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Report of an Ad Hoc Panel of the Board on Science and Technology for International Development National Research Council
NOTICE: The project that is the subject this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competence and with regard for appropriate balance.
This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences.
The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering.
The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Stuart Bonderant is acting president of the Institute of Medicine.
The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.
The Board on Science and Technology for International Development (BOSTID) of the Office of International Affairs addresses a range of issues arising from the ways in which science and technology in developing countries can stimulate and complement the complex processes of social and economic development. It oversees a broad program of bilateral workshops with scientific organizations in developing countries and conducts special studies. BOSTID's Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation publishes topical reviews of technical processes and biological resources of potential importance to developing countries.
This report has been prepared by an ad hoc advisory panel of the Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation, Board on Science and Technology for International Development, Office of International Affairs, National Research Council. Staff support was funded by the Office of the Science Advisor, Agency for International Development, under Grant No. DAN- 5538-G-00-1023-00, Amendments 27 and 29.
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 91-68332
Second printing 1993
PANEL ON NEEM
EUGENE B. SHULTZ, JR., School of Engineering and Applied Science, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, USA, Chairman
DEEPAK BHATNAGAR, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA
MARTIN JACOBSON, U.S. Department of Agriculture (retired), Silver Spring, Maryland, USA
ROBERT L. METCALF, Department of Entomology, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, USA
RAMESH C. SAXENA, International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, Nairobi, Kenya
DAVID UNANDER, Division of Population Science, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
* * *
NOEL D. VIETMEYER, Senior Program Officer, Board on Science and Technology for International Development, Neem Study Director and Scientific Editor
F. R. RUSKIN, BOSTID Editor
ELIZABETH MOUZON, Senior Secretary'
BRENT SIMPSON, MUCIA Intern
JOHN HURLEY, Director (until November 1991)
SALEEM AHMED, East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA
K.R.S. ASCHER, Department of Toxicology, The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel
EDWARD S. AYENSU, Pan-African Union for Science and Technology, Accra, Ghana
MICHAEL D. BENGE, U.S. Agency for International Development, Washington, D.C., USA
BARUCH S. BLUMBER,G Division of Population Science, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
JEAN GORSE, Paris, France
JEFFREY GRITZNER, Public Policy Research Institute, University of Montana, Missoula, Montana, USA
BRUCE HARRISON, Board on Science and Technology for International Development, Washington, D.C., USA
MURRAY B. ISMAN, Department of Plant Science, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
C.M. KETKAR, Neem Mission, Maharashtra, India
T.N. KHOSHOO, Tata Energy Research Institute, New Delhi, India
JIM KLOCKE, ISK Mountain View Research Center, Sunnyvale, California, USA (deceased)
HIRAM LAREW, U.S. Agency for International Development, Washington, D.C., USA
ROBERT O. LARSON, Vikwood Botanicals, Inc., Sheboygan, Wisconsin, USA
DAVID PLUYMERS, College of Engineering and Applied Science, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, USA
MARTIN PRICE, ECHO, North Fort Myers, Florida, USA
STANISLAW RADWANSKI, Paris, France
HEINZ REMBOLD, Max-Planck-lustitut fur Biochemie, D-8033 Martinsried bei Munchen, Germany
HEINRICH SCHMUTTERER, Institut fur Phytopathologie und Angewandte Zoologie, Justus- Liebig-Universitat, Giessen, Germany
PETER P. STRZOK, Agency to Facilitate the Growth of Rural Organizations, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
JAMES F. WALTER, W.R. Grace and Company-Conn., Columbia. Maryland, USA
DAVID WARTHEN, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland, USA
GERALD E. WICKENS, Hampton Hill, Middlesex, England