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Authors Harshavardhan Dinesh
Prannay Malu
Utkarsh Sharma
Location Michigan, USA
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Partitioning solar radiation into direct and diffuse, visible and near-infrared components[1][edit | edit source]

Abstract: The diffuse and visible component of solar radiation were measured during the summer of 1979, 1980 and 1981. The objective was to predict the behavior of direct and diffuse radiation in the visible and infra-red spectrums with the input being the total incoming solar radiation.


  • Direct component estimates for the visible and infrared spectrum were made from the experimental data and the predicted and calculated values reconciled.
  • A correction term for the measurement of the diffuse component was formulated with the help of a Silicon cell pyranometer.

Which plant traits promote growth in the low-light regimes of vegetation gaps?[2][edit | edit source]

Abstract: An experiment was conducted on 9 types of grass species to assess their ability to grow in low light conditions. To simulate this ability, photon flux densities similar to shaded sunlight were simulated and the relative and absolute growth rates were determined keeping in mind different ecological plant attributes. It was deduced that there was no relation between some of the plant attributes and the relative growth rate.


  • Species with low root mass and high net photosynthetic rates are able to grow faster in low light conditions(also in shade).
  • Nitrogen content in the leaves with respect to the mass and area were not related to the growth.

Variation in crop radiation-use efficiency with increased diffuse radiation[3][edit | edit source]

Abstract: The term radiation use efficiency(RUE) is defined as the ratio of the biomass accumulated to the total solar radiation intercepted. The RUE is not significantly affected in case of diffused light or shade. High values of RUE were reported for plant species in cases where the diffused radiation component is higher in the total incident solar radiation. The paper discusses the changes in the RUE with respect to changes in the diffuse radiation component.


  • RUE estimates for soyabean and wheat increased as diffuse radiation increased.
  • Therefore, it can be deduced that RUE is directly proportional to the diffuse radiation component of the total incident radiation.

Light-dependent changes in biomass allocation and their importance for growth of rain forest tree species.[4][edit | edit source]

Abstract: This paper discusses an experiment which studied the growth of rain forest tree specimens and their response to shading. The leaves of the saplings were measured from its production to death. Low light conditions such as shading causes the leaves to increase their light interception ability by increasing their leaf area per unit plant mass. Shaded leaves have lower respiration rates.


  • 17% of the saplings had negative growth rates i.e their growth rates were lesser than those saplings exposed to direct sunlight.
  • Shading caused 7 of the 91 saplings to die.
  • Height of the saplings is directly proportional to the light conditions, leaf area or both.
  • Changes in light affect the biomass allocation in the sapling but has no relation to the shade tolerance of the plant as a whole.

Effect of dust on the transparent cover of solar collectors[5][edit | edit source]

Abstract: This paper discusses measures on overcoming the problem of dust collecting on the surfaces of the PV panels. The experimental setup consisted of 100 glass panels mounted at different tilt angles. The transmittance of the glass was checked at regular intervals and no physical cleaning was performed on the glass panels. They were exposed to all kinds of weather conditions.


  • Dust deposition density depends on the tilt angle and the panel orientation with respect to the wind.
  • Deposition density goes from 15.84 gm/cm2 at angle of 0o to 4.48 gm/cm2 at angle 90o.
  • Transmittance of the glass panel reduces from 52.54-12.38% as dust collects on the surface.

A new correlation for direct beam solar radiation received by photovoltaic panel with sand dust accumulated on its surface[6][edit | edit source]

Abstract: This paper discusses the effect of sand collecting on the surface of PV panels. The amount of light transmitted through an uncleaned glass surface was compared to the light transmittance of clean glass which is about 90%. The transmittance reduced by 8% on an average for a tilt angle of 45o. A transmission co-efficient was formulated. In the context of sand collection on the surface of the transmittance co-efficient can be defined with respect to number of sand particles per unit area of the glazing surface, sand particle size and incident wavelength. Results from this experiment will allow designers to factor the effect of sand while developing simulation models of PV panels.


  • Dust(Sand in this context) deposition density depends on the tilt angle and the panel orientation with respect to the wind.
  • Sayigh performed an experiment in the Saudi Arabia desert and found a drop of 30% in the collected energy when the panel was not cleaned for a span of 25 days. The panels had a tilt angle of 30o.
  • Similar experiments performed in different desert regions of the world showed similar results to Sayigh's experiment.
  • A sand dust box was built to determine the amount of sand collected on the glass top over a period of time. The quantity of collected sand would help in finding out the effect of sand on the transmittance co-efficient.

Effects of greenhouse photovoltaic array shading on Welsh onion growth[7][edit | edit source]

Abstract: This article discusses about an experiment which involved setting up PV panels to power the climate control equipment for a Welsh greenhouse growing onion. The panel was mounted on the south facing side of the greenhouse which was constructed having an East-West orientation and the shading effect caused by the installed panel was assessed. The PV panels were mounted in 2 different configurations i.e straight line and checkered. In addition to the greenhouse with a PV array mounted, a second greenhouse was also constructed, but had no PV array installed in it. Onion was cultivated in both the greenhouses and the yields from the two greenhouses were compared to ascertain the effect of shading on the growth of onion.


  • Shading significantly affected the fresh and dry weights of the onion when compared to the onion yield from the second greenhouse.
  • PV arrays occupied 12.9% of the total available roof area of the greenhouse.
  • The onion crop growing at different positions of the greenhouse and the shading effect caused by the 2 different mounting configurations of the PV panels are studied and compared with each other and also with the onion growing in the second greenhouse.
  • Cost of electricity for the PV panels when connected to the grid was EUR 0.263/kWh.
  • It was concluded that the straight line configuration proved optimal for electricity production, but caused more shading affecting crop yields.
  • Checkered configuration improved crop yields but wasn't so good on the electricity production front.

Temperature gradients in a partially shaded large greenhouse equipped with evaporative cooling pads[8][edit | edit source]

Abstract: This paper proposes a model which predicts temperature gradients within a greenhouse caused due to the cooling pads. This model incorporates the effect of shading, ventilation and crop transpiration. The temperature gradients are set up due to the cooling pads which can affect plant growth. Experimental results showed that for a 60m long greenhouse, temperature gradients of 8oC were observed. The proposed model was used to study the effects of different ventilation rates combined with shading along the length of the greenhouse and also the effect of conditions outside the greenhouse on the cooling systems of the greenhouse.


  • The proposed model is calibrated based on existing data available data from greenhouses.
  • Simulations propose that fans and cooling systems can help reduce the temperature gradients by shading and fan ramping up the ventilation rates.
  • This model can be used as an effective tool to calculate the optimum temperature within the greenhouse such that plant growth is not affected due to shading and temperature gradients.

Stomatal behavior and photosynthetic performance under dynamic light regimes in a seasonally dry tropical rain forest[9][edit | edit source]

Abstract: The photosynthesis rates of leaves of tropical shrubs were measured in sunlight and darkness. The behavior of the stomata was then observed during the bright period and the dark period and its effect on the photosynthesis rates of tropical plant species. Photosynthetic behavior of plants, especially in the dry season is also dependent on the water availability scenario wherein the plant can reduce its photosynthetic performance in case of water shortage. To quantify the effect of seasonal changes on the photosynthesis process, the carbon gain under different light conditions was simulated using the model described by Pearcy et.al 1997.


  • Stomatal conductance is higher during wet season dawns prior to sunrise(increase in photon flux density) but during the afternoon stomatal conductance was less.
  • Stomatal conductance was relatively higher in the wet season as compared to the dry season.

Efficiency model for photovoltaic modules and demonstration of its application to energy yield estimation[10][edit | edit source]

Abstract: This paper discusses a method to calculate the yield of a PV module at various sites with the help of the available local weather data. This would make it easier to select the optimum PV module having the highest yield to cost ratio ensuring maximum revenue from the PV modules taking into considerations factors such as incident radiation, PV cell temperature and relative air mass. The paper presents the yields from the modules made of monocrystalline, polycrystalline, amorhphous silicon etc. set up at a location in Jordan.


  • The Wuerth CIS module has the highest yield as its efficiency is independent of the cell temperature.
  • Efficiencies of the modules were in the 8-16% range at an ambient temperature of 25oC.
  • This model is an effective in calculating the yield of a PV module mounted in any part of the world with the help of the local weather and sunlight data.

Development of a transparent self-cleaning dust shield for solar panels[11][edit | edit source]

Abstract: This paper discusses the development of a transparent shield to protect the PV panels. The transparent shield contain embedded electronics hooked up to a single phase AC supply. When a particle of dust comes into contact with this shield, it gets charged and gets repelled by the electromagnetic field. The paper also discusses the factors determining the performance of the shield and also the self cleaning process of this shield. Charged dust particles glide over the surface of the shield in the direction of the electromagnetic field towards the end of the transparent shield, thus clearing the surface of dust.


  • The panel developed had line shaped electrodes etched onto the board shaped shield. Applied voltage ranged from 0 to 10kV and frequency from 0 to 300Hz.
  • 0.03" thick electrodes were spaced at a distance of 0.06" on the board. Such a configuration was selected to ascertain the cleaning effectiveness of the electrodes on the surface of the shield.
  • A clearing factor was defined which is the ratio of the dust removed to the dust settling on the panel.
  • Experiments proved that pulsed wave signals were the best in eliminating dust from the PV panels.

The solar greenhouse: state of the art in energy saving and sustainable energy supply[12][edit | edit source]

Abstract: This paper discusses about a Dutch greenhouse which was used for agriculture without involving any fossil fuels. The challenge designing the greenhouse was to increase the heat insulation of the greenhouse and maintaining high light transmission. PV panels were set up to capture light energy during the summer months, store it and utilize the energy during the winter when incident light is less and days are shorter. The total energy saving was projected to be in the 60% range.


&arnumber=1476553&tag=1 Electrical output of shadowed solar arrays][13]====

Abstract: This paper studies the effects of shading on the V-I characteristics of a PV panel which are used for the development of models which describes the circuits of the PV arrays. Power losses due to shading are due to two types of mechanisms viz. shaded cells in series with illuminated cells blocking current flow and shaded cells in parallel with illuminated cells shunting part of the current. The paper presents basic array models which are useful in designing larger complex arrays with complex circuitry. Three models are presented for partially shaded PV modules out of which one them provides accurate results but involves large data handling. The errors in these models cannot be predicted beforehand and have to be taken up on a case by case basis as local area data plays an important role in this.

Simple optimization procedure for silicon-based solar cell interconnection in a series–parallel PV module[14]

Abstract: This paper discusses about the optimization procedure for series-parallel interconnected PV modules. The optimization problem aims to maximize electrical power output subject to constraints like V-I characteristics and power balance. PV modules optimized to function in warmer climates have a higher number of series connected modules with the length to width ratio being greater than 1 for higher latitudes and less than 1 for lower latitudes. Two methods of optimization were discussed; the first method covered the effect of the geographical location on the optimization and the second method discussed the effect of PV cell quality on the optimization process.

Criteria for publishing papers on crop modeling[15]

Abstract: This paper discusses the points taken into consideration before publishing a paper on a crop model. The background for publishing this paper was the lack of scientific innovation in previous papers which can be a path for a scientific breakthrough. The criteria to be met prior to publishing such papers are the objective statement, well defined framework and the evaluation of the scientific breakthrough presented in the paper by the publisher. Publishers usually refer to similar journals previously published as benchmarks. By following this criteria, the journals published will possess a high degree of authenticity and the facts published in the papers are thoroughly evaluated to ascertain their scientific validity.

Productivity of leaf and root vegetable crops under direct cover[16][edit | edit source]

Abstract: The paper presents the results of a 2 year long study to ascertain the effects of a direct covering over different types of crops. Crops such as Chinese cabbage, beet, lettuce, spinach were grown under the cover of a polypropylene fabric. As a result, air temperatures were higher underneath the cloth as compared to growing the aforementioned crops in the open. As the crops passed from the growth stage to the maturing stage, the air temperature difference between open air growing and growing under cover decreased. However, this did not affect the yields and it was observed that the crops grown under cover had a larger leaf area as compared to that of open air growing. In terms of the leafy vegetables such as cabbage, growing it under cover proved to be beneficial from an economic point of view as larger leaf sizes are a desired quality in such vegetables. Installation of the polypropylene fabric cover over the crops results in a reduction of the incident light on the crops by a factor of 85-65%.

Photosynthesis—is it limiting to biomass production?[17][edit | edit source]

Abstract: This paper questions the fact as to whether the low efficiency of the photosynthesis process is the limiting factor for biomass production. The paper suggests that instead of focusing on improving the efficiency of the photosynthesis process, it would be better to exploit the adaptive abilities of plants to lower light conditions as plants tend to increase their leaf areas in low/diffused light conditions so as to maintain the efficiency of the photosynthesis process.

Photovoltaic Greenhouses: Comparison of Optical and Thermal Behavior for Energy Savings[18][edit | edit source]

Abstract: This paper compares the behavior of tomatoes grown inside 2 types of greenhouses viz. a photovoltaic greenhouse and a normal glass greenhouse. Heating and cooling systems of the existing greenhouses depend on power supply from the grid which in turn comes from power plants running on coal/gas/nuclear etc. Also, other factors such as geographical factors such as temperature, altitude, humidity etc. can increase of decrease the electricity demand by the climate control systems within the greenhouse. The idea is to get the greenhouse air conditioning systems hooked onto a PV system, thus making the greenhouse self sustaining and reducing demand on the power grid.


  • Internal radiation incident on the crops was much lesser than that in the glass greenhouse.
  • Savings in energy consumption in the PV greenhouse ranged from approx 10-65% with higher amount of savings recorded in late spring and early fall periods.
  • Average energy savings on cooling was 30% and 11% for heating in the PV greenhouse.

Self-cleaning and antireflective packaging glass for solar modules.[19][edit | edit source]

Abstract: Anti-reflective coatings can aggravate the collection of dust on the surfaces of the PV panels. This paper discusses a process called non-lithographic nanostructuring of the protective glass surface as a solution to the problem of dust collection. In this process, the glass surface becomes super hydrophillic due to which the contact angle between the glass surface and a dust particle is made less than 5o. As a result, the glass surface becomes self cleaning in nature. This process also improves the light transmission capacity of the glass surface which improves the solar cell current value by 5%. The nanostructured glass covered PV panels were tested outdoors for a duration of 22 days to ascertain the effectiveness of its self cleaning properties with the results being positive.

Output variation of photovoltaic modules with environmental factors — II: seasonal variation[20][edit | edit source]

Abstract: The paper discusses the effect of changes in the spectral solar radiation and its effect on the output power of the PV panels. By observing the ratio of incident spectral solar radiation to the global solar radiation, it was concluded that seasonal changes affect the output of PV panels made of amorphous silicon more adversely. The paper proposes a method to calculate the conversion efficiency of the PV panels keeping in mind factors such as spectral solar radiation and cell temperature. Seasonal variation effects on the factors considered were also taken into account. As a result, the effect of seasonal changes on the PV panel output could be studies by comparing the power outputs of the panels during different seasons of the year.

Sheep Power: Texas Solar Farm Employs Lamb Landscapers[21][edit | edit source]

Abstract: A solar farm spread over 45 acres having a power output of 4.4MW near San Antonio, TX is being used for grazing livestock like sheep. This has eliminated the need for a landscaping crew, thus saving a significant amount of money in labor charges. The free-to-roam sheep go about the farm grazing away and keeping the overgrowth which was proving to be a hindrance for PV panel technicians to work on the maintenance and upkeep of the PV panels. The layout of the PV modules is such that livestock movement is not impeded. The use of sheep on the solar farm also helps the local livestock farmers twofold i.e. the solar farm operator pays the livestock farmers for grazing his livestock on the PV farm and also the burden and in turn competition for grazing land reduces. The company intends to introduce sheep on its proposed 41MW plant spread over an area of 500 acres.

The effect of tilt angle, air pollution on performance of photovoltaic systems in Tehran[22][edit | edit source]

Abstract: This paper attempts to reconcile theoretically calculated figures with physical data obtained from the field with the help of an experimental PV module setup. The paper discusses the effect of air pollution on the power output of the PV module and the manner in which it affects the optimal tilt angle of the modules. In order to study the effects of air pollution on the performance of the PV modules, 5 modules were set up tilted at an angle of 0, 23, 29, 42 and 35 degrees. The module tilted at 29o delivered the highest power output throughout the year as opposed to the theoretical results which were projecting highest power outputs from the 35 and 42 deg modules. Since the modules were set up in an urban area, they were covered with bird droppings which further reduced their output. Thus, it was easy to conclude that there was a significant difference between theoretical results and experimental results as the theoretical calculations did not take into account the effect of natural events like bird droppings and dust collection on the PV module surface.

Effect of dust accumulation on solar transmittance through glass covers of plate-type collectors[23][edit | edit source]

Abstract: This paper discusses about an experiment performed to ascertain the effect of dust collection on PV panels mounted in Egypt. The panels were not cleaned for a duration of 1 month and the effect of dust on the transmittance of the glass panel was experimentally investigated. Panels were mounted at different angles ranging from 0-90o and the transmittance values of the glass panels were co-related with that of clean glass panels after a 30 day period. On closer examination of all the panels, it was found that the panel tilted at 90o had only fine dust particles settled on its surface and the panel mounted horizontally had coarser dust particles settled on it. It was thus found that the panels mounted at angles ≥50o were relatively less affected by dust and their glass surface transmission values were not significantly affected as compared to a panel with a lower tilt angle.

Solar radiation distribution inside a greenhouse with south-oriented photovoltaic roofs and effects on crop productivity[24][edit | edit source]

Abstract: This paper discusses the effects of replacing 50% of the greenhouse roof area on the crops growing within. The greenhouse in question has an E-W orientation with south facing roofs. Installing a PV system on the roof of the greenhouse caused a 64% reduction in solar radiation within. However, it was observed that the solar radiation on the plants located farthest away from the PV panels was diminished by only 18%. To compensate for the loss of sunlight, additional lighting was provided within the greenhouse which was powered by the PV panels. The best way to maximize this setup is to perform intercropping within the greenhouse with shade tolerant plants being grown in the shade of the panels and shade-intolerant plants can be grown in the unaffected areas.

Are solar farms really hitting British food production?[25][edit | edit source]

Abstract: The British environment secretary decided to cut subsidies for solar farms claiming they were affecting food production. The farmers refuted this claim stating that they are using their farms for producing food as well diversifying their sources of income. Evidence from some farmers claim that installing PV panels on their farms has boosted their livestock production due to the shelter offered by the PV panels. In fact rotation of land between agriculture and grazing purposes boosts income on a three-fold as the income from agriculture, livestock grazing and revenue from the solar panels can provide continuous sustainable income to the farmers. The government and law makers have still not understood the full potential of solar farms and its minimal effect on food production. This pushes the need to educate lawmakers and incorporate changes in the current policy to make more solar friendly.

Solar greenhouse an option for renewable and sustainable farming[26][edit | edit source]

Abstract: This paper provides a comprehensive review of the developments in greenhouse technology and the effect of the physical structure of the greenhouse on crop yields. The paper first presents various greenhouse models which demonstrated the effects of ambient temperature, inside air temperature, humidity, changes in sunlight, types of greenhouse roof materials etc on the growth patterns of the crop and its final effect on crop yields. The authors then give details about the physical construction of the greenhouse and its influence on yields and also greenhouse designs for specific crops. Keeping in mind the structures of greenhouses and their structures the effects of CO2 and internal climate control systems are illustrated and how each crop requires a specific type of climate control system. Overall, this article is a complete overview of greenhouse farming and shows the immense potential that a PV system can offer if integrated within these greenhouses.

Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of crystalline silicon photovoltaic electricity generation[27][edit | edit source]

Abstract: This paper analyzes the existing studies on the life cycle analysis(LCA) of greenhouse gas emissions of a PV panel with an aim to provide consistency in the existing results of experiments conducted as the existing data present has a high degree of variance due to different methods and assumptions. The authors present a harmonization methodology which would impose standard assumptions on the performance characteristics to produce a reduction in variance of the results. By doing so, the variation between existing results is reduced. The paper then goes on to highlight the differences in the assumptions in the existing data and the new 'harmonized' data which have bought about a pattern of consistency between the results of the existing models for LCA of greenhouse gas emissions of a PV panel.

A simple correlation for the operating temperature of photovoltaic modules of arbitrary mounting.[28][edit | edit source]

Abstract: The paper discusses the relation between the PV module operating temperature and ambient temperature,wind speed, incident solar radiation and the tilt angle. The author then goes on to illustrate the relation between the PV efficiency and the operating temperature. The operating temperature of the PV panel also depends on intrinsic factors such as releasing of heat by the semiconductors due to the incident photon energy. During steady state operation, the panel releases heat to the ground via its mounting structure which in turn is radiated back towards the panel by convection currents. The author then elaborates the aforementioned co-relations and also illustrates the effect of convection and radiation on the operating temperature of the panels. These relations are then simplified to show that the efficiency and power output depend on the PV operating temperature too.

Colocation opportunities for large solar infrastructures and agriculture in drylands.[29][edit | edit source]

Abstract: This paper provides a review of study carried out by authors for dual use of land for solar and aloe vera cultivation in north western part of India with an aim to explore opportunities for co-locating solar PVs and crops in order to maximize efficient use of water and land. the life cycle analyses has shown that this is economically viable in rural areas and will help in rural electrification for remote locations and eventually stimulate economic growth. In areas of water limitations, the water used for aloe vera plant annually is also used for cleaning the dust and dirt accumulated on the solar panels, hence increasing the efficiency overall and decreasing socioeconomic pressure.


7355759&tag=1 Fabrication of highly transparent concentrator photovoltaic module for efficient dual land use in middle DNI region.][30]====

Abstract: This paper introduces the concept of highly transparent concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) module which allows diffused sunlight to pass through it which can be used for plant cultivation and is suitable for regions of midlle direct normal irradiance (DNI) where diffuse sunlight comprises of 40-50% of global sunlight. It is experimentally demonstrated that the CPV module has a conversion efficiency over 28% for direct sunlight and module transmittance over 70% for diffuse sunlight.

7355759&tag=1 More solar farms or more bioenergy crops? Mapping and assessing potential land-use conflicts among renewable energy technologies in eastern Ontario, Canada.][31]====

Abstract: Land allocation seems to be a decisive factor for implicating the future energy sustainability. Both the technologies, Solar and Bio energy need to be more productive to avail marginal and abandoned agricultural land. The purpose of the paper is to address the issue on a regional-scale regarding the intensifying solar and bio-energy production. A GIS based approach is considered identify and mark down the potential land-use conflicts amongst solar and bio energy systems.

Performance Reduction of PV Systems by Dust Deposition.[32][edit | edit source]

Abstract: The deposition of dust over PV panels is a primary factor which hinders the economic growth and generation of electricity. Only a few studies have been carried out to study the effects of deposition of dust on the PV panels such as monitoring of solar irradiation, onsite determination of dust deposition rate, and processing climatic data to obtain information about the frequency of rainfall occurrence. Dust accumulated during rainless period is calculated through the experimental studies and its effect on performance of PV panel is accounted.

Influence of Solar Panels in Distributed Photovoltaic Power Generating System above Farm Land on Field and Crops.[33][edit | edit source]

Abstract: Arrangement of the photovoltaic panels over the farmland can be the prime solution of the off season farming and generation of electricity through solar photovoltaic. The study shows that the method has a numerous advantage such as uniform distribution of temperature, minimizing the difference between shading and lightning area and reducing the wind resistance. The solution proves to be economically profitable to the farmers practicing farming in hot climatic and arid regions.The influence of solar panel shading on Chinese cabbage was detected by photosynthetic measurement instrument LI-6400.

PV Water Pumping for Carbon Sequestration in Dry Land Agriculture.[34][edit | edit source]

Abstract: A new method has been proposed and developed for carbon sequestration in dry land agricultural process. The carbon sequestration is estimated through the water-food-energy-climate nexus. Water is the most pivotal element amongst the above four elements to assess. Certain benefits of the carbon sequestration are included in the study such as moisture feedback. Two carbon sequestration projects are analysed in terms of their water productivity and carbon sequestration potential based on the study of photovoltaic water pumping (PVPW) systems for grasslands in China.

Advanced applications of solar energy in agricultural greenhouses.[35][edit | edit source]

Abstract: The notable hindrance in the production of the agricultural crop in temperate climatic region is the large estimated cost of the energy utilized. Due to the increasing nature of the fossil fuels and traditional energy cost amongst the other notable factors increases the issue to emphasize more on green and sustainable choice such as solar energy. The paper discusses the application of the photovoltaic technology in the controlled environment and its affect over the economic analysis.

Land-Use Efficiency of Big Solar.[36][edit | edit source]

Abstract: The increase in the utility-scale solar energy (USSE) in size and number over the last couple of years becomes a topic of growing interest. However, the policy of maximizing the land use efficiency of USSE is vague and ambiguous. The paper discusses the numerous methods through case study of California to increase the understanding and improving the land use efficiency of USSE which significantly improves the economic, energetic and environmental ROI.

New prospects for PV powered water desalination plants: case studies in Saudi Arabia.[37][edit | edit source]

Abstract: The paper discusses the concept of reverse osmosis desalination embed with the photovoltaic panels. A case study of a plant situated in Saudi Arabia has been discussed. HOMER Energy Modeling Software and the DEEP 5.0 desalination software have been used to analyze the economic and Environmental feasibility. The results of the case study are analyzed to infer the business prospects of the PV-RO plants.

Embracing new agriculture commodity through integration of Java Tea as high Value Herbal crops in solar PV farms.[38][edit | edit source]

Abstract: The Government of Malaysia, where major occupation is agriculture, is currently working on the numerous strategic policies to maintain their declining Gross National Income (GNI). Amongst the policy, integration of agriculture and photovoltaic panel is quite an impressive one. Herbal products such as Java Tea has been identified as one of the profitable crops to be hybrid with the photovoltaic panels. The aim of this strategy is to achieve the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) at 15.74% to be profitable and to minimize waste and pollution.

Fundamental studies on dust fouling effects on PV module performance.[39][edit | edit source]

Abstract: The effect of dust fouling on PV module glass cover is studied with considering various aspects like overall plane glass transmittance, spectral transmittance of anti-reflective coated glass and characterization of properties of dust. A 20% reduction is glass transmittance is observed with a dust of 5 g/sq. m of glass cover of PV module. The reduction is transmittance is considered for different types of glasses and the anti-reflective coated glass is found to exhibit less reduction in transmittance. Similarly, the size of particle and effect of level of humidity is also considered in the study of effect of dust fouling. This study can help to maintain the PV plants and schedule a cleaning in a more precise and appropriate manner.

Detection of Fast Landscape Changes: The Case of Solar Modules on Agricultural Land.[40][edit | edit source]

Abstract: The fast change in land usage changes may go unnoticed by survey agencies. One such case is considered from central Italy where the focus was on expanding solar PV modules on fertile agricultural land. The growth of solar panles was exponential, causing sealing of 800 ha of land in 7 yeras. To tackle this, permissions to install solar panels has been slowed down and subsidies declined, but this may not be the best policy. The policies should be based on study or feedback from open and volunteered geo information sources.

Effect of shade on photosynthetic pigments in the tropical root crops: Yam, taro, tannia, cassava and sweet potato.[41][edit | edit source]


Plants of yam, taro, tannia, cassava and sweet potato were raised under shade or in full sunlight and the effect of shade on leaf chlorophyll and carotenoids (class of highly unsaturated yellow to red pigments appearing in plants) was examined to determine and compare the relative shade tolerance and adaptability of the various species. All the species were found to be shade tolerant, with changes in chlorophyll concentration, cartotenoids per unit chlorophyll and weight per unit area of leaf. The extent of the changes, however, differed between species. The tolerance level for different species is specified which can help in determining which crops can suitable to use in combination with Solar PV panels with added economic advantage.

other and case studies(fix pv magazine links)[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

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