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Essential oils and waters

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The distillation of essential oils and waters can be a profitable little side line for a community. The following is a hot bed of ideas for such.

Essential Oils.[edit]

From the Household cyclopedia, 1881

General Directions.

The quantity of volatile oil yielded by a plant will depend upon the part employed, the season, and the period of growth. The drier the season and the warmer the climate, the richer are the plants in oils. They should be gathered, as a general rule, immediately after blossoming, and distilled, if possible, while fresh.

It is better to macerate the plants for one day before distilling. Roots, barks, etc., should be coarsely powdered. Parts which yield no oil, as the stems of mint, sage, etc., should be detached.

The larger the quantity operated on the better; the quantity of water should be sufficient to thoroughly cover the plant; too much water causes loss by dissolving a portion of the oil. When the plants are abundant the distillate should be returned to a fresh portion of the plant in a retort. It is a good plan to use the water of a previous distillation for the same plant, as it is already saturated with the oil.

If the oil is heavier than water, use a saturated solution of salt. If lighter, the Florentine receiver. Solutions for the Water-bath.

Various salts dissolved in water materially raise the boiling point, and thus afford the means of obtaining a steady temperature at different degrees above 212o. The following are some of the most useful: A saturated solution of nitrate of soda boils at 246; Rochelle salts at 240o; nitre at 238o; muriate of soda at 224o; sulphate of magnesia at 222o.

Oil of Aniseed.

One lb. of the seeds will yield 2 drs. It is congealed, except in warm weather; this oil is carmative and poisonous to pigeons, if rubbed on their bills or head.

Oil of Ben, or Behen,

Is obtained by expression from the seeds of Mohringa aptera. It is insipid, inodorous, and does not become rancid. It is used in perfumery. Hazel-nut oil is sometimes substituted for it.

Birch Oil.

Obtained by distilling 20 parts of birch bark and 1 of ledum palustre, crammed in layers into an earthen pot, with a handful of tripoli between each layer; the mouth of the pot is closed with a perforated oak plug, and being inverted, it is luted to the mouth of another pot sunk in the ground, the pot being then surrounded with fire, a brown empyreumatic oil distills per descensum into the lower jar; an 8 gall. pot, properly filled, yields about 2 lbs. or 2 1/2 lbs. of oil. In Siberia it is prepared without the ledum. This oil is liquid when fresh, but grows thick in time. It is used in Russia for currying leather, to which it gives a very peculiar smell, much disliked by insects.

Oil of Gum-benzoin. Obtained by distilling the residuum left after making flowers of benjamin, by a strong fire. It is used instead of birch oil in making an imitation of Russia leather.

Cajeput Oil.

This is obtained from the leaves, which are imported from the East Indies, generally in large copper flasks; it is cooler than that of peppermint, but smells of turpentine.

It is used externally in rheumatism.

Oil of Caraway.

This is obtained from the seeds; it is carminative; 2 lbs. will yield more than 1 oz. and 4 cwt. 83 oz.

Oil of Cloves. This is obtained from a spice of that name; it is very heavy, acrimonious, and supposed to contain some part of the resin of the clove. One lb. of cloves will yield from 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 oz.; 7 1/2 lbs. will yield 1 lb. of oil. It is also expressed from the cloves when ripe. Muller, by digesting 1/2 oz. of cloves in ether, and then mixing it with water, obtained 7 scruples of oil, greenish yellow, swimming upon water. Oil of cloves is imported from the spice islands; it is stimulant, and added to purgative pills to prevent griping; it is externally applied to aching teeth.

Oil of Cassia. This is a common oil of cinnamon, and is obtained from the bark of inferior cinnamon, imported under the name of cassia. One lb. will yield from 1 to 1 1/2 drs. It is stimulant and stomachic. Another oil is obtained from cassia buds.

Oil of Chamomile.

This is obtained from the flowers, and is stomachic. One lb. will yield a dr.; 82 lbs. will yield from 13 to 18 drs. It is of a fine blue, even if distilled in glass vessels.

Oil of Cinnamon. This is obtained from the fresh bark, which is imported from Ceylon. De Guignes says the cinnamon from Cochin China is so full of essential oil that it may be pressed out by the fingers.

Essence of Cedrat. This is obtained from the flowers of the citron tree; it is amber-colored and slightly fragrant; 60 lbs. yield 1 oz. It is also obtained from the yellow part of citron-peel; it is colorless, very thin and fragrant. The second oil is obtained by the distillation of the yellow part of citronpeel, and is greenish; 100 citrons will yield 1 oz. of the white essence, and 1/2 oz. of this. It is likewise obtained from the yellow part of citron-peel by expression between two glass plates; also, from the cake left on squeezing citronpeel, by distillation with water. It is thick.

Common Essence of Cedrat. This is obtained from the faeces left in the casks of citronjuice; clear, fragrant, greenish, 50 lbs. of faeces will yield, by distillation, 3 lbs. of essence.

Oil of Calamus.

The rhizome of the acorus calamus, or swell flag, yields about 1 per cent. of oil. It is carminative, but little used. It is also employed in perfumery.

Oil of Cedar.

Obtained by distillation; is sometimes used in perfumery.

Camphor. This is obtained from the roots and shoots of the laurus camphora and laurus cinnamomum, as also the capura curundu, by distillation with water. This crude camphor is refined by sublimation with one-sixteenth of its weight of lime in a very gentle heat.

Camphor from Essential Oils.

Obtained from the oils of the labiate plants by a careful distillation, without addition of 1/3 of the oil; the residuum will be found to contain crystals of camphor, on separating which and re-distilling the remaining oil 2 or 3 times, the whole of the camphor may be obtained. Oil of rosemary or of sweet marjoram yields about 1 oz. of camphor from 10 of oil; of the sage 1 oz. from 8, and of lavender 1 oz. from 4, or even less of oil; that from oil of marjoram is not volatile, and although it takes fire, it soon goes out. This resin, like the others from essential oils, may be obtained in a larger proportion if the oil is kept in slightly stopped bottles in a cool place.

Dippel’s Oil.

Obtained from hatshorn, distilled without addition, rectifying the oil, either by a slow distillation in a retort, etc., no bigger than is necessary and saving only the first portion that comes over, or with water in a common still; it is very fine and thin, and must be kept in an opaque vessel or in a drawer, or dark place, as it is quickly discolored by light. It is antispasmodic, anodyne, and diaphoretic, taken in doses from 10 to 30 drops, in water.

Oil of Bitter Almonds Is obtained by the distillation of the crushed kernels, at the same time hydrocyanic acid is formed and passes over with the oil. The crude oil is therefore poisonous. It is sometimes used in medecine for the bydrocyanic acid which it contains but is uncertain. It is used in perfumery and confectionery. When cakes are flavored with it the hydrocyanic acid can do little or no mischief, as it is driven off by the heat employed.

Artificial Oil of Bitter Almonds Is made by action on true benzole (not that distilled from petroleum) of fuming nitric acid or a mixture of equal parts of ordinary nitric and sulphuric acids. It is of a yellowish color; is poisonous; is used for making aniline (see COAL TAR COLORS), and in perfumery. Its chemical name is nitro-benzole; it is sold as ”Essence of Mirban.” By heating benzoate of ammonia, an oily liquid having exactly the bitter almond smell, is obtained. It is not used. It is known in chemistry as benzonitrile.

Oil of Geranium,

From the leaves of the Pelargonium odoratissimum, is used in perfumery. It is adulterated with ginger-grass oil. It is used to adulterate attar of roses.

Artificial Oil of Geranium May be obtained by distilling benzoate of copper. It has not come into practical use. Its chemical name is benzoxyl.

Krumholz’ Oil. Obtained by distillation from Hungarian balsam. It is distinguished from oil of turpentine, which is commonly sold for it, by its golden color, agreeable odor, and acid oiliness of taste.

Foreign Oil of Lavender. This is the true oil of spike, and is obtained from the flowers and seeds of broad leaved lavender, and more commonly those of French lavender, stoechas, with a quick fire. It is sweet-scented but the oil of the narrowleaved lavender, or English oil, is by far the finest.

Essence of Lavender. The oil of the flowers of lavender is rendered more delicate in its odor by age, but to prevent its becoming glutinous by keeping, which it is very apt to do, draw it over in a water-bath, with a small quantity of alcohol, which is termed the essence, and which, after being kept closely corked for about 7 years, possesses a peculiarly fine delicate odor of lavender, entirely free from empyreuma.

Oil of Lemon

Is obtained by expression and distillation. It is used in confectionery and perfumery. When old it acquires the taste and smell of turpentine.

Oil of lemon-grass.

Antropogon nargus, is a grass which grows in India, Ceylon, and the Moluccas. The oil is extensively used in perfumery.

Oil of Marjoram,

Origeat marjorana, is used in perfumery. The dried herb yields about 10 per cent. of oil.

Oil of Meadow Sweet.

The Spiraea ulmaria is sometimes used as a stimulant and in perfumery.

Artificial Oil of Meadow Sweet

Is made by distilling salicin, a crystalline, bitter principle, obtained from the leaves and young bark of the willow, with bichromate of potassa.

Oil of Mint.

Obtained from the dried plant. Six lbs. of fresh leaves will yield 3 1/2 drs.; and 4 lbs. dried will yield 1 1/2 oz. It is stimulant, carminative, and antispasmodic.

Essence of Neroli.

Obtained from the flowers of the orange tree. Six cwt. of flowers will yield only 1 oz. of oil. Petits grains is an inferior oil of neroli obtained in the same manner, but less care being taken in the selection of the flowers. Another essence is obtained from orange-peel, and is very fragrant.

A third essence is obtained from unripe oranges, and is of a gold color.

Oil of Nutmegs.

Obtained from that spice; it is liquid, and of a pale yellow, a sebaceous insipid matter swims upon the water in the still.

Oil of Patchouly.

Obtained by distillation from the Pogastemon patchouli, a plant grown extensively in India and China. One cwt. of the herb yields about 28 oz. of essential oil. It is used in perfumery.

Oil of Peppermint.

Obtained from the dried plant. Four lbs. of the fresh herb will yield 3 drs. In general it requires rectification to render it bright and fine It is stimulant and carminative.

Oil of Pennyroyal.

Obtained from the herb when in flower. Three lbs. will yield 6 drs. Emmenagogue.

Oil of Pimento.

Obtained from allspice. One oz. will yield 30 drops. It is stimulant.

Oil of Rhodium.

Obtained from the true lignum rhodium. Eighty lbs. will yield 9 drs., and in very resinous old wood 80 lbs. will yield 2 oz. It is light yellowish but grows red by keeping. Another oil is obtained from the root of rose-wort, rhodiola rosea; it is yellowish, and has the smell and taste of that from the true lignum rhodium. One lb. will yield a drachm. The True Riga Balsam.

Obtained from the shoots of the Aphernousti pine, pinus cembra, previously bruised and macerated for a month in water. It is pellucid, very liquid, whitish, and has the smell and taste of oil of juniper.

Butter of Roses.

Obtained from the flowers of damask roses; white, solid, separating slowly from the rosewater. It has little scent of its own, and is used to dilute the scent of musk, civet and ambergris. One cwt. of roses will yield from 1/2 an oz. to an oz.

Oil of Rosemary.

Obtained from the flowering tops; it is sweet scented. One cwt. will yield 8 oz.; 1 lb. of dry leaves will yield from 1 to 3 drs.; 70 lbs. of fresh leaves will yield 5 oz.

Oil of Rue.

Obtained from the dried plant; it is carminative and antispasmodic. Ten lbs. of leaves will yield from 2 to 4 drs.; 4 lbs. in flower will yield 1 dr.; and 60 lbs. will yield 2 1/2 oz.; 72 lbs. with the seeds, will yield 3 oz.

Oil of Sandal Wood.

There are three kinds of sandal or santalwood, the white, yellow and red. The yellow is most used in perfumery. One cwt. of the wood will yield nearly 30 oz. of otto. Oil of Spearmint.

Mentha viridis, is used in medicine as a carminative, and in perfumery.

Oil of Tar.

Obtained by distilling tar. It is highly valued by painters, varnishers, etc., on account of its drying qualities; it soon thickens of itself, almost to a balsam. The pyroligneous acid that comes over with it is useful for many purposes.

Oil of Thyme.

Obtained from the plant; 2 cwt. fresh will yield 5 1/2 oz.; 3 1/2 lbs., dried, will yield 1/2 a dr. It is stimulant and caustic; and used in toothache, applied to the tooth.

Oil of Tongua.

Obtained from the tongua, or tonka bean. Dipterix odorata is sometimes used in perfumery. The bean contains also a camphor-like body and benzoic acid.

Oil of Turpentine.

Distilled in Europe, from common turpentine, with the addition of about 6 times as much water; but in America, where the operation is carried on upon a very large scale, no water is added, and its accidental presence is even dreaded, lest it should produce a disruption of the stilling apparatus.

To Rectify Oil of Turpentine.

Pour 3 parts of turpentine into a glass retort, capable of containing double the quantity of matter subjected to the experiment. Place this retort on a sand-bath, and having adapted to it a receiver 5 or 6 times as large, cement with paste made of flour and water, some bands of paper over the place where the 2 vessels are joined. If the receiver is not tabulated, make a small hole with a pin in the bands of connected paper, to leave a free communication between the exterior and interior of the receiver; then place over the retort a dome of baked earth, and maintain the fire in such a manner as to make the essence and the water boil.

The receiver will become filled with abundance of vapors, composed of water and ethereous essence, which will condense the more readily if all the radiating heat of the furnace be intercepted by a plate of copper, or piece of board placed between the furnace and the receiver. When the mass of oil subjected to experiment has decreased nearly twothirds, the distillation must be stopped. Then leave the product at rest to facilitate the separation of the ethereous oil, which is afterwards separated from the water, on which it floats, by means of a glass funnel, the beak of which is stopped by the finger. This ethereous oil is often milky, or merely nebulous, by the interposition of some aqueous parts, from which it may be separated by a few days’ rest. The essence, thus prepared, possesses a great degree of mobility, and is exceedingly limpid.

Another Method.

The apparatus employed in the preceding process may be used in the present case. Fill the retort with essence, and as the receiver is tubalated, apply to the tubular a small square of paper moistened with saliva, to afford a free passage to the vapors. Graduate the fire in such a manner as to carry on distillation very slowly, until a little more than 1/2 the oil contained in the retort is obtained. Separate from the product, a very small quantity of exceedingly acid and reddish water, which passes at the same time as the ethereous essence; by these means the operation is much shortened. The oil of turpentine which remains in the retort is highly colored, and thicker than the primitive essence. It may be used for extending fat, varnish, or for coarse oil painting.

Balsam of Turpentine, or Dutch-drops.

Obtained by distilling oil of turpentine in a glass retort, till a red balsam is left.

Or, by distilling resin and separating the oils as they come over; first a white oil, then yellow, lastly a thick red oil, which is the balsam. It is stimulant and diuretic.

Essence of Vitivert

Is obtained by distillation of the kus-kus, the rhizome of an East Indian grass. Used in perfumery.

Oil of Wintergreen,

From the leaves of the gaultheria procumbens, is stimulant and carminative. Used in medicine, confectionary and perfumery.

Oil of Wormwood.

Obtained from the herb; stomachic; 25 lbs. of green wormwood will yield from 6 to 10 drs. of oil; 4 lbs. of dry will yield 1 oz.; and 18 lbs. only 1 1/2 troy oz. Adulterations of Volatile Oils.

The most common are resinous matters, fixed oils, the cheaper volatile oils, and alcohol.

Resinous and fatty matters are left behind when the oil is evaporated; the latter communicate a greasy stain to paper which does not disappear with a gentle heat, and are comparatively insoluble in alcohol. Both are left behind when the oil is mixed with water and distilled.

The cheaper volatile oils are detected by the smell and taste, and specific gravity. Oil of turpentine (often used) may be detected by it being undissolved when the oil is treated with 4 times its volume of alcohol of a specific gravity of 0.84. Oil of geranium in oil of rose (a very common adulteration) is detected by sulphuric acid, which develops an unpleasant odor if the geranium oil be present, but has no effect upon pure oil of rose. Alcohol is largely used in adulteration. Take some small pieces fused chloride of calcium in the bottom of a test tube, add the oil to be examined, and heat gently to 212o Fahr. If much alcohol be present the chloride of calcium will be dissolved, if only a small quantity the fragments will fall together and form a pasty mass at the bottom of the tube.

Waters[edit]

Preservation of Flowers for Distillation.

Rub 3 lb. of rose leaves for 2 or 3 minutes with 1 lb. of common salt. The flowers being bruised by the friction of the grains of salt, form a paste which is to be put into an earthen jar, or into a water-tight barrel. The same process is to be ropeated until the vessel is filled, so that all the roses may be equally salted. The vessel is then to be shut up and kept in a cool place until wanted.

For distillation, this aromatic paste is, at any season, to be put into the body of the still with twice its weight of water; and when heat is applied, or essential water, is to be obtained in the common way. Both the oil and water are in this way produced in greater quantity than by using the leaves without the salt; besides, the preserved paste will keep its flavor and strength unimpared for several years.

Other flowers, capable of affording essential oils, may also be treated in the above-mentioned way, with economy and advantage; as there is thereby no occasion to carry on a hurried process in the heat of summer, when these are in perfection.

General Rules for the Distillation of Simple Water.

1. Plants and their parts ought to be fresh gathered. When they are directed fresh, such only must be employed; but some are allowed to be used dry, as being easily procurable in this state at all times of the year, though rather more elegant waters might be obtained from them whilst green.

2. Having bruised the subjects a little, pour thereon thrice its quantity of spring-water. This quantity is to be diminished or increased according as the plants are more or less juicy than ordinary. When fresh and juicy herbs are to be distilled, thrice their weight of water will be sufficient, but dry ones require a much larger quantity. In general there should be so much water, that after all intended to be distilled has come over, there may be liquor enough to prevent the matter from burning to the still.

3. Formerly, some vegetables were slightly fermented with the addition of yeast, previous to the distillation.

4. If any drops of oil swim on the surface of the water, they are to be carefully taken off.

5. That the waters may be kept the better, about onetwentieth part of their weight of proof spirit may be added to each after they are distilled.

Stills for Simple Waters.

The instruments chiefly used in the distillation of simple waters are of two kinds, commonly called the hot still, or alembic, and the cold still. The waters drawn by the cold still from plants are much more fragrant, and more fully impregnated with their virtues, than those drawn by the hot still or alembic.

The method is this: A pewter body is suspended in the body of the alembic, and the head of the still fitted to the pewter body; into this body the ingredients to be distilled are put, the alembic filled with water, the still-head luted to the pewter body, and the nose luted to the worm of the refrigerator or worm. The same intention will be answered by putting the ingredients into a glass alembic and placing it in a bath heat, or balneum marae.

The cold still is much the best adapted to draw off the virtues of simples which are valued for their fine flavor when green, which is subject to be lost in drying, for when we want to extract from plants a spirit so light and volatile as not to subsist in open air any longer than while the plant continues in its growth, it is certainly the best method to remove the plant from its native soil into some proper instrument where, as it dies these volatile parts can be collected and preserved. And such an instrument is what we call the cold still, where the drying of the plant or flower is only forwarded by a moderate warmth, and all that rises is collected and preserved.

Expeditious Method of Distilling Simple Waters.

Tie a piece of muslin or gauze over a glazed earthen pot, whose month is just large enough to receive the bottom of a warming-pan; on this cloth lay the herb clipped; then place upon them the warming-pan with live coals in it, to cause heat just warm enough to prevent burning; by which means, as the steam issuing out of the herb cannot mount upwards, by reason of the bottom of the pan just fitting the brim of the vessel below it, it must necessarily descend and collect into water at the bottom of the receiver, and that strongly impregnated with the essential oil and the salt of the vegetable thus distilled; which, if wanted to make spirituous or compound water, is easily done by simply adding some good spirits or French brandy to it, which will keep good for a long time, and be much better than if the spirits had passed through a still, which must of necessity waste some of their strength. Care should be taken not to let the fire be too strong lest it scorch the plants; and to be made of charcoal, for continuance and better regulation, which must be managed by lifting up and laying down the lid, as wanted to increase or decrease the degrees of heat. The deeper the earthen pan, the cooler the season, and the less fire at first (afterwards to be gradually raised), in the greater perfection will the distilled water be obtained.

As the more movable or volatile parts of vegetables are the aqueous, the oily, the gummy, the resinous, and the saline, these are to be expected in the waters of this process; the heat here employed being so great as to burst the vessels of the plants, some of which contain so large a quantity of oil that it may be seen swimming on the surface of the water.

Although a small quantity only of distilled waters can be obtained at a time by this confined operation, yet it compensates in strength what is deficient in quantity. Such liquors, if well corked up from the air, will keep a good long time, especially if about a twentieth part of any spirits be added, in order to preserve the same more effectually.

To make Rosemary Water.

As the method of performing the operation by the cold still is the very same, whatever plant or flower is used, the following instance of procuring a water from rosemary will be abundantly sufficient to instruct the young practitioner in the manner of conducting the process in all cases whatever.

Take rosemary fresh gathered in its perfection, with the morning dew upon it and lay it lightly and unbruised upon the plate or bottom of the still; cover the plate with its conical head, and apply a glass receiver to the nose of it. Make a small fire of charcoal under the plate, continuing it as long as any liquor comes over into the receiver. When nothing more comes over, take off the still head and remove the plant, putting fresh in its stead, and proceed as before; continue to repeat the operation successively, till a sufficient quantity of water is procured. Let this distilled water be kept at rest in clean bottles close stopped, for some days in a cold place; by this means it will become limpid, and powerfully impregnated with the taste and smell of the plant.

Simple Alexeterial Waters.

Take of spearmint leaves, fresh, 1 1/2 lbs.; wormwood tops, fresh, angelica leaves, fresh, each 1 lb.; water, as much as is sufficient to prevent burning. Draw off by distillation 3 galls. Or take of elder-flowers moderately dried, 2 lbs.; angelica leaves, fresh gathered, 1 lb.; water, a sufficient quantity. Distill off 3 galls.

Simple Pennyroyal Water.

Take of pennyroyal leaves, dry, 1 1/2 lbs.; water as much as will prevent burning. Draw off by distillation 1 gall.

Simple Spearmint Water.

Take of spearmint leaves, fresh, any quantity; water, 3 times as much. Distill as long as the liquor which comes over has a considerable taste or smell of the mint. Or, take spearmint leaves, dried, 1 1/2 lbs., water as much as is sufficient to prevent burning. Draw off by distillation 1 gall.

Cinnamon Water.

Take of bruised cinnamon, 1 lb.; water, 2 galls. Simmer in a still for 1/2 an hour, put what comes over into the still again; when cold strain through flannel.

Eau Sans-Pareil.

Take 2 galls. of fine old honey-water, put it into a still capable of holding 4 galls., and add the thinly pared rinds of 6 or 8 fresh citrons, neither green nor mellow ripe. Then add 60 or 70 drops of fine Roman bergamot; and, having luted the apparatus well, let the whole digest in a moderate heat for 24 hours. Draw off, by a water-bath heat, about 1 gall.

Jessamine Water.

Take 6 lbs. of the white sweet almond cakes from which jessamine oil has been made abroad; beat and sift them to a fine powder, and put to it as much fresh oil of jessamine as will be required to make it into a stiff paste. Let this paste be dissolved in about 6 qts. of springwater, which has been previously well boiled, and left until it has become about half cold. Stir and mix the whole well together, and when the oil and water have been well combined, let the whole stand until the powder has fallen to the bottom of the vessel. Now pour the liquid off gently, and filter it through cotton, in a large tin funnel, into the glass bottle in which it is to be kept for use. The powder or sediment which has been left at the bottom of the vessel, when dried by the heat of the sun, answers very well for making almond paste for the hands. Jamaica Pepper Water.

Jamaica pepper is the fruit of a tall tree growing in the mountainous parts of Jamaica, where it is much cultivated because of the great profit arising from the cured fruit, sent in large quantities annually into Europe. Take of Jamaica pepper, 1/2 lb.; water, 2 1/2 galls.; draw off 1 gall. with a pretty brisk fire. The oil of this fruit is very ponderous, and therefore this water is made in an alembic.

Myrtle Water.

Infuse 8 or 10 lbs. of the cuttings of green myrtle in nearly 20 galls. of rain or river water, and add thereto a pint of fresh yeast, after it has stood for 24 hours. At the end of another day and night, put the whole into a still, with 1 lb. of bay-salt. Draw off the whole of the water, and next day infuse more myrtle leaves as before, and distill again. Repeat the same a third time.

Orange-flower Water.

Take 2 lbs. of orange flowers, and 24 qts. of water, and draw over 3 pts. Or, take 12 lbs. of orange flowers, and 16 qts. of water, and draw over 15 qts.

Orange-peel Water.

Take of the outward yellow rind of Seville oranges, 4 oz.; water, 3 1/2 galls., draw off 1 gall. by the alembic, with a brisk fire.

Peppermint Water.

Take of the herb of peppermint, dried, 1 1/2 lbs.; water, as much as is sufficient to prevent burning. Distill off a gallon. This has been known to allay sickness when nothing else would succeed, and is used in flatulent colics. A wineglassful may be taken, and often repeated.

Another. - Take of oil of peppermint, 1 lb.; water, a suffi-cient quantity. Draw off 30 galls. This is stimulant and carminative, and covers disagreeable flavors.

Portugal and Angel Waters.

Take 1 pt. of orange-flower water, 1 pt. of rose water, and 1/2 pt. of myrtle-water; to these put a 1/2 oz. of distilled spirit of musk, and an ounce of spirit of ambergris. Shake the whole well together, and the process will be finished.

Rose-water.

Take of the leaves of fresh damask-roses with the heels cut off, 6 lbs., water, as much as to prevent burning. Distill off a gallon. The distilled water should be drawn from dried herbs, because the fresh cannot be got at all times in the year. Whenever the fresh are used the weights must be increased; but whether the fresh or dry are made use of, it is left to the judgment of the operator to vary the weight, according as the plants are in greater or less perfection, owing to the season in which they grew, or were collected. Small Snail Water.

Take of balm, mint, hart’s tongue, ground ivy, flowers of the dead nettle, mallow-flowers, elderflowers, each a handful; snails freed from their shells, and whites of eggs, each 4 oz.; nutmegs, 3 oz.; milk, 1 gall. Distill in a waterbath to dryness.

Strawberry Water.

Take of the bruised fruit, 20 lbs.; water a sufficient quantity. Draw off 23 galls.; this water is very fragrant.

Common Distilled Water.

Take of water, 10 galls. Distill. Throw away the first 3 gall. and draw off 4 galls., which keep in glass or stoneware. Distilled water is used in making medicine preparations when the salts contained in common water would decompose them.

Compound Distilled Waters.

General Rules for the Distillation of SpirituousWaters.

1. The plants and their parts ought to be moderately and newly dried, except such as are ordered to be fresh gathered.

2. After the ingredients have been steeped in the spirit for the time prescribed, add as much water as will be sufficient to prevent a burnt flavor, or rather more.

3. The liquor which comes over first in the distillation is by some kept by itself, under the title of spirit; and the other runnings, which prove milky, are fined down by art. But it is preferable to mix all the runnings together, without fining them, that the waters may possess the virtues of the plant entire.

4. In the distillation of these waters, the genuine brandy obtained from wine is directed. Where this is not to be procured take, instead of that proof spirit, half its quantity of a well rectified spirit, prepared from any other fermented liquors. In this steep the ingredients, and then add spring-water enough both to make up the quantity ordered to be drawn off, and to prevent burning.

BergamotWater.

Take of fine old French brandy 2 galls., or 1 gall. of highly rectified spirit of wine, and 1 gall. of spring-water. Put to the brandy, or diluted spirits 3 oz., or more, of true Roman oil of bergamot, whose parts have been previously well divided by trituration with lump-sugar, in a glass mortar, Now distill by a water heat, and draw off 6 qts. only. By this operation a most excellent bergamot water will be produced, which will remain good for 20 years. Original Receipt for Hungary Water.

The original receipt for preparing this invaluable lotion is written in letters of gold in the hand-writing of Elizabeth, queen of Hungary. Take of aqua vitae, four times distilled, 3 parts, the tops and flowers of rosemary, 2 parts. To be put together in a close-stopped vessel, And allowed to stand in a warm place during 50 hours, then to be distilled in an alembic, and of this, once every week, 1 dr. to be taken in the morning, either in the food or drink, and every morning the face and the diseased limb to be washed with it.

French Hungary Water.

The French Hungary water is made wholly from a wine spirit, and from rosemary flowers alone which about Montpellier (the place from whence this commodity comes) grow in great plenty and perfection. The fragrancy of these flowers is so great as to render the waters made from them more excellent and valuable than anything of the kind made in England.

Best Hungary Water.

Take 30 galls. of spirit of wine; put to it, in a large still, 6 large bunches of fine green rosemary, when the flowers are white and in full bloom, 1 lb. of lavender flowers, and 4 oz. of true English oil of rosemary. The rosemaryleaves and flowers must be stripped from all their wood and green twigs. When the whole has been in a state of digestion for 24 hours, distill as before drawing off about 25 or 26 galls., but no more. When distilled, stop it closely in a copper vessel, and keep it undisturbed for about a month.

Aqua Mellis, or the King’s Honey-water. First Distillation.

Take 28 lbs. of coriander seeds, ground small in the starch-mill; 28 common bunches of sweet marjoram in flower, dried and stripped from the twigs; 1 lb. of calamus aromaticus; 1 lb. of yellow saunders; and 1 lb. of orange and lemon peel. Let the 3 last be separately beaten into gross powder. Mix the above ingredients, and put them into a 60 gall. copper still, and add to them 20 galls. of proof spirit, and the same quantity of rain or spring-water. Lute well all the junctures of the apparatus, and leave the ingredients in this state, without fire, for 48 hours. At the end of this time begin to distill by a very gentle heat, lest the flowers and seeds, which are very light, should rise suddenly in the still-head, stop up the worm, and endanger the whole work.

Increase the fire after the first half hour, and keep it regular till the termination of the process. Draw off about 26 or 27 galls., or continue so long as the spirit will burn by the application of a lighted paper to a small quantity of it in a saucer. Next day, when the still is perfectly cold, let it be well cleaned out. The ingredients should be immediately dried in the sun, otherwise they will become mouldy. When there is a considerable quantity from 3 or 4 makings it ought to be ground in a mill, and finely sifted. They will be found to be of great use in the making of ordinary brown wash-balls, and, with some additions of brown powders for the hair.

Second Distillation.

Now return the spirits drawn off into the still and add 10 or 12 galls. of water; then put in the following ingredients, bruised and mixed: 14 oz. of nutmegs, 4 oz. of gloves, 12 oz. of cinnamon bark, 8 oz. of pimento, and 40 oz. of cassia-lignum. These are to be separately broken or bruised in an iron mortar, until they are about the size of small peas. If there be any dust, it must be sifted from them before they are used; then take 40 oz. of storax, 40 oz. of gum Benjamin, 44 oz. of labdanum, and 40 venellios. Break and bruise the above also, but make as little dust as possible. Put the dust from these and the foregoing, together, into a coarse muslin bag, which is to be hung in the still, so that the liquor, during distillation, may extract all its virtues. The whole are then to remain in the liquor in a cold state, for 48 hours, attention being still paid to luting and stopping close, as before. At the end of this time kindle the fire, and work off (slowly at first) until 26 galls. are distilled. Mix all the different runnings together in a copper vessel, kept for this purpose only. Having drawn off, in this second distillation, 26 galls., mix together 10 oz. of spirit of musk, 10 oz. of spirit of ambergris, 1/2 oz. of true oil of lavender, 1/2 oz. of essence of bergamot, and 1/2 oz. of oil of rhodium. Now add to it in a copper vessel that will hold 40 galls., 6 galls. of orange-flower water, and 8 galls. of rose-water, recently made. When properly mixed, put all these into the copper vessel, and stir the whole well together. Add to all these a quart of milk, which has stood for a night, and which has had the cream taken clearly off; then agitate and mix the whole well together, and stop the vessel up close, until the time when it is to be used.

The jar ought to have a lock-cock soldered into it, to prevent accidents. This should be placed full two inches from the bottom, in order that the milk and other impurities may fall to the bottom.

If this honey-water be made in the spring, and if the weather be fair, it will be quite fined down in the course of a month, that is, if it be not opened or disturbed. When, by drawing off a little in a glass, the milk, etc., have fallen down to the bottom, draw the whole off into clean and wellseasoned stone or glass bottles, or into another copper jar. This composition ought never to be drawn off in rainy or cloudy weather, for then the milk is apt to rise. In warm weather it should be kept cool, and in winter as warm as possible. When distilled in the winter the jars ought to be warmed, or otherwise the honey water will not be fined for 5 or 6 months.

This honey-water may keep 30 years.

The ingredients from the second distillation are of much greater value than those from the first, and therefore require more care in the drying. These are of great use for the best sort of gross powders, for sweet bags, etc.; and, if made into a fine powder, may be made use of with great success, in the best sort of brown perfumed balls. The same powder, with fresh ingredients, makes excellent pastils, to burn; and may be further used in making spirit of Benjamin.

Compound Spirit of Juniper.

Take of juniper-berries, well bruised, 1 lb.; caraway seeds, and sweet fennel seeds, each, bruised 1 1/2 oz.; diluted alcohol, 1 gall. Macerate for two days, and having added as much water as will prevent empyreuma, draw off, by distillation, 1 gall.

Lavender Spirit.

Take 14 lbs. of lavender flowers, 10 1/2 galls. of rectified spirit of wine, and 1 gall. of water, draw off 10 gall. by a gentle fire; or, which is much better, by a sand bath heat.

Lavender water.

Take 30 galls. of the best wine spirit, pour it into a copper still, placed in a hot-water bath, over a clear but steady fire; put to it 6 lbs. of the largest and freshest lavender flowers, after having separated them from all stalks and green leaves, which give the lavender water a woody and faint smell. Put no water into the still, close all the junctures well, and let the spirits and flowers stand in a state of digestion for 24 hours, and then, with a gentle fire, draw off 25 or, at most, 26 galls. only, which, as soon as distilled, are to be poured into a copper vessel for keeping. Wooden vessels and cans are to be avoided, as the best parts of the oil and of the spirits will be absorbed by them, and consequently lost. When the distillation is over draw out, or quench the fire, and let the remaining spirits and flowers continue in the still until the next day.

When the above quantity of 25 or 26 galls. has stood for 4 or 5 days, put to it 10 oz. of true English oil of lavender. Mix the whole well in the jar, by drawing out 1 or 2 galls., and then returning them. Repeat this 10 or 12 times, then stop the vessel up close, and do not disturb it for a month at least.

Lavender-water of the Second Order.

To the 4 or 5 galls. of the spirits, and the lavender flowers left in the still, after the distillation mentioned in the last article, add 15 galls. of common proof spirit, 9 or 10 galls. of spring-water, 3 lbs. of lavender flowers, and 4 oz. of oil of lavender, intimately mixed with loaf sugar, by powdering it in a glass mortar. Digest the whole, and draw off 25 galls., proceeding in every respect as before, except that, in this case, no oil is to be added, for, us there is so much water present, the addition of oil would be apt to turn the whole quantity muddy, or of a bluish or opaque color, which it cannot be easily freed from, without a second distillation.

Lavender-water for immediate use.

Mix with 1 gall. of proof spirit, 1 1/4 oz. of true English oil of lavender, which is all that will properly combine with the spirit, without injuring the color, by rendering it muddy. When the spirit and the oil are properly mixed, they are to be put into glass bottles, which are to be well stopped and ought to be shaken before used.

Perfumed Lavender-water,

Distill by a gentle heat in a sand or water bath, or mix and shake frequently, during 14 days, the following ingredients: 1 oz. of foreign oil of lavender, 1/2 oz. of English lavender, 1/2 oz. of essence of ambergris, and 1 gall. of rectified spirit of wine. Lemon-water.

The peel of the lemon, the part used in making this water, is a very grateful bitter aromatic and, on that account, very serviceable in repairing and strengthening the stomach. Take of dried lemon-peel, 4 lbs.; proof spirit, 10 1/2 gall., and 1 gall. of water. Draw off 10 galls. by a gentle fire.

Spirit of Peppermint.

Take of the herb of peppermint, dried, 1 1/2 lbs.; proof spirit, 1 gall.; water, sufficient to prevent burning. Distill off 1 gall.

Compound Gentian-water.

Take of gentian root, sliced, 3 lbs.; leaves and flowers of the lesser centaury, each 8 oz.; infuse the whole in 6 qts. of proof spirit and 1 qt. of water; and draw off the water till the feints begin to rise.

Spirit of Scurvy-Grass.

Take of scurvy-grass, fresh gathered and bruised, 15 lbs.; horseradish-root, 6 lbs.; rectified spirit of wine, 1 gall.; and water, 3 pts. Digest the whole in a close vessel 2 days, and draw off 1 gall. with a gentle fire.

Antiscorbutic Water.

Take of the leaves of water-cresses, garden and sea scurvy-grass, and brook-lime, each 20 handfuls; of pinetops, germander, horehound, and the lesser centaury, each 16 handfuls; of the roots of bryony and sharppointed dock, each 6 lbs.; of mustard-seed, 1 1/2 lbs. Digest the whole in 10 galls. of proof spirit, and 2 galls. of water, and draw off by a gentle fire.