree, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Ph.D. thesis, University of London. 260 pp.
Henkes, R. 1986. The neem tree: a farmer's friend. The Furrow, October 1986:16.
Khalid, S.A., A. Farouk, T.G. Geary, and J.B. Jensen. 1986. Potential antimalarial candidates from African plants: an in-vitro approach using Plasmodium falciparum. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 15:201-209.
Khalid, S.A., H. Duddeck, and M. Gonzalez-Sierra. 1989. Isolation and characterization of an antimalarial agent of the neem tree Azadirachta indica. Journal of Natural Products 52(2):922-926.
Khan, M. and S.W. Wassilew. 1987. The effect of raw material from the neem tree, neem oil, and neem extracts on fungi pathogenic to humans. Pages 645-650 in Schmutterer and Ascher, 1987 (see above under conference reports).
Koul , O. , M.B . Isman , and C. M. Ketkar. 1 990. Properties and uses of neem, Azadirachta indica. Canadian Journal of Botany 68:1-11.
Nath, K. D. K. Agrawal, Q.Z. Hasan, S.J. Daniel, and V.R.B. Sastry. 1989. Water-washed neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernel cake in the feeding of milch cows. Animal Production 48:497-502.
Patel, R.P. and B.M. Trivedi. 1%2. The in-vitro antibacterial activity of some medicinal oils. Indian Journal of Medical Research 50:218-222.
Rae, A. and M.S. Sethi. 1972. Screening of some plants for their activity against vaccinia and fowlpox viruses. Indian Journal of Animal Science 42:1066-1070.
Rao, A.R., S.S.U. Kumar, T.B. Paramasivam, S. Kamalakshi, A.R. Parashuraman, and M. Shantha. 1969. Study of antiviral activity of tender leaves of margosa tree (Melia azadirachta) on vaccinia and variola virus: a preliminary report. Indian Journal of Medical Research 57:495-502.
Sadre et al. 1984. (See above under chapter 2.)
Schneider, B.H. 1986. The effect of neem leaf extracts on Epilachna varivestis and Stapitylococcus aureus. Page 73 in Abstracts of the 3rd International Neern Conference, Nairobi, Kenya.
Sinha, K.C., S.S. Riar, R.S. Tiwary, A.K. Dhawan. J. Bardhan, P. Thomas. A.K. Kain, and R.K. Jain. 1984. Neem oil as a vaginal contraceptive. Indian Journal of Medical Research 79:131-136.
Sinniah and Baskaran, 1981. (See above under chapter 2.)
INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS (Chapter 8)
Anderson, D.M.W. and A. Hendrie. 1971. The proteinaceous gum from Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Carbohydrate Research 20:259-268.
Anderson, D.M.W., A. Hendrie, and A.C. Munro. 1972. The amino acid composition of some plant gums. Phytochemistry 11:579-580.
Bringi, N.V. and M.S. Thakur. 1987. Neem (Acadirachta indica Juss) seed oil. Pages 118-142 in Non-Traditional Oilseeds and Oils in India, ed. N.V. Bringi. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
Mitra, C.R. 1963. Neem. Indian Central Oil Seeds Committee, Hyderabad, India.
Patrao, M.R. 1985. Rare neem tree with sweet leaves. Neem Newsletter 2(3):34.
Radwanski, S.A. and G.E. Wickens. 1981. Vegetative fallows and potential value of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) in the tropics. Economic Botany 35(4):398-414.
Redknap, R.S. 1981. The use of crushed neem berries in the control of some insect pests in Gambia. Pages 205-214 in Schmutterer et al., 1981 (see above under conference reports).
Sarkar M.S. and P.C. Datta. 1986. Biosynthesis of beta sitosterol in-vitro culture of Azadirachta indica cotyledon tissues. Indian Drugs 23(8).
REFORESTATION (Chapter 9)
Ahmed S. S. Bamofleh, and M. Munshi. 1989. Cultivation of neem (Azadirachta indica, Meliaceae) in Saudi Arabia. Economic Botany 43:35-38.
Radwanski, S.A. 1969. Improvements of red acid sands by neem tree (Azadirachta indica) in Sokoto, North-West State Nigeria. Journal of Applied Ecology 6:507-511.
NEXT STEPS (Chapter 10)
Ahmed, S. 1990. Symposium on Natural Resources for a Sustainable Agriculture, proceedings of a meeting, New Delhi, February 6-10, 1990, ed. R.P. Singh. Indian Society of Agronomy, New Delhi.
Ahmed, S., M. Grainge, J.W. Hylin, W.C. Mitchel, and J.A. Litsinger. 1984. Some promising plant species for use as pest control agents under traditional farming systems. Pages 565-580 in Schmutterer and Ascher, 1984 (see above under conference reports).
Larson, R. 1987. Development of Margosan-O@, a pesticide from neem seed. Pages 243-250 in Schmutterer and Ascher, 1987 (see above under conference reports).
Michei-Kim, H. and A. Brandt. 1981. The cultivation of neem and processing it in a small village plant. Pages 279-90 in Schmutterer et al.. 1981 (see above under conference reports).
Schmutterer et al., 1981. (See above under conference reports.)
Schmutterer and Ascher 1984. (See above under conference reports.)
Schmutterer and Ascher 1987. (See above under conference reports.)
D Research Contacts
B.N. Islam, Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh
S.K. Bhatia, Division of Agricultural Chemicals, Indian Agricultural Research Institute New Delhi 110 012
N.V. Bringi, Chemical Sciences Group, Hindustan Lever Research Centre, Express Building, 2 Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, New Delhi 110 002
Calcutta Chemical Co. Ltd., 35 Panditia Road, Calcutta-29
Coimbatore Post-Graduate Centre, c/o University of Madras, Chipauk, Triplicane P.O., Madras, Tamil Nadu, 600 005 (seed collection)
S.C. Das, Plant Protection Department, Tocklai Experiment Station, Jorhat, Assam
C. Devakumar, Division of Agricultural Chemicals, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110 012
Excelsior Enterprises, B-12, A.M. Jaipuria Road Cantt., Kanpur 208 004, Uttar Pradesh (commercial contraceptive)
B. Gope, Plant Protection Department, Tocklai Experiment Station, Jorhat, Assam
S. Jayaraj, Centre for Plant Protection Studies, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore 641003
B.G. Joshi, Central Tobacco Research Institute, Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh 533 105
A. Abdul Kareem, Department of Entomology. CIP R&D Farm, Padappai, Chigleput (Dist.), PIN 601301
Charu Kaushic, National Institute of Immunology, New Mehrauli Road, New Delhi 110 067
C.M. Ketkar, Neem Mission, 471, Shaniwar Peth, Pune 411 030, Maharashtra
T.N. Khoshoo, Tata Energy Research Institute (teri), 7 Jor Bagh, New Delhi 110 003
K.N. Mehrotra, Division of Agricultural Chemicals, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012
S. Mukherjee, Plant Protection Department, Tocklai Experiment Station, Jorhat, Assam
B.S. Parmar, Division of Agricultural Chemicals, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110 012
Rajendra Prasad, Division of Agricultural Chemicals, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110 012
S.S. Riar, Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Delhi Cantonment 110 010
A.V.B. Sankaram, Division of Organic Chemistry, Regional Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500 007
Rita Shah, Toxicology Research Foundation, KIM, 2057 Sadashiv, Vijayanagar Colony, Pune 411030
R.N. Sharma, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411 008, Maharashtra
R.P. Singh, Division of Entomology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 1 10 012
S.P. Singh, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202 001, Uttar Pradesh
K.C. Sinha, Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Delhi Cantonment 110 010
G.P. Talwar, National Institute of Immunology, JNU Complex, Shahid Jeet Singh Marg, New Delhi 110 067
Shaktin Upadhyay, National Institute of Immunology, JNU Complex, Shahid Jeet Singh Marg, New Delhi 110 067
R.R. Verma, Government Valley Fruit Research Station, Srinagar, Garhwal
Mumu Sutisna, Interuniversity Center on Life Sciences, Department of Biology, Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung, 40132
D. Sinniah, Department of Pediatrics and Central Animal House Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 59100 Kuala Lumpur
S.N.H. Naqvi, Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi 32
People's Republic of China
Shin-Foon Chiu, Laboratory of Insect Toxicology, Department of Plant Protection, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou
International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), P.O. Box 933, Manila
G.S. Karganilla, Bureau of Plant Industry, Crop Protection Division, 692 San Andres St., Malate, Manila
Pekka K. Ketola, Consultant, Manila Seedling Bank Foundation, Inc., Quezon Boulevard, comer EDSA, Quezon City
V.K. Ganesalingam, Department of Zoology, University of Jaffna, Thirunelvely, Jaffna
K. Sombatsiri, Department of Entomology, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10 900
A. Bosselmann, Department of Botany, University of Queensland, 4072 Queensland
Neemoil Australia, Pty. Ltd., 88 Habib Drive, Lismore, 2480 New South Wales
Martin J. Rice, Department of Entomology, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Brisbane, 4067 Queensland
Gordon Grandison, DSIR Plant Protection, Mt. Albert Research Centre, 120 Mt. Albert Road, Private Bag, Auckland
Edward S. Ayensu, Pan-African Union for Science and Technology, Ghana, P.O. Box 16525 AIRPORT, Accra
B. Tanzubil, Nyankpala Agricultural Experiment Station, P.O. Box 483, Tanale,Accra
J. Achula, International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE), P.O. Box 30772,
Kofi Atsesekapo, Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), P.O. Box 54840, Nairobi (malaria)
A. Chapya, International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE), P.O. Box 30772, Nairobi
I. Griesbach, GAT/GTZ, P.O. Box 14272, Nairobi
A. Hassanali, International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE), P.O. Box 30772,
T.T.O. Isaac, International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE), P.O. Box 30772, Nairobi
H. Jastedt, Forestry Project Mubuga, GTZ-Project Administration Service (PAS), P.O. Box 41607, Nairobi
J.N. Kaman, Pyrethrum Board of Kenya, P.O. Box 420, Nakuru
Margaret W. Kinuthia, Coffee Research Foundation, Coffee Research Station, P.O. Box 4, Ruiru
J.N. Kuria, Pyrethrum Board of Kenya, P.O. Box 420, Nakuru
W. Lwande, International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE), P.O. Box 30772, Nairobi
M.J. Mutinga, International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE), P.O. Box 30772, Nairobi
R.W. Mwangi, Department of Zoology, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi
E. Nyandat, International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE), P.O. Box 30772, Nairobi
Rosemary Okott, International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE), P.O. Box 30772, Nairobi
D.A. Otieno, International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE), P.O. Box 30772, Nairobi
Ramesh C. Saxena, IPMB, Rice Project, International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE), P.O. Box 30772, Nairobi
J.O.I. Tondiko, International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, P.O. Box 30772, Nairobi
B. Torto, International Centre of insect Physiology and Ecology (lCIPE), P.O. Box 30772, Nairobi
F.M.E. Wanjala, Coffee Research Foundation, P.O. Box 4, Ruiru
1. Fagoonee, School of Agriculture, University of Mauritius, Reduit
D.E.U. Ekong, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road, Choba, P.M.B. 5323, Port Harcourt
H. Herren, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan
M.F. Ivbijaro, Department of Agricultural Biology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan
J.l. Olaifa, Department of Plant Science, University of Ife, Ile-Ife
Edouard Niziyimana, OPROVIA-GRENARWA II - Recherches, National Food Quality Laboratory, Office National pow le Developpement et la Commercialisation des Produits Vivriers et des Production Animales, Kigali
Aussumani Serugendo, OPROVIA-GRENARWA II - Recherches, National Food Quality Laboratory, Office National pour le Developpement et la Commercialisation des Produits Vivriers et des Production Animales, Kigali
Saliou Diangar, Agronome/Programme Mil, Centre National de Recherches Agronomiques (CNRA), Institut Senegalais de Recherches Agricoles (ISRA), Boite Postal 53, Bambey
A.K. Karel, Department of Crop Science, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O. Box 3042, Morogoro
Hildegard Keil, Tropical Pesticides Research Institute, P.O. Box 3024, Arusha
D.H. Matemu, Tropical Pesticides Research Institute, P.O. Box 3024, Arusha
J.A. Saidi, Tropical Pesticides Research Institute, P.O. Box 3024, Arusha
S. Adhikary, Sce. Protection des Vegetaux, Projet Allemand, B.P. 1263, Lome-Cacaveli Plant Protection Directorate, B.P. 1263, Lome-Cacaveli
W. Zeher, Sce. Protection des Vegetaux, Projet Allemand, B.P. 1263, Lome-Cacaveli
F. Colin, Biochem Products S.A., 479 Avenue Louise, 1050 Brussels
A.Y. Le Vernoy, Biochem Products S.A., 479 Avenue Louise, 1050 Brussels
Ronald Bellefontaine, Centre Technique Forestier Tropical, Departement du CIRAD, 45 bis, avenue de la Belle Gabrielle, 94736 Nogent-sur-Marne Cedex
Centre Technique Forestier Tropical (CTFT), 45 bis, avenue de la Belle Gabrielle, 94736 Nogent-sur-Marne Cedex
Jean E. Gorse, 13, avenue Marechal. Franchet d'Esperey, 75016 Paris, France
Christine Holding, Usclas de Bosc, Lodere 34700
S.A. Radwanski, 4, rue Georges Bergers, 75017 Paris 17
Y. Roederer, Centre Technique Forestier Tropical, Departement du CIRAD, 45 bis, avenue de la Belle Gabrielle, 94736 Nogent-sur-Marne Cedex
D. Le Rumeur, Roussel UCLAF, 163 avenue Gambetta, Paris
H. Adolphi, BASF Aktiengesellschaft, Landwirtschaftliche Versuchsstation, Postfach 220, 6703 Limburgerhof
H.-J. Bidmon, Institut fur Physiologische Chemie 1, Philipps-Universitat, Deutschhausstrasse
I - 2, 3550 Marburg
D. Biedenkopf, Institut fur Phytopathologie und Angewandte Zoologie, Justus-LiebigUniversitat, Ludwigstrasse 23, 6300 Giessen
M. Bokel, Institut fur Chemie, Universitat Hohenheim, Garbenstrasse 30, 7000 Stuttgart 70
R. Burstinghaus Hauptlaboratorium, BASF AC, 6700 Ludwigshafen
Ch. Czoppelt, Max-Planck-Institut fur Biochemie. 8033 Martinsried b. Munchen
A. Dorn, Institut fur Zoologie, Fachbereich Biologie, Johannes-Gutenberg Universitat, Postfach 3980 6500 Mainz
M. Dreyer, Institut fur Phytopathologie und Angewandte Zoologie, Justus-Liebig Universitat, Ludwigstrasse 23, 6300 Giessen
Helmut Duddeck, Rubr-Universitat Bochum, Fakultat fur Chemie, Postfach 10 21 48, D-4630 Bochum I
K. Ermel, Institut fur Pflanzenphysiologie, Justus-Liebig-Universitat, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 54 - 62, 6300 Giessen
A. Jager, Institute of Agrochemical Research, Biological Department, Schering AG, Gollanczstrasse 71-99, 1000 Berlin 28
M. Iung, Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH, Postfach 5180, 6236 Eschborn I
C. Jurgens, Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), Dag-Hammarskjold-Weg 1, 6236 Eschborn I
K. Kirsch Institut fur Phytopathologie und Angewandte Zoologie, Justus-LiebigUniversitat, Ludwigstrasse 23, 6300 Giessen
Inge Kleinschmit, Institut fur Phytopathologie und Angewandte Zoologie, Justus-LiebigUniversitat, Ludwigstrasse 23, 6300 Giessen
W. Kraus, Institut fur Chemie, Universitat Hohenheim, Garbenstrasse 30, 7000 Stuttgart 70
W. Lange, Institut fur Phytopathologie und Angewandte Zoologie, Justus-LiebigUniversitat, Ludwigstrasse 23, 6300 Giessen
M. Michel-Kim, Eco-Region GmbH, Consulting Firm, Bamberger Strasse 41, 1000 Berlin 30
Heinz Rembold, Max-Planck-lnstitut fur Biochemie, D-8033 Martinsried bei Munchen Marlies Schauer, Institut fur Phytopathologie und Angewandte Zoologie, Justus-LiebigUniversitat, Ludwigstrasse 23, 6300 Giessen
U. Schluter, Institut fur Allgemeine und Spezielle Zoologie, Justus-Liebig-Universitat, Stephanstrasse 24, 6300 Giessen
G.H. Schmidt, Lehrgebiet Zoologie-Entomologie, Universitat Hannover, Herrenhauser Strasse 2, 3000 Hannover 21
Heinrich Schmutterer, Institut fur Phytopathologie und Angewandte Zoologie, JustusLiebig-Universitat, Ludwigstrasse 23, 6300 Giessen
F.A. Schulz, Institut fur Phytopathologie, Christian-Albrechts-Universitat, Olshausenstrasse 40, 2300 Kiel
Martina Schwinger, Institut fur Chemie, Universitat Hohenheim, Garbenstrasse 30, 7000 Stuttgart 70
K.P. Sieber, Max-Planck-lnstitut fur Biochemie, 8033 Martinsried b. Munchen
G. K. Sharma, Max-Planck-Institut fur Biochemie, 8033 Martinsried b. Munchen
R. Steets, Verkauf Landwirtschaft-Beratung, Hdchst AG, Postfach 800320, 6230 Frankfurt A.M. 80
M. Vollinger, Institut fOr Phytopathologie und Angewandte Zoologie, Justus-LiebigUniversitat, Ludwigstrasse 23, 6300 Giessen
H. Wilps, Institut fur Biologie I (Zoologie), Albert-Ludwigs-Universitat, Albertstrasse 21 a, 7800 Freiburg
R. Wohlgemuth, Institut fur Vorratsschutz, Biologische Bundesanstalt, Konigin-LuiseStrasse 19 1000 Berlin 33
C.P.W. Zebitz, Institut fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, Universitat Hannover, 3000 Hannover 21
G. Zoebelein, Sparte Pflanzenschutz-Anwemdungstechnik, Biologische Forschung, Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Bayerwerk
L.M. Schoonhover, Agricultural University, Salverdaplein 11, POB 9101, 6700 HB, Wageningen (insect behavior, receptors)
R. Lamb, IRRI/Swiss Development Cooperation, Beethovenstrasse 11, 3073 Gumlingen H.R. Waespe, Ciba-Geigy AG, CH-4002 Basel
Robert W. Fishwick, The Red House, North Bovey, Devon TQ13 BRA
Ian F. Grant, Natural Resources Institute, Central Avenue, Chatham Maritime. Kent ME4 4TB
Philip S. Jones, Roche Products. Ltd., P.O. Box 8, Welwyn Garden City, Hertfordshire AL3 3AY
Steven V. Ley, Department of Chemistry, Imperial College of Science and Technology, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ
E. David Morgan, Department of Chemistry, University of Keele, Staffordshire ST5 SBG
R.S. Redknap, 44, Molesworth House, Royal Road, Kensington, London SE 17
Dinos Santafianos, Department of Chemistry, Imperial College of Science and Technology, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ
Gerald E. Wickens, 50 Uxbridge Road, Hampton Hill, Middlesex TW12 3AD
K.R.S. Ascher, Institute of Plant Protection, Department of Toxicology, The Volcani Center, Agricultural Research Organization, P.O. Box 6, Bet Dagan 50-250
F. Mansour, Agricultural Research Organization, Regional Experiment Station, Newe Ya'ar, P.O. Haifa
J. Meisner, Institute of Plant Protection, The Volcani Center, Agricultural Research Organization, P.O. Box 6, Bet Dagan 50-250
Sami A. Khalid, Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Khartoum, P.O. Box 1996, Khartoum
Tigani El Mohd, El Amin, Agricultural Research Corporation, P.O. Box 126, Wad Medani
A.S. Siddig, Agricultural Research Corporation, Shambat Research Station, P.O. Box 30, Khartoum North
CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA
Manuel Gonzales-Sierra, IQUIOS, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Suipacha 531, 2000 Rosario
Eloi de Souza Garcia, Department of Entomology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Fundacao Oswald Cruz, Av. Brasil 436S, CP 926, 21040 Rio de Janeiro
Centro Agronomico Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenanza (CATIE), Turrialba
R.A. Vargas, Ministry of Agriculture, Direccion de Sanidad Vegetal-Ap., 10094-1000 San Jose
C. Klein-Koch, Asistencia Tecnica Alemana, Casilla 11.36 C.C.N.U., Quito
Peter Welle, Coordinator, Farmers' Resources Management Project, CARE-Haiti, B.P. 773, Port-au-Prince
J. Mercado, Projecto Fortalacimiento del Servicio Fitosanitario, Apartado 489, Managua
John T. Arnason, Department of Biology. 550 Cumberland Street, University of Ottawa Ottawa, Ontario KIN 6N5
Murray B. Isman, Department of Plant Science, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A2
Jeff Stewart' Agriculture Canada Research Station, Charlottetown, Prince Edward island CIA 7M8
The Neem Association, 1511 Oneco Avenue, Winter Park, Florida. (Publishes a bimonthly newsletter, Neem News.)
AgriDyne Technologies, Inc., AgriDyne Technologies, Inc., 2401 South Foothill Drive, Salt Lake City, Utah 84109 (commercial products)
Grace/Sierra Horticultural Products, 570 Grant Way, Fogelsville, Pennsylvania 18051 (commercial products)
Ringer, Inc., Valley View Road, Eden Prairie, Minnesota 55344-3585 (commercial products)
Saleem Ahmed, East-West Center, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, Hawaii 96848
Agricultural Research Service, 13601 Old Cutler Road, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Miami, Florida 33158
David Akey, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 413 South East Broadway, Phoenix, Arizona 85040 lames R. Baker, Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7613
Mohammad Bari, Artichoke Research Association, Agriculture Research Station, 1636 East Alisal Street, Salinas, California 93905
Joseph W. Begley, Yoder Brothers, Inc., PO Box 68, Alva, Florida 33920
Michael D. Benge, Office of Environment and Natural Resources, U.S. Agency for International Development, Washington, DC 20523 (ecology and management)
Jo-Arm Bentz, Florist & Nursery Crops Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Building 470 Room 10, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center (BARC)-East, Beltsville, Maryland 20705
Deepak Bhatnagar, Food and Feed Safety Research, Southern Regional Research Center, U.S. Department of Agriculture, PO Box 19687, New Orleans, Louisiana 70179
Baruch Blumberg, Associate Director for Clinical Research, Division of Population Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, 7701 Burholme Avenue, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111
John D. Briggs, Department of Entomology, The Ohio State University, 103 Botany and Zoology Building, 1735 Neil Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1220
Raymond Brush, American Association of Nurserymen, Inc., 1250 Eye Street, N.W., Suite 500, Washington, DC 20005
Richard Casagrande, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island 02881-0804
John Conrick, 1511 Oneco Avenue, Winter Park, Florida (planting materials)
Whitney Cranshaw, Department of Entomology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523
Edward M. Croom, Jr., Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Health Sciences Research Division, School of Pharmacy, The University of Mississippi, University, Mississippi 38677
Florence V. Dunkel, Entomology Research Laboratory, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717
Robert M. Faust, National Program Staff, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Building 005 Room 236, BARC-West, Beltsville, Maryland 20705
Dave Ferro, Department of Entomology, Fernald Hall, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01103
Glenn Fisher, Cordley Hall 2046, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 973312907
Harrison "Chick" Gardner, Milagro Farms, 25776 Honda Road, Madera, California 93638 (planting materials)
R.G. Gilbert, U.S. Department of Agriculture, PO Box 2890, Washington, DC 20013
Michael Grainge, East-West Center, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, Hawaii 96848
Robert Harwell, Pine Hill Farms, PO Box 7249, Winter Haven, Florida 33883 (planting materials)
Donald Heyneman, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medicine, San Francisco, California 94143-0560 (schistosomiasis)
Kim Hoelmer, Horticultural Research Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2120 Camden Road, Orlando, Florida 23803
Bill Howard, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 3205 College Avenue. Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33314
Marlin Huffman, Plantation Botanicals, Inc., PO Box 128, Felda, Florida 33930 (planting materials)
Martin Jacobson, 1131 University Boulevard West, Apartment 616, Silver Spring, Maryland 20902
Subhash C. Juneja, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610 (contraception)
Clifford Keil, Department of Entomology, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716-0701
Marc Ketchel, The Neem Company, Route 3 Box 32G, Alachua, Florida 32615 (planting materials)
Walter Knausenberger, Agriculture and Natural Resources Division, Office of Technical Resources, Bureau for Africa, Agency for International Development, Washington, DC 20523
T.L. Ladd Jr., USDA Japanese Bettle and Horticultural Insect Pests Research Laboratories, Ohio Agricultral Research and Development Center, Wooster, Ohio 44691
Hiram Larew, Policy Directorate, Office of Strategic Planning, Agency for International Development, Washington, DC 20523
Robert O. Larson, Vikwood Botanicals, Inc., PO Box 554, Sheboygan, Wisconsin 53082
Roger H. Lawson, Florist & Nursery Crops Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Building 004 Room 208, BARC-West, Beltsville, Maryland 20705
David W. Lee, Department of Biological Sciences, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Florida International, The Public University at Miami, University Park, Miami, Florida
Gary Leibee, Central Florida Research and Education Center, 2700 East Celery Avenue, Sanford, Florida 32771
Daniel Leskovar, Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Texas A&M University, 1619 Garner Field Road, Uvalde, Texas 78801
Zev Lidert, Rohm and Haas Company, Spring House Research Center, Spring House, Pennsylvania 19477
Richard K. Lindquist, Department of Entomology, Ohio Agricultural R&D Center, Wooster, Ohio 44691
James C. Locke, Plant Pathology, Florist and Nursery Crops Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, Maryland 20705-2350
K. Maramorosch, Department of Entomology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New lersey 08903
Ronald Mau, Department of Entomology Room 310, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822
Julius J. Menn, Plant Sciences Institute, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705
J. Allen Miller, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, PO Box 232, Kerrville, Texas 78029 (hornfly)
Koji Nakanishi, Columbia University, Morningside Heights, New York, New York 10027 (chemistry of neem ingredients)
John W. Neal, Florist and Nursery Crops Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Building 470 Room 8, BARC-East, Beltsville, Maryland 20705
David Nielsen, Department of Entomology, OARDC, The Ohio State University, Wooster, Ohio 44691-4096
Gregg Nuessly, Everglades Research and Education Center, PO Box 8003, Belle Glade, Florida 33430-8003
Ronald D. Oetting, Department of Entomology, Georgia Experiment Station, Experiment, Georgia 30212
L.S. Osborne, Central Florida Research and Education Center, 2807 Binion Road, Opopka, Florida 32703
Michael Parrella, Department of Entomology, University of California, Davis, California 95616-8584
John A. Parrotta, USDA Institute of Tropical Forestry, Call Box 25000, Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico 00928-2500 (ecology)
James F. Price, University of Florida, Agricultural Research and Development Center, 5007 60th Street East,, Bradenton, Florida 34203
Martin L. Price, Educational Concerns for Hunger Organization (ECHO), 17430 Durrance Road, North Ft. Myers, Florida 33903 (planting materials)
Edward B. Radcliffe, Department of Entomology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota 55108
R.E. Redfern, Livestock Insects Laboratory, Agricultural Environmental Quality Institute, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705
David Riley, Texas Agricultural Research Station, Texas A&M University, 2415 East Highway 83, Weslaco, Texas 78596
Fred Saleet, The Banana Tree, 715 Northampton Street, Easton, Pennsylvania 18042 (planting materials)
John P. Sanderson, Department of Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853
Roland Seymour, Department of Plant Biology, The Ohio State University, 1735 Neil Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1220
Dave Shetlar, Entomology Extension, 1991 Kenny Road, Columbus, Ohio 43210
Eugene B. Shultz, Jr., c/o Department of Engineering and Applied Science, Campus Box 1106, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130
David Smitely, Department of Entomology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1115
Shobha Sriharan, Division of Natural Sciences, Selma University, Selma, Alabama 36701
John D. Stark, Washington State University, 7612 Pioneer Way E., Puyallup, Washington 98371 (fruit fly and aphid control)
J. Rennie Stavely, Microbiology and Plant Pathology Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Building 011A, BARC-West, Beltsville, Maryland 20705
Peter P. Strzok, Agency to Facilitate the Growth of Rural Organizations (AFGRO), PO Box 14926, University Station, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55414 (ecology and management)
Ward Tingey, Department of Entomology, Comstock Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853-0999
Nick C. Toscano, College of Natural Resources Programs, 305 College Building North, University of California, Riverside, California 92521
E.C. Uebel, insect Chemical Ecology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Building 402E Room 108, BARC-East, Beltsville, Maryland 20705
Iroka J. Udeinya, Department of Immunology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC 20307
Diane E. Ullman, Department of Entomology, University of Hawaii, 3050 Maile Way, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822
David W. Unander, Division of Population Oncology Fox Chase Cancer Center, 7701 Burholme Avenue, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111 (medicinal uses)
P. Venkasawaran, Division of Population Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, 7701 Burholme Avenue, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111
Jim Walter, W.R. Grace Washington Research Center, 7379 Route 32, Columbia, Maryland 20861
David Warthen, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Building 007 Room 337, BARC-West, Beltsville, Maryland 20705
Ralph Webb, Insect Chemical Ecology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Building 402E Room 108, BARC-East, Beltsville, Maryland 20705
G.W. Zehnder, Eastern Shore Agricultural Research Station, Painter, Virginia 23420 (Colorado potato beetle control)
Eldon Zehr, Department of Plant Pathology and Physiology, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634-0377 (nematodes)
E Biographical Sketches of Panel Members
EUGENE B. SHULTZ, JR., Chairman, is professor of engineering and applied science at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri, and director of the Bioresources Development Group at Washington University. He earned his B.S. degree in chemistry at Principia College and his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in chemical engineering at the Illinois Institute of Technology. For 10 years, he was involved in research and development on solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels at the Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, conducting laboratory and engineering-economic studies. He spent 15 years at Principia College, serving as chairman of the department of chemistry and as Kent H. Smith Professor of Chemistry. Since joining Washington University in 1979, his principal interests have included global environmental problems, Third World issues, and unconventional bioresources, mainly the development of renewable energy and appropriate technology, and the management of technological innovation in the Third World. In 1987, as a Fulbright researcher, he studied unconventional crops for food oils, high protein, fuel alcohol, and nontoxic botanic insect-control extracts at the University of Costa Rica. He has written numerous papers on dried roots for solid fuel and for fermentation to fuel alcohol and on unconventional seeds as new sources of edible and industrial oils. Currently, he serves as associate editor of Economic Botany for processing and utilization of economic plants. In 1991, he was elected both president-elect of the Association of Arid Lands Studies and program chair for its 1992 annual meeting. He also served on the program committee for the 1991 annual meeting of the Africa Studies Association.
DEEPAK BHATNAGAR is a geneticist with the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service at the Southern Regional Research Center in New Orleans, Louisiana. He received his B.Sc. from the University of Udaipur in India in 1972 and his M.Sc. and Ph.D. from the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, in 1974 and 1977, respectively. From 1974 to 1977 he was a senior research fellow at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, followed by work with the Department of Biophysics at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, and the Department of Biology at Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana. From 1981 to 1985 he was a senior research associate with the Department of Biochemistry at Louisiana State University School of Medicine in New Orleans. From 1985 on he has worked on the USDA's project on bioregulatory control of aflatoxin biosynthesis. His major interests include the control of aflatoxin contamination of food and feed through an understanding of the molecular regulation of the biosynthesis of the toxin. He is a member of the American Chemical Society, the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, the American Society of Plant Physiologists, and the American Society for Microbiology. He is a member of the editorial boards of Applied and Environmental Microbiology and Mycopathologia, and has edited several publications on mycotoxins and on improving food quality and safety.
MARTIN JACOBSON received his degree in chemistry from the City University of New York. From 1964 to 1972, Mr. Jacobson was an investigations leader with the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Entomological Research Division at Beltsville, Maryland; chief of the Biologically Active Natural Products Laboratory from 1973 to 1985; and research leader (plant investigations) with the Insect Chemical Ecology Laboratory until his retirement from federal service in 1986. He is currently an agricultural consultant in private practice in Silver Spring, Maryland. His awards include the Hillebrand Prize of the Chemical Society of Washington in 1971; USDA Certificates of Merit and cash awards for research in 1965, 1967, and 1968; the McGregory Lecture Award in Chemistry at Colgate University (Syracuse, New York); two bronze medals for excellence in research at the 3rd International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry, Helsinki, Finland, in 1974; USDA Director's Award on Natural Products Research in 1981; and an Inventor's Incentive Award for commercialization of a boll weevil deterrent in 1983. Mr. Jacobson is the author or coauthor of more than 300 scientific reports in numerous journals, the author of five books (Insect Sex Attractants, Wiley, 1965; Insect Sex Pheromones, Academic Press, 1972; Insecticides from Plants: A Review of the Literature, 1941-1953, USDA Handbook; No. 154, 1958; Insecticides from Plants: A Review of the Literature, 1954-1971, USDA Handbook No. 461, 1975; Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, 1990); and editor of the books Naturally Occurring Insecticides, Marcel Dekker, 1971; and Focus on Phytochemical Pesticides, Volume I (The Neem Tree), CRC Press, 1989. He also holds six U.S. patents on naturally occurring insecticides.
ROBERT L. METCALF, Professor Emeritus of Biology and Entomology and Research Professor of Environmental Studies, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, is recognized internationally for his research on insect control, the chemistry and action of pesticides, and toxic substances in the environment. Among his achievements are the development of laboratory model ecosystem technology to screen pesticides for environmental acceptability and the discovery of carbamate insecticides and biodegradable substitutes for DDT. His work with the World Health Organization led to the development of insecticides for more effective control of vector-borne diseases. Professor Metcalf,s recent research includes analyzing the effects of various industrial chemicals and pesticides on human health and environmental quality and investigating the coevolutionary and behavioral relationships between insect pests and cultivars, seeking new approaches to insect pest management. He was president of the Entomological Society of America in 1958 and has received numerous awards, including the Charles F. Spencer Award and the International Award in Pesticide Chemistry of the American Chemical Society, the Founders' Award of the Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, the Kenneth P. Dubois Award of the Society of Toxicology, the Memorial Lecture Award of the Entomological Society of America, and the Order of Cherubini from the University of Pisa. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
RAMESH C. SAXENA, senior principal scientist, is the head of the Integrated Pest Management Section at the International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE), Nairobi, Kenya. He received his M.S. in tropical entomology from the University of Hawaii in 1966 and his Ph.D. in host plant resistance to insect pests from Delhi University in 1973. In 1975, he joined the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) as a post-doctoral fellow in entomology. In 1977, he joined the ICIPE-IRRI project on major rice pests as an entomologist. From 1987 to July 1991, he served as entomologist in IRRI's Genetic Evaluation and Utilization Program. His major contributions include development of methodologies for efficient insect-rearing and screening of rice germplasm, including wild rices biochemical plant-insect interactions role of rice plant biotypes, and biointensive pest management. He conceptualized the relevance of botanical pest control for resource-limited farmers and demonstrated the potential of neem(Azadirachta indica) and other nonedible oil trees for ecologically sound pest management. He pioneered the introduction and large-scale planting of neem in the Philippines and Latin American countries. He also developed a simple process for extracting "neem seed bitters" for pest control. He has been an invited speaker at more than 40 international conferences and symposia and has published more than 200 scientific and professional articles. He was president of the Philippine Association of Entomologists in 1987-1988 and won several awards in the Philippines. His research work has been featured in international press releases and TV documentaries: "Coast-to-Coast" (Philippines), "Beyond 2000" (Australia), "State of the Earth" and "Discovery" (USA), and "Krishi Darshan" (India).
DAVID W. UNANDER, a plant breeder, has worked for the past five years at the Fox Chase Cancer Center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on plants with activity against hepatitis B and other viruses. He also serves as an adjunct professor at Eastern College, St. Davids, Pennsylvania, where he teaches a course in appropriate technology through an M.B.A. program in international economic development. Previously he bred improved vegetables for the tropics as an assistant professor at the University of Puerto Rico. He received his B.S. and his M.S. in plant and soil science from Southern Illinois University in 1977 and 1979, and his Ph.D. in plant breeding from the University of Minnesota in 1983. He is a member and treasurer of the board of the Educational Concerns for Hunger Organization (ECHO), a nonprofit agency providing free extension information and experimental quantities of seeds on new crops and varieties to parties involved in international development. He has published extensively on the ethnobotany, cultivation, and biological activity of Phyllanthus species (Euphorbiaceae), as well as various articles relating to variety selection in pumpkins and squashes, vegetable peppers, soybeans, and dry beans.
NOEL D. VIETMEYER, staff officer and technical writer for this study, is a senior program officer of the Board on Science and Technology for International Development. A New Zealander with a Ph.D. in organic chemistry from the University of California, Berkeley, he now works on innovations in science and technology that are important for the future of developing countries.