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Amaranth: Modern Prospects for an Ancient Crop (BOSTID, 1984, 74 p.)[edit]

Appendixes[edit]

Selected Readings[edit]

An excellent bibliography of amaranth literature has been collected and compiled by the Rodale Research Center. (Senft, J. P., C. S. Kauffman, and N. N. Bailey. 1981.

The Genus Amaranthus: A Comprehensive Bibliography. Rodale Press, Inc., Emmaus, Pennsylvania, USA. 217 pp.) A most useful publication for libraries and for those interested in amaranth research, it contains more than 2,600 entries and references organized according to the following subjects: general; genetics/taxonomy; weeds; horticulture/agronomy; plant physiology; plant pathology/entomology; anthropology; and nutritional/ food utilization.

An amaranth newsletter is being published to help readers keep current with the latest research developments. It includes abstracts of amaranth publications. For further information contact: Editor-in-Chief, Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutricion, P.O. Box 1188,

Guatemala City, Guatemala, C.A. Allen, P. 1961. Die Amaranthaceen Mitteleuropas. Die Naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien. Reprint from G. Hegi, Illustriert Flora von Mitteleuropa III 2:461-535, Munich, Germany.

Aguilar, J., and G. Alatorre. 1978. Monografia de la planta de la alegria. Memoria 1978.

Grupo de Estudios Ambientales 1(1):156-203.

Becker, R., E. L. Wheeler, K. Lorenz, A. E. Stafford, O. K. Grosjean, A. A. Betschart, and R.

M. Saunders. 1981. A compositional study of amaranth grain. Journal of Food Science 46:1175-1180.

Bosworth, S. C., C. S. Hoveland, G. A. Buchanan, and W. B. Anthony. 1980. Forage quality of selected warm season weed species. Agronomy Journal 72(6):1050-1054.

Brenan, J. P. M. 1981. The genus Amararnthus in Southern Africa. Journal of South African Botany, Pretoria 47(3):451-492.

Campbell, T. A., and J. A. Abbott. 1982. Field evaluation of vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus spp.). HortScience 17(3):407-409.

Carlsson, R. 1982. Leaf protein concentrates from plant sources in temperate regions. Pp. 52-80 in Leaf Protein Concentrates, L. Telek and H. D. Graham, eds. AVI Technical Books, Inc., Westport, Connecticut, USA.

Cheeke, P. R., R. Carlsson, and G. O. Kohler. 1981. Nutritive value of leaf protein concentrates prepared from Amaranthus species. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 61(1): 199-204.

Cole, J. N. 1979. Amaranth from the Past for the Future. Rodale Press, Inc., Emmaus Pennsylvania, USA. 311 pp., including bibliography of 120 publications.

Coons, M. P. 1982. Relationships of Amararnthus caudatus. Economic Botany 36(2): 129 146.

Daloz C. R. 1980. Horticultural aspects of the vegetable amaranthus. M.S. thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA. 150 pp.

Der Marderosian, A. D., J. Beutler, W. Pfender, J. Chambers, R. Yoder, E. Weinsteiger, and

J. P. Senft. 1980. Nitrate and oxalate content of vegetable amaranth. Rodale Research

Report 80-4. Rodale Press, Inc., Emmaus, Pennsylvania, USA. 15 pp.

Downton, W. J. S. 1973. Amaranthus edulis: a high Iysine grain amaranth. World Crops 25(1):20.

Edwards, A. D. 1981. Amaranth Grain Production Guide. Rodale Press, Inc., Emmaus, Pennsylvania, USA. 20 pp.

El-Sharkawy, M. A., R. S. Loomis, and W. A. Williams. 1968. Photosynthetic and respiratory exchanges of carbon dioxide by leaves of the grain amaranths. Journal of Applied Ecology
5(1):243-251.

Feine, L. B., R. R. Harwood, C. S. Kauffman, and J. P. Senft. 1979. Amaranth: gentle giant of the past and future. Pp. 41-63 in New Agricultural Crops, C. A. Ritchie, ed. AAAS

Selected Symposium 38. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, USA. Foy, C. D. and T. A. Campbell. 1981. Differential tolerances of Amaranthus strains to high levels of AL and MN in acid soils. Agronomy Abstracts, 176.

Fuller, H. J. 1949. Photoperiodic responses of Chenopodium quinoa willd. and Amaranthus caudatus L. American Journal of Botany 36:175-180.

Gilbert, L., and C. S. Kauffman. 1981. Cooking characteristics and sensory qualities of amaranth grain varieties. Rodale Research Report 81-36. Rodale Press, Inc., Emmaus, Pennsylvania, USA. 29 pp.

Grubben, G. J. H. 1976. The cultivation of amaranth as a tropical leaf vegetable, with special reference to South Dahomey. Communication No. 67. Department of Agricultural Research

Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 207 pp., including 197 references.

Grubben, G. J. H. 1980. Cultivation methods and growth analysis of vegetable amaranth with special reference to South Benin. Proceedings of the Second Amaranth Conference. Rodale Press, Inc., Emmaus, Pennsylvania. USA.

Grubben, G. J. H., and D. H. van Sloten. 1981. Genetic Resources of Amaranths: A Global Plan of Action. ACP:IBPGR/80/2. International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 57 pp.

Hanelt, P. 1968. Bemerkungen zur Systematik und Anbaugeschichte einiger Amaranthus-D

Arten. [Contributions to cultivated plants flora. Part 1. Comments on the systematics and the history of cultivation of some Amaranthus-D species.] Die Kulturpflanze 16: 127-149.

Harris, D. J., P. R. Cheeke, and N. M. Patton. 1980. A note on the feeding value of Amaranthus (pigweed) and Chenopodium (lamb's quarters) to rabbits. Journal of Applied Rabbit Research 3(3):11-13.

Haas, P. W. 1983. Amaranth density report. Rodale Research Report NC-83-8. Rodale

Press, Inc., Emmaus, Pennsylvania, USA. (A 3-year summary of testing to determine optimum plant populations at Rodale Research Center.)

Hauptli, H., and S. K. Jain. 1980. Genetic polymorphisms and yield components in a population of amaranth. Journal of Heredity 71(4):290-292.

Heiser, C. B., Jr. 1964. Sangorache, an amaranth used ceremonially in Ecuador. American Anthropologist 66:136-140.

Hunziker, A. T. 1952. Los Pseudocereales de la agriculture indigene de America. Acme Agency, Cordoba and Buenos Aires, Argentina. 104 pp.

Irving, D. W., A. A. Betschart, and R. M. Saunders. 1981. Morphological studies on

Amaranthus cruentus. Journal of Food Science 46:1170-1174.

Jain, S. K., and H. Hauptli. 1980. Grain amaranth: a new crop for California. Agronomy

Progress Report No. 107, April 14. Cooperative Extension Service, University of California, Berkeley, California, USA. 3 pp.

Jain, S. K., L. Wu, and K. R. Vaidya. 1980. Levels of morphological and allozyme variation in Iudian amaranths, a striking contrast. Journal of Heredity 71(4):283-285.

Joshi, B. D. 1981a. Exploration for amaranth in northwest India. Pp. 41-51 in Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter. AGP:PGR/48. International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.

Joshi, B. D. 1981b. Catalogue on amaranth germplasm. Regional Station National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR), Phagli, Simla 171012, India 42 pp.

Joshi, B. D., K. L. Mehra, and S. D. Sharma. 1983. Cultivation of grain amaranth in the northwestern hills (India, Amaranthus spp., germplasm, varieties, yields). Indian Farming 32(12):34-35, 37.

Kauffman, C. S. 1982. Improved grain amaranth varieties and their yields. Rodale Research Report NC-81-1. Rodale Press, Inc., Emmaus, Pennsylvania, USA. (A 3-year summary of yield testing at Rodale Research Center.) 45 pp.

Kauffman, C. S., N. N. Bailey, and B. T. Volak. 1983. Amaranth grain production guide. Rodale Research Report NC-83-6. Rodale Press, Inc., Emmaus, Pennsylvania, USA.

Kauffman, C. S., N. N. Bailey, B. T.Volak, L. E. Weber, and N. R. yolk, 1984. Amaranth Grain Production Guide. Rodale Research Report NC-84-6. Rodale Press, Inc., Emmaus, Pennsylvania, USA

Kauffman, C. S., and P. W. Haas. 1982. Grain amaranth: an overview of research and production methods. Rodale Research Report NC-83-5. Rodale Press, Inc., Emmaus Pennsylvania, USA. 13 pp.

Kauffman, C. S., and C. Reider. 1983. Rodale amaranth germ plasm collection. Rodale Research Report NC-83-2. Rodale Press, Inc., Emmaus, Pennsylvania, USA. 81 pp.

Khoshoo, T. N., and M. Pal. 1972. Cytogenetic patterns in Amaranthus. Chromosomes Today 3:259-267.

Koch, B., M. Kota, and I. M. Horvath. 1965. Fodder crops as leaf protein. Agrobotanika 7:19-28.

Leon, J. 1964. Plantas alimenticias Andinos. Pp. 71-85 in Boletin Technico No. 6. Instituto Intermericano de Ciencias Agricolas Zona Andina, Lima, Peru.

Lexander, K., R. Carlsson, V. Schalen,A. Simonsson, and T. Lundborg. 1970. Quantities and qualities of leaf protein concentrates from wild species and crop species grown under controlled conditions. Annals of Applied Biology 66(2):193-216.

MacNeish, R. S. 1971. Speculation about how and why food production and village life developed in the Tehuacan Valley, Mexico. Archaeology 24(4):307-315.

Marten, G. C., and R. N. Andersen. 1975. Forage nutritive value and palatability of 12 common annual weeds. Crop Science 15(6):821-827.

Martin, F. W., and L. Telek. 1979. Vegetables for the hot, humid tropics. Part 6. Amaranthus and Celosia. United States Department of Agriculture, New Orleans Louisiana, USA. 21 pp., including 15 references.

Mugerwa, J. S., and R. Bwabye. 1974. Yield, composition and in vitro digestibility of Amaranthus hybridus subspecies incurvatus. Tropical Grasslands 8(1):49-53.

Mugerwa, J. S., and W. Stafford. 1976. Effect of feeding oxalate-rich Amaranthus on ovine serum, calcium and oxalate levels. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal 42(1):71-75. National Academy of Sciences. 1975. Underexploited Tropical Plants with Promising Economic Value. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., USA. 189 pp.

Odwongo, W. O., and J. S. Mugerwa. 1980. Performance of calves on diets containing Amaranthus leaf meal. Animal Feed Science and Technology 5(3): 193-204.

Oliveira de Paiva, W. 1978. Amarantaceas: nova op�ao de espinafres tropicais pare a Amazonia. Acta Amazonica 8:357-363.

Olufolaji, A. O., and T. O. Tayo. 1980. Growth development and mineral contents of three cultivars of amaranth Amaranthus cruentus. HortScience 13(2):181-190.

Omueti, O. 1980. Effects of age on celosia cultivars. Experimental Agriculture 16:279286.

Pal, M., and T. N. Khoshoo. 1974. Grain amaranths. Pp. 129-137 in Evolutionary Studies in World Crops: Diversity and Change in the Indian Subcontinent, Sir J. Hutchinson, ed. Cambridge University Press, London, England.

Pal, M., and T. N. Khoshoo. 1973a. Evolution and improvement of cultivated amaranths. 6. Cytogenetic relationships in grain types. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 43:242251.

Pal, M., and T. N. Khoshoo. 1973b. Evolution and improvement of cultivated amaranths. 7. Cytogenic relationships in vegetable amaranth. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 43:343- 350.

Rajagopal, A., C. R. Muthukrishnan, M. K. Mohideen, and S. Syed. 1977. Co 2 Amaranthus. An early vigorous variety. South Indian Horticulture 25(3):102-105. Rodale Press, Inc. 1977. Proceedings of the First Amaranth Seminar, held at Kutztown,

Pennsylvania, USA, July 29, 1977. Rodale Press, Inc., Emmaus, Pennsylvania, USA. 130 pp. (Ten papers; review of research in the United States, 1975-1977, mainly on cereal amaranths.)

Rodale Press, Inc. 1980. Proceedings of the Second Amaranth Conference, held at

Kutztown, Pennsylvania, USA, September 13-14, 1979. Rodale Press, Inc., Emmaus, Pennsylvania, USA. 184 pp. (Papers on nutrition, cultivation, assembly, and handling of germplasm.)

Sanchez-Marroquin, A. 1983. Two forgotten crops of agroindustrial importance: amaranth and quinoa. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutricion 33:11-32.

Sanchez-Marroquin, A. 1980. Potencialidad agro-industrial del amaranto. Centro de Estudios Economicos y Sociales del Tercer, Mundo, Mexico.

Sauer, J. D. 1967. The grain amaranths and their relatives: a revised taxonomic and geographic survey. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 54(2):103-137.

Sauer, J. D. 1950. The grain amaranths: a survey of their history and classification. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 37:561-619.

Saunders, R. M., and R. Becker. In press. Amaranthus. Vol. 6, Chapter 6 in Advances In Cereal Science and Technology, Y. Pomeranz, ed. American Association of Cereal Chemistry, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA.

Senft, J. P. 1980. Protein quality of amaranth grain. Rodale Research Report 80-3. Rodale Press, Inc., Emmaus, Pennsylvania, USA. 14 pp.

Senft, J. P., C. S. Kauffman, and N. N. Bailey. 1981. The Genus Amaranthus: A Comprehensive Bibliography. Rodale Press, Inc., Emmaus, Pennsylvania, USA. 217 pp

Singh, H., and A. Rakib. 1971. Chemical evaluation of certain poultry feed stuff. Indian Journal of Animal Research 5(1):39-42.

Singh H., and T. A. Thomas. 1978. Grain Amaranths, Buckwheat and Chenopods. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, India. 70 pp.

Toll, J., and D. H. van Sloten. 1982. Directory of Germplasm Collections. 4. Vegetables AGP:IBPGR/82/1. International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 187 pp.

Wilson, G. F., and H. P. Curfs. 1976. Cost of production and estimated income from celosia (Celosia argentea L.) under two production systems. Vegetables for the Hot Humid Tropics Newsletter (Mayaguez) 1:35-37.


Research Contacts[edit]

Argentina

A. T. Hunziker, Museo Botanico, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, Casilla de Correo 495, 5000 Cordoba

Brazil

L. Jokl and A. Duarte Correa, Faculdade de Farmacia-UFMG, Av. Olegario Maciel 2360, 30000 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (grain fractionation, composition)

W. O. dePaiva, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Caixa Postal 478, Manaus, Amazonas CEP 69.000 (variety testing amaranth, celosia)

Colombia

M. 1. Sehvaness, Calle 125 No. 37-47, Bogota

Federal Republic of Germany

F. Mustafa, Roggen Str. 16, 7000 Stuttgart 70 (cultural practices)

German Democratic Republic

P. Hanelt, Zentralinstitut fur Genetik und Kulturpflanzenforschung, der Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, 4325 Gatersleben

Ghana

J. C. Norman, Head, Department of Horticulture, Dean, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Science and Technology, University P.O., Kumasi (cultivation)

Greece

A. Gagianas, Department of Agronomy, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki

Guatemala

R. Bressani, Instituto de Nutricion de Centro America y Panama (INCAP), Apartado Postal 1188, Carretera Roosevelt Zona 11, Guatemala City

India

R. K. Arora, National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR), Indian Agricultural Research Institute, IARI Campus, New Delhi 110012 (exploration)

B. Choudhury, Division of Vegetable Crops and Floriculture, Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi 110012 (variety testing)

R. P. Devadas, Director, Sri Avinashilingam Home Science College for Women, Coimbatore 641043, Tamil Nadu (iron and carotene availability to children)

B. D. Joshi, National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR), Regional Station, Phagli, Simla 171012 (Indian grain amaranths)

M. Kader Mohideen, Horticultural Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Perumbarai 624212, Madurai District, Tamil Nadu (breeding, cultivation)

T. N. Khoshoo, Secretary to the Government of India, Department of Environment, Bikaner House, Shahjahan Road New Delhi 110011 (cytogenetics, hybridization)

P. P. Kurien, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Cheluvamba Mansion, V. V. Mohalla, Mysore 570013

C. R. Mathukrishnan [Dean (Horticulture) retired], 13/187 D. B. Road, R. S. Punam, Coimbatore 641002, Tamil Nadu (cultivation, breeding)

G. Oblisami, Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore 641003, Tamil Nadu (bacterial inoculants)

M. Pal, Cytogenics Laboratory, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow 226001 (cytogenetics, evolution, breeding)

A. Rajagopal, Professor of Agronomy, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai 625104, Tamil Nadu (cultivation)

C. Ramachandran, Department of Olericulture, College of Horticulture, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikkara 680654, Trichur, Kerala (horticulture, humid tropic vegetables)

S. Saroja, Sri Avinashilingam Home Science College for Women, Coimbatore 641043, Tamil Nadu (iron and carotene availability to children)

K. G. Shanmugavelu, Professor and Head, Department of Horticulture, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai 625104, Tamil Nadu (breeding)

N. Sivakami, Division of Vegetable Crops and Floriculture, Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi 110012 (variety testing)

M. Vijayakumar, Horticultural Officer, Pomological Station, Coonoor, Nilgiris District, Tami, Nadu (varietal testing, growth studies)

M. Vishakantalah, Division of Entomology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Hebbal, Bangalore 560024 (Plutella caterpillars)

Indonesia

Z. Abidin, Balai Penelitian Tanamin Pangan Lembang, Lembang, Jawa Barat (cultivation) S. Harjadi, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy, Bogor Agricultural University, Jalan oto Iskandardinata, Bogor (nutrition, cultivation)

Italy

D. H. van Sloten, Genetic Resources Officer (Horticulture) Crop Genetic Resources Centre/lBPGR Secretariat, Plant Production and Protection Division, FAO, Via delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome (genetic resources)

Kenya

V. K. Gupta, Department of Crop Science, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi

S. K. Imbamba, Department of Botany, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi (protein analysis)

J. O. Kokwaro, Department of Botany, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi (taxonomy and ecology)

Mexico

A. Sanchez-Marroquin, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agricolas, Miami 40, Mexico, D.F. 03810 (industrial uses of amaranth grain)

A. Trinidad-Santos, Centro de Edafologia, Colegio de Postgraduados, Chapingo, Edo. de Mexico (agronomic research)

Nepal

H. K. Saiju, Royal Botanical Gardens, Godawary, Lalit pur Dist. (cereal amaranth germplasm)

Netherlands

G. J. H. Grubben, Research Station for Arable Farming and Field Production of Vegetables, Edelhertweg 1, Postbus 43O, 8200 AK Lelystad

New Zealand

R. A. Crowder, Lincoln College, Canterbury

D. W. Devine, Product Development Manager, N.Z. Flourmills, Ltd., P.O. Box 30461, Lower Hutt

Nigeria

O. Bassir, Biochemistry Department, University of Ibadan, P.O. Box 4021, University Post Office, Oyo Road, Ibadan (protein)

L. Denton, National Horticultural Research Institute, Idi-lshin, P.M.B. 5432, Ibadan (germplasm collection, breeding)

A. A. O. Edema, Breeder/Geneticist, National Horticultural Research Institute, P.M.B. 5432, Ibadan (amaranth and celosia cultivation)

M. Fafunso Department Biochemistry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (food technology, composition, vitamin C, amaranth, celosia)

International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Oyo Road, P.M.B. 532O, Ibadan (agronomy)

J. O. S. Kogbe, Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, University of Ife, P.M.B. 5029, Moor Plantation, Ibadan

O. L. Oke, Dean, Faculty of Science, University of Ife, Ile-lfe (nutritional value)

B. N. Okigbo, Deputy Director General, International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Oyo Road, P.M.B. 5320, Ibadan (farming systems)

A. O. Olufolaji, National Horticultural Research Institute, P.M.B. 5432, Ibadan (cultivation, mineral content)

O. Omueti, Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, University of Ife, P.M.B. 5029, Moor Plantation, Ibadan (celosia cultivation)

I. C. Onwueme, School of Agricultural Technology, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 1526, Owerri (temperature stress, amaranth and celosia)

O. Osi Banjo, Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (vitamin C)

Prem Nath, National Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT), Idi-lshin, P.M.B. 5432, Ibadan (germplasm)

T. O. Tayo, Department of Agricultural Biology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (cultivation, mineral content)

G. F. Wilson, International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Oyo Road, P.M.B. 5320, Ibadan (cultivation)

Peru

S. E. Antunez de Mayolo R., Apartado (P.O.B.) 18-5469, Lima 18

R. Ferreyra, Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Casilla 11434, Lima 14

L.S. Kalinowski, Department of Agriculture, Universidad Nacional de Cuzco, Avenida Infancia 440, Cuzco

Sierra Leone

Sama S. Monde, Biological Sciences Department, Njala University College, P.M.B., Freetown (grain)

Sweden

R. Carlsson, Department of Plant Physiology, Box 7007, S-220 07, Lund (whole plant, leaf, leaf nutrient/protein concentrate, grain: composition, nutritive value)

Taiwan

Han Huang, Department of Horticulture, National Taiwan University, Taipei 107 (temperature)

L. Ho, AVRDC Seed Laboratory, P.O. Box 42, Shanhua, Tainan (germplasm collection)

Lin Chao-Hsiung, Department of Vegetable Crops, Fengshan Tropical Horticultural Experiment Station, Fengshan, Kaohsiung (cultivation, variety testing)

Tanzania

N.A. Mnzava, Faculty of Agriculture, Forestry and Veterinary Sciences, University of Dar es Salaam, Chuo Kikuu, Morogoro

Thailand

Chuckree Senthong, Chairman, Department of Agronomy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai

Soonthorn Duriyaprapan, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research (TISTR), 196 Phahonyothin Road, Bangkhen, Bangkok 9

T. Tonguthaisri, Mae Jo Institute of Agricultural Technology, Chiang Mai (vegetable amaranths collection)

United Kingdom

G. J. L. Griffin, Ecological Materials Research Institute, Brunel University, Shoreditch Campus, Egham, Surrey TW20 OJZ

B. Pickersgill, Department of Agricultural Botany, Plant Science Laboratories, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 2AS

C. C. Townsend, Herbarium, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey

L. St. Lawrence, Kins Plants Ltd., Woodcote Grove Ashley Road, Epsom, Surrey KT18 SBW

United States

G. C. W. Ames, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Georgia College of Agriculture, 301 Conner Hall, Athens, Georgia 30602 (Vegetable amaranth in Zaire)

W. Applegate, Post Rock Natural Grain, Box 24A, Luray, Kansas 67649 (farm research and production of grain amaranth)

N. N. Bailey, Rodale Research Center, R.D. 1, Box 323, Kutztown, Pennsylvania 19530

A. R. Baldwin (Retired, Vice President and Executive Director of Research, Cargill, Inc.), 4854 Thomas Avenue South, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55410

R. Becker, USDA Western Regional Research Laboratory, Cereals Research Unit, 800 Buchanan St., Berkeley, California 94710 (nutrition, composition)

J. A. Beutler, School of Pharmacy, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (feeding trials, nitrate and oxalate)

A. Betschart, Nutrients Research Unit, USDA Western Regional Research Laboratory 800 Buchanan St., Berkeley, California 94710

T. A. Campbell, Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 (plant introduction and vegetable amaranth research)

M. P. Coons, 6715 SW 88th Street, No. 712, Miami, Florida 33156 (taxonomy)

P. R. Cheeke, Department of Animal Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (feeding trials, grain and leaves)

C. R. Daloz, R.D. 1, Box 819, Hancock, New Hampshire 03449

A. H. DerMarderosian, Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (feeding trials)

D. K. Early, Central Oregon Community College, N.W. College Way, Bend, Oregon 97701

A. D. Edwards, Agronomy Department, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, Virginia 24060

J. Ehleringer, Department of Biology, 201 Biology Building, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112

L. B. Feine, Rodale Research Center, R. D. 1, Box 323, Kutztown, Pennsylvania 19530 (germplasm, taxonomy)

H. Flores, Department of Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (physiology, tissue culture)

A. W. Galston, Department of Biology, Yale University, New Haven. Connecticut 06520 (physiology, tissue culture)

L. Gilbert, Test Kitchen, Rodale Press, 33 E. Minor Street, Emmaus, Pennsylvania 18049 (amaranth foods)

R. R. Harwood, Rodale Research Center, R.D. 1, Box 323, Kutztown, Pennsylvania 19530 (cultivation practices, breeding)

P. W. Haas, Rodale Research Center, R.D. 1, Box 323, Kutztown, Pennsylvania 19530 (cultivation practices, gremplasm)

H. Hauptli, Agronomy and Range Science Department, University of California, Davis California 95616 (genetics, germplasm exploration Central and South America)

M. Irwin, 2823 Oakridge Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53704 (production of grain amaranth)

S. K. Jain, Agronomy and Range Science Department, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (genetics, evolution)

M. Jones, Rt. I, Lodgepole, Nebraska 69419 (production of grain amaranth)

C. S. Kauffman, Rodale Research Center, R.D. 1, Box 323, Kutztown, Pennsylvania 19530 (breeding cereal amaranths, germplasm)

M. Langley, P.O. Box 9085, Austin, Texas 78766

R. D. Locy, NPI, Inc., 417 Wakara Way, Salt Lake City, Utah 84108

J. Martineau, Plant Resources Institute, 360 Wakara Way, Salt Lake City, Utah 84108

J. B. McElroy, Department of Plant Breeding and Biometry, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (breeding taxonomy)

C. M. McKell, Vice President, Research, NPI, Inc., 417 Wakara Way, Salt Lake City Utah 84108

C. McNeil, RR 1, Box 30, Paradise, Kansas 67658 (production of grain amaranth)

W. P. Miller, Director, Amerind Agrotech Laboratory, P.O. Box 97, Sacaton, Arizona 85247

H. M. Munger,410 Bradfield Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (breeding)

G. Nabhan, President, Native Seeds-Search, 3950 West New York Drive, Tucson, Arizona 85745 (germplasm, ethnobotany)

T. Ney, Rodale Food Center, Rodale Press, 33 E. Minor Street, Emmaus, Pennsylvania 18049 (amaranth foods)

Pai Chi Chang, Rt. 30, Williamstown, New York 13493

K. Patchen, RR 2, Box 396A, Mundelain, Illinois 60060 (production of grain amaranth)

M. L. Price, ECHO, R.R. 2, Box 852, North Fort Myers, Florida 33903

R. Ramback, Applegate Produce, 3030 Upper Applegate, Jacksonville, Oregon 97530 (production of grain amaranth)

J. F. Ramirez, New York State Agriculture Experiment Station, P.O. Box 462, Food Research Center, Geneva, New York 14456

C. Reider, Rodale Research Center, R. D. 1, Box 323, Kutztown, Pennsylvania 19530 (germplasm, yield studies)

J. R. K. Robson, 171 Ashley Ave., Charleston, South Carolina 29403

R. Rodale, Rodale Press, 33 E. Minor Street, Emmaus, Pennsylvania 18049

R. M. Ruberte, Mayaguez Institute of Tropical Agriculture, USDA, Box 70, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 00708 (botany, composition)

D. J. Sammons, Department of Agronomy, University of Maryland' College Park, Maryland 20742

R. M. Saunders, Cereal Products Research, USDA Western Regional Research Laboratory, 800 Buchanan St., Berkeley, California 94710

J. Senft, 378 Fairview St., Emmaus, Pennsylvania 18049 (nitrate and oxalate studies, protein quality)

M. Shannon, U.S. Salinity Laboratory, USDA-ARS, 4500 Glenwood Drive, Riverside, California 92501

A. A. Sigle, R.R. 1, Box 2, Luray, Kansas 67649 (farm research and production of grain amaranth)

L. Telek, Mayaguez Institute of Tropical Agriculture, USDA, Box 70, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 00708 (botany, composition)

K. R. Vaidya, Department of Agronomy and Range Science, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (genetics)

D. Wall, Department of Agronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742

L. Walters. 1640 Harris Lane, Naperville, Illinois 60565 (production of grain amaranth)

L. Wu. Environmental Horticulture Department, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (genetics)

Zambia

Zambia Seed Co, Ltd., P.O. Box 35441, Buyantanshi Road, Lusaka (cultivation, germplasm)


Germplasm Collections and Commercial Seed Suppliers[edit]

The following list of amaranth seed sources is based on Grubben and van Sloten, 1981, and Toll and van Sloten, 1982. See Selected Readings.

Benin

Centre de Formation Horticole et Nutritionnelle, B.P. 13, Ouando, Port-Novo (commercial seed; both amaranth and celosia cultivars)

Bolivia

Estacion Experimental de Patacamaya, Instituto Boliviano de Tecnologia Agropecuaria (IBTA), Patacamaya (N. Lizarraga, Amaranthus caudatus, 430 landraces from the Andean region)

France

Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques, Petit-Bourg, Guadeloupe (working collection of local cultivars)

German Democratic Republic

Zentralinstitut fur Genetik und Kulturpflanzenforschung, Corrensstrasse 3, 4325 Gatersleben (H. Bohme, Chr. Lehmann, 100 samples of 17 wild, weedy, and cultivated species)

Ghana

Department of Horticulture, University of Science and Technology, Kumasi (working collection)

Hong Kong

Wong Yukhop Seed Co., 20 Pei Ho Street, Shumshuipo, Kowloon (two commercial cultivars)

India

Pocha's Seeds, P.O. Box 55, Poona 411001, Maharashtra (3 commercial cultivars)

Division of Vegetable Crops and Floriculture, Indian Agricultural Research Institute QARI), New Delhi 110012 (working collection)

National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR), Indian Agricultural Research Institute, IARI Campus, New Delhi 110012 (K. L. Mehra; Amaranthus species, 824 mostly landraces from India)

Division of Vegetable Crops, Institute of Horticultural Research, 225 Upper Palace Orchards, Bangalore (working collection)

Kerala Agricultural University, College of Horticulture, P.O. Vellanikkara 680651, Trichur Kerala (working collection)

Faculty of Horticulture, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore 641003 (C. P. Muthukrishnan, 450 landraces mainly from India)

National Botanical Gardens, Lucknow, 226001, UP (working collection)

National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR), Regional Station, Phagli, Simla 171012 (B. D. Joshi; more than 1,000 samples of landraces from India and 27 introductions)

Suttons Seeds, P.O. Box 9010, Calcutta-16 (4 commercial cultivars)

Indonesia

National Biological Institute, P.O. Box 110, Bogor (S. Sastrapradja; 75 landraces from Indonesia)

Japan

T. Sakata, CPO Box Yokohama 11, Yokohama 220-91 (I commercial cultivar)

Netherlands

Department of Tropical Crops, Agricultural University, Ritzema Bosweg 32, Wageningen (working collection)

Nigeria

International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Oyo Road, P.M.B. 5320, Ibadan (working collection)

Plant Science Department, University of Ife, Ile-Ife (working collection)

National Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT), Idi-Ishin, P.M.B. 5432 Ibadan (T. Badra A. A. O. Edema, L. Denton, 240 population samples of landraces and breeders' lines from Nigeria)

Peru

Estacion Experimental de Camacani, Universidad Nacional Tecnica del Altiplano, Puno (L. Lescano, L. Perez, 440 landraces from the Andean region)

Centro de Investigacion de Cultivos Andinos, Universidad Nacional del Cuzco, Avenida de la Infancia 440, Huanchac, Cuzco (L. Sumar Kalinowski; 100 accessions cereals)

Taiwan

Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center (AVRDC), P.O. Box 42, Shanhua, Tainan 741 (L. Ho; 92 samples of wild forms, landraces, and commercial cultivars from Africa, Asia, and the United States)

Hsing Nong Seed Co., 188 Sec. 4 Chung Hsin Road, P.O. Box San Chung No. 2, San Chung, Taipei (several commercial cultivars)

Known-You Seed Co., 26 Chung Cheng 2nd Road, Ka Ohsiung, Taiwan (popular cultivars for Taiwan)

Taipei District Agricultural Improvement Station, Chin Chun, Taipei (working collection)

Taiwan Seed Service, Shin-Shien, Taichung (several commercial cultivars)

Thailand

Chia Tai Seeds and Agricultural Company, Ltd., 295-303 Songsawad Road, Bangkok (2 commercial cultivars)

Fang Horticultural Experiment Station, Department of Agriculture, Fang, Chiang Mai (T. Thonguthaisri; 115 landraces from Thailand)

United Kingdom

Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Wakehurst Place, Ardingly, Haywards Heath, Sussex RH17 6TN (S. Linington; samples of wild origin)

United States

Burpee Seed Company, Warminster, Pennsylvania (I commercial cultivar; tampala)

G. Seed Co., P.O. Box 702, Tonasket, Washington 98855

Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 (gene bank, plant introduction for long-term storage)

Grace's Gardens, 22 Autumn Lane, Hackettstown, New Jersey 07840

Gurney Seed and Nursery Co., Yankton, South Dakota 57079

Johnny's Selected Seeds, Albion, Maine 04910

Mellinger's Inc., 2310 W. So. Range Road, North Lima, Ohio 44452

National Seed Storage Laboratory (NSSL), U.S. Department of Agriculture, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (L. N. Bass; duplicates of Rodale collection)

Park Seed Company, P.O. Box 31, Greenwood, South Carolina 29647, (I commercial cultivar; Tampala)

Plants of the Southwest, 1570 Pachero St., Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501

Redwood City Seed Co., P.O. Box 361, Redwood City, California 94064

Rodale Research Center, R.D. 1, Box 323, Kutztown, Pennsylvania 19530 (C. S. Kauffman; more than 600 accessions cereals, vegetable, and wild species)

Thompson and Morgan, P.O. Box 100, Farmingdale, New York 07727 (I commercial cultivar; Hinn Choy)

Tsang and Ma International, P.O. Box 294, Belmont, California 94002 (I commercial cultivar)

Zambia

Crop Science Department, School of Agricultural Sciences, University of Zambia, P.O. Box 2379, Lusaka (collection of 100 local cultivars plus landraces from India, Nigeria, and the United States)


Biographical Sketches of Panel Members[edit]

MELVIN G. BLASE, Professor of Agricultural Economics, University of Missouri, Columbia, received his Ph.D. from Iowa State University in 1960 and served on the faculties of that institution and the Air Force Institute of Technology before joining the University of Missouri. While he has undertaken research in international agricultural development in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, his domestic research centers on new crops for U.S. agriculture and alternative energy sources. Dr. Blase has written one book, edited two others, and written numerous articles.

T. AUSTIN CAMPBEEL is a Research Agronomist with the U.S. Department of Agriculture and is currently specializing in new-crop breeding. He received his B.S. in conservation and resource development from the University of Maryland in 1967 and spent six years with the alfalfa project of the USDA as a technician and research assistant. He received an M.S. in plant breeding from the University of Maryland in 1972 and joined the Weed Science Laboratory as a support scientist in 1973. Two years later he assumed his present position conducting research on numerous potential new-crop species, including kenaf, Crambe, Lesquerella, Limnanthes, Asclepias syriaca, Rhus glabra, Cuphea, and Stokes aster, as well as amaranth. He received his Ph.D. in plant breeding from the University of Maryland in 1980.

LAURIE B. FEINE, an amaranth taxonomy and germplasm consultant, earned her B.A. from the University of Colorado in environmental, population, and organismic biology in 1976. She worked for the Rodale Research Center, specializing in amaranth germplasm and taxonomy, and began plant-breeding and selection work for improved grain varieties. She continued her work on amaranth taxonomy at Harvard Herbaria and has also collected amaranth germplasm in Mexico and Peru for the Rodale Research Center and IBPGR.

HECTOR E. FEORES-MERINO, Research Assistant at the Department of Biology, Yale University, received a B.S. in biology in 1974 from The National Academy of Sciences the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos in Lima, Peru. After teaching for two years, he did research at the Puerto Rico Nuclear Center in Mayaguez and earned an M.S. in horticulture from the College of Agriculture at Mayaguez in 1978. He was a research assistant at Rutgers University, Department of Horticulture, and is currently completing his doctoral studies at Yale. His research has involved propagation of ornamental and crop plants through tissue and cell culture and development of inoculants for nitrogenfixing bacteria. He is currently studying the physiology and biochemistry of polyamines in higher plants and metabolic responses of plant cells to various types of environmental stress.

LINDA C.GILBERT, Coordinating Supervisor of Product Development in the Test Kitchen at Rodale Press, Inc., received a B.Ag.Sci. degree from the University of Arizona in 1978. Since that time, she has worked in the Rodale Test Kitchens developing healthful recipes for magazines and books. Her research has centered primarily around uses for, and varietal selections of, vegetable protein food sources, including grain and vegetable amaranths, vegetable soybeans, sprouting soybeans, okra seed, and cold-tolerant leafy green vegetables.

GERALD J.H. GRUBBEN is head of the Department of Crop Research at the Research Station for Arable Farming and Field Production of Vegetables in Lelystad, Netherlands. He served as a FAO expert in horticultural projects in Ivory Coast and Benin from 1965 to 1973.

In 1975 he received his Ph.D. (agriculture) on a thesis "The Cultivation of Amaranth as a Tropical Leaf Vegetable." From 1975 to 1981 he was attached to the Department of Agricultural Research, Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam. He conducted a survey on genetic resources of vegetables for the International Board of Genetic Resources. He was involved in consultancy missions on vegetable growing, crop research, germplasm, and seed production to tropical countries.

RICHARD R. HARWOOD, Director of the Rodale Research Center in Kutztown,

Pennsylvania, received a B.S. from Cornell University and a Ph.D. in horticulture and plant breeding from Michigan State University in 1967. He worked as a staff member of the Rockefeller Foundation in India and Thailand from 1967 to 1971 and then as head of the Cropping Systems Program at the International Rice Research Institute until 1976. Dr. Harwood has had numerous Third World agricultural development consulting assignments.

He participated as a cropping system specialist in the 1976 vegetable cropping systems delegation of the Committee on Scholarly Exchange with the People's Republic of China.

His current work is focused on organic farming systems and new crop development for a sustainable agriculture.

SUBODH JAIN, Professor of Agronomy at the University of California, Davis, received a B.S. from Delhi University in 1954 and a Ph.D. from the University of California, Davis, in 1960.

He has worked extensively on the population biology of inbreeding crop species from which he has recently developed interests in the evaluation and conservation of genetic resources and in the domestication of new crops. He has traveled widely for both germplasm collections and teaching/consulting assignments and has had Guggenheim and Fulbright awards for work in Australia and India, respectively.

CHARLES S. KAUFFMAN, Coordinator of New Crops Research at the Rodale Research

Center in Kutztown, Pennsylvania, received his B.S. in horticulture from the Pennsylvania State University in 1971 and an M.S. in horticulture and plant breeding from North Carolina State University in 1974. He worked in an agricultural development project for unconventional crops in the southeastern United States for Thomas J. Lipton, Inc. Since 1978, the majority of his time has been spent doing research and writing on grain amaranth, especially as related to germplasm cataloging, varietal development, and the improvement of cultural techniques.

T. N. KHOSHOO is Secretary to the Government of India, Department of Environment. He received his B.Sc. and M.Sc. (botany) from Panjab University, Lahore, and his Ph.D. (cytogenetics of conifers) from Chandigarh. He has served as Director of the National Botanical Research Institute and Deputy Director of the National Botanic Gardens in Lucknow. He worked on the experimental evolution and improvement of nonagricultural economic plants, particularly ornamental and subsidiary food plants (amaranths). He also worked out the genetic-evolutionary race histories and evolved several new cultivars that have sold in nursery trade. He is now concerned with the policy, planning, and management of the environment in India, including wildlife.

JUDITH M. LYMAN, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, received her Ph.D. in plant breeding in 1980, her M.S. in floriculture and horticulture in 1976, and her B.A. in botany at Duke University, Durham, North Carolina. After two years of field work at the Centro International de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) in Cali, Colombia, as Visiting Research Associate and Assistant to the Director of Research, she is currently

Visiting Research Fellow at the Rockefeller Foundation, where she is involved in international agricultural program activities and project germplasm resources from biological and economic perspectives.

CYRUS M. MCKELL is Vice-President, Research, Native Plants, Inc., Salt Lake City, Utah.

He received his B.S. and M.S. degrees from the University of Utah in biological science and botany. In 1956 he earned a Ph.D. in plant ecology, with minors in soils and rangeland management from

Oregon State University. From 1956 to 1961 he served as a range plant physiologist with the USDA Agricultural Research Service at Davis, California. In 1961 he became Vice-Chairman and later Chairman of the Agronomy Department, University of California, Riverside, and conducted research on arid land management problems. Subsequently, he joined the Range Science Department at Utah State University as department head, and later as Director of the Institute for Land Reclamation, a post he held until 1980. He has held numerous consultancies on arid land management worldwide and was a Fulbright scholar to Spain in 1968.

GARY PAUL NABHAN is the President of Native Seeds/SEARCH in Tucson, Arizona. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Arizona in 1983 and is a principal investigator conducting research on native agricultural ecosystems through the Office of Arid Lands Studies, University of Arizona. While receiving his M.S. in plant sciences at the same university, he assembled important germplasm collections of tepary beans, sunflowers, devil's claw, and other desert-adapted crops. He has also collected amaranths from the Sierra Madre and the Valley Mexico, as well as from U.S. Indian reservations. He has published more than twenty articles and one book (The Desert Smells Like Rain) on desert foods, ethnobotany, and seed conservation. Dr. Nabhan is on the founding board of directors of the Society of Ethnobiology and its journal and is honorary Vice-President of the Seed Saver's Exchange.

DONALD L. PLUCKNETT, with the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, the World Bank, received B.S. and M.S. degrees in agriculture and agronomy from the University of Nebraska in 1953 and 1957, respectively, and a Ph.D. in tropical soil science from the University of Hawaii in 1961. He has worked extensively in tropical crop and pasture research and has had broad international experience in tropical agriculture. He has been a consultant for many international groups, including working for the Ford Foundation on the Aswan Project in Egypt, for the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, United States Agency for

International Development (USAID), and the South Pacific Commission. From 1973 to 1976 he was Chief of the Soil and Water Management Division, Office of Agriculture, Technical Assistance Bureau, Agency for International Development, Washington, D.C. In 1976 he was awarded AID's Superior Honor Award for his activities in International Development. He has served on several National Academy of Sciences' study panels.

HUGH POPENOE is Professor of Soils, Agronomy, Botany, and Geog raphy and Director of the Center for Tropical Agriculture and International Programs (Agriculture) at the University of Florida. He received his B.S. from the University of California, Davis, in 1951 and his Ph.D. in soils from the University of Florida in 1960. His principal research interest has been in the area of tropical agriculture and land use. Dr. Popenoe's early work in shifting cultivation is one of the few contributions to knowledge of this system. He has traveled and worked in most of the countries in the tropical areas of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. He has served as Director of the Florida Sea Grant College, is a member of the Board of Trustees of the Escuela Agricola Panamericana in Honduras, and was Chairman of the Board for several years. He is a Visiting Lecturer on Tropical

Health at the Harvard School of Public Health and is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Society of Agronomy, the American Geographical Society, and the International Soils Science Society. He has served as Chairman of the Joint Research Committee of the Board for International Food and Agricultural Development (Title XII). He was Chairman of the Advisory Committee for Technology Innovation and a member of the Board on Science and Technology for International Development of the National Academy of Sciences.

ALFREDO SANCHEZ-MORROQUIN is a Research Scientist with the CIAMEC division of INIA (National Institute of Agriculture Research) in Chapingo, Mexico, and technical adviser of four agroindustries of Mexico and South America. After completing his B.Sc. in chemistry and microbiology at the National Polytechnic Institute, School of Biological Sciences, and his M.S. from Northwestern University, he joined the Polytechnic Institute as Professor of Criptogamic Botany and later as Chairman of the Department of Microbiology. In 1951 he received a D.Sc. degree from the National University of Mexico when he was working at the Faculty of Chemistry as Professor of Chemical Microbiology and later as Chairman of the Biology Department. He also worked with the School of Agronomy and the Post-Graduate College of the Secretary of Agriculture and was invited to be a visiting professor and scientific investigator in several South American universities and technological institutes. His research has focused on biotechnology: single-cell protein, fermentations, plant products, and food processing. He has published more than 100 papers, five books, and several journal articles and booklets. In 1979 he was appointed Emeritus Professor by the National Polytechnic Institute. In the same year he was awarded three national prizes in science and technology.

JONATHAN D. SAWER is Professor Or Geography at the University of California, Los Angeles. He received a B.A. in 1939 from the University of California, Berkeley, and his Ph.D. in botany at Washington University, St. Louis, and the Missouri Botanical Garden in 1950. From then until 1967, when he joined UCLA, he was on the botany faculty of the University of Wisconsin, Madison. His dissertation was on the grain amaranths, and he has continued to be interested in them and their wild relatives, trying to identify specimens sent in for taxonomic determination. His current research is primarily on ecology and geography of tropical seashore vegetation.

ROBIN M.SAUNDERS is Research Leader of the Cereals Research Unit, Western Regional Research Center, USDA, Albany, California. He has a B.S. and Ph.D. in chemistry from Birmingham (1960) and Newcastle (1963) universities, England, respectively. In 1966, after two years of postdoctoral work in biochemistry at the University of California, Berkeley, and one year in medical research in Pennsylvania, he joined USDA. In his current position, he directs a large research group engaged in various aspects of cereal-grain utilization, including development of crops tolerant to drought, temperature, and saline stress.

JOSEPH P.SENFT, formerly coordinator of nutritional programs at the Rodale Research Center, received a B.S. degree in biology from Juniata College in 1959 and M.S. and Ph.D degrees in biology from the State University of New York, Buffalo, in 1961 and 1965, respectively. His research has been on the evaluation of nutritional quality of both grain and vegetable amaranth. His research in agriculture has focused on soil-plant nutritional relationships.

ARRIS A.SIGLE is a farmer in north central Kansas. He received his B.S. degree in agricultural engineering from Kansas State University in 1973. He has been working with grain amaranth test plots and research since 1978. In 1981 he harvested and successfully marketed 14 acres of amaranth. He also grows wheat and milo and is in charge of a 200- head flock of ewes. He is especially interested in repairing, modifying, and designing new equipment to make his work with these projects more efficient.

THEODORE W.SUDIA is Senior Scientist, National Park Service. He received his B.S. from Kent State University in 1950 and his M.S. and Ph.D. from Ohio State University in 1951 and 1954, respectively. He taught at Winona State College, Winona, Minnesota, and at the University of Minnesota where he was in the Department of Plant Pathology and Physiology.

From 1967 to 1969 he was the Associate Director of the American Institute of Biological Sciences. In 1969 Dr. Sudia joined the National Park Service as Research Biologist. He has served as Chief, Ecological Services Division; Chief Scientist and Associate Director for Science and Technology of the Park Service; and Deputy Science Advisor of the National Park Service.

His research interests have ranged from plant ecology to environmental physiology. He is a Fellow of the AAAS.

NAMES L. VENTER is Vice-President, Technical, of the American Institute of Baking, a nonprofit research and educational organization. Dr. Vetter received an A.B. degree with a major in chemistry from Washington University in St. Louis in 1954 and his M.S. and Ph.D. in food technology from the University of Illinois in 1955 and 1958, respectively. Before joining the American Institute of Baking in 1977, he had a 10-year industrial research career working for companies in or related to the baking industry. These companies include Monsanto Company, Standard Brands, and Keebler Company. Dr. Vetter's current responsibilities involve administration of research activities related to the nutrition and science and technology of baking.

DAVID ERVIN WALSH is the Director and Vice-President of Research of the General Nutrition Corporation. He received his B.A. from St. Cloud State University in 1961 and an M.A. and Ph.D. from North Dakota State University, where he was an Associate Professor of Cereal Chemistry and Technology until 1974, when he joined the staff of General Nutrition Corporation in Fargo, North Dakota. His work includes computerization of food processing, research on lipids of barley, proteins of wheat, and on the industrial utilization of wheat. His present research includes: directing the corporation research program in food and cosmetic development, nutrition research on food supplements and health, and coordination of grants and aid programs for academic research directed toward food supplements and nutrition.

NOEL D. VIETMEYER, staff officer for this study, is Professional Associate of the Board on Science and Technology for International Development. A New Zealander with a Ph.D. in organic chemistry from the University of California, Berkeley, he now works on innovations in science that are important for developing countries.