图 1:来自斯里兰卡的肉桂。图片来源:Practical Action / Neil Noble

肉桂是一种珍贵的香料,取自月桂科常绿树 (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) 的树皮。肉桂原产于斯里兰卡、缅甸(缅甸)和印度南部沿海地带。这种作物现在生长在南美洲和西印度群岛、塞舌尔和留尼汪。最优质的肉桂产自斯里兰卡。

决明子是常青树肉桂的树皮,与肉桂相似,但质量较差。它原产于缅甸(缅甸)。世界上大部分的肉桂来自中国、印度支那、印度尼西亚、东印度群岛和西印度群岛以及中美洲。决明子树皮比肉桂更粗糙,更不香,有时用作替代品。

肉桂的独特气味和香气来自树皮中的挥发油。油可以从不合格的树皮、叶子和根中蒸馏出来。

肉桂在储存和销售市场之前必须干燥。本简报概述了为确保干肉桂在市场上具有最高质量而应在收获前和收获后采取的重要步骤。

肉桂生产

肉桂树是一种浓密的常绿乔木,被种植成低矮的灌木丛(约 2-3m 高),以便于收获。灌木在阴凉处生长良好,平均降雨量且没有极端温度。生产的最佳温度在 27 到 30°C 之间。土壤不应浸水,因为这会产生苦味的树皮。灌木上长有八到十个侧枝,大约三年后收获以获得肉桂皮。

Harvesting

每年雨季过后,肉桂树皮每年都会收获两次,此时湿度使树皮更容易剥落。树木在三岁时即修剪一年后首次收获。去除大约三年的侧茎并剥去树皮。肉桂皮只能从直径在 1.2 到 5 厘米之间的茎中获得。

处理

加工占肉桂生产成本的60%左右。这是因为从茎上剥皮是劳动密集型的,通常由熟练的剥皮者手工完成。肉桂的质量取决于从茎上去除树皮的程度。较大的碎片或羽毛笔可以卖到比较小的碎片更高的价格。斯里兰卡鲁胡纳农业工程大学开发了一种小型机械化机器,用于去除肉桂茎上的树皮。干燥也是肉桂加工的一个重要阶段。它有助于最终产品的质量。

处理阶段

  • 去除嫩茎(直径小于 1.2 厘米)并用于覆盖。
  • 直径小于 5 厘米的茎不用于制备肉桂皮。除去这些并用于油蒸馏。
  • 使用细圆锉刀去除柔软的外皮。
  • 用黄铜棒摩擦剥去的茎,以松开内部树皮。使用黄铜棒很重要,这样树皮就不会变色。
  • 使用小尖刀以 30 厘米的间隔在茎周围切割。刀片应为不锈钢或黄铜,以防止弄脏树皮。
  • 沿着茎的长度进行长切口,这样树皮就可以小心地从茎上脱落。使用尖刀和摩擦棒帮助去除树皮。
  • 去除的树皮碎片被称为羽毛笔。将这些卷曲的羽毛笔放在一起,制成长的复合羽毛笔(最长 1m)。在外面使用最好的完整羽毛笔,并用碎树皮填充中心。

Drying

复合羽毛笔放在椰棕绳架上,在阴凉处晒干,以防止翘曲。干燥四五天后,将羽毛笔卷在板上以收紧填充物,然后放在柔和的阳光下进行进一步干燥。

在潮湿的气候或雨季,有必要使用机械烘干机来完成烘干过程。有一系列干燥器可用于适应不同情况(电气、燃气、生物质燃料)。有关更多信息,请参阅有关干燥的实用技术简介。

分级

肉桂的质量取决于树皮的厚度、外观(折断或整个刺)以及香气和味道。斯里兰卡分级系统根据直径将肉桂刺分为四大类:

分类描述测量
1. 羽毛笔阿尔巴直径小于 6mm
大陆直径小于 16mm
墨西哥人直径小于 19 毫米
汉堡直径小于 32mm
2. 羽绒被长度小于 106 毫米的树皮片
3. 羽毛树枝和扭曲芽的内部树皮
4.筹码不能分开的羽毛、外皮和内皮的修剪
5. 粉末
6.叶油
7、树皮油肉桂醛 30-70%

研磨

Grinding can be a method of adding value to a product. However, it is not advisable to grind spices. After grinding, spices are more vulnerable to spoilage. The flavour and aroma compounds are not stable and will quickly disappear from ground products. The storage life of ground spices is much less than for the whole spices. It is very difficult for the consumer to judge the quality of a ground spice. It is also very easy for unscrupulous processors to contaminate the ground spice by adding other material. Therefore most consumers, from wholesalers to individual customers, prefer to buy whole spices.

Cinnamon is sometimes ground to a powder prior to sale. The ground powder should be packaged in moisture proof packaging (polypropylene bags) to retain the flavour.

Packaging

Cinnamon quills are cut into pieces up to 10cm in length and packed into moisture-proof polypropylene bags for sale. The bags should be sealed to prevent moisture entering. Sealing machines can be used to seal the bags. Attractive labels should be applied to the products. The label needs to contain all relevant product and legal information – the name of the product, brand name (if appropriate), details of the manufacturer (name and address), date of manufacture, expiry date, weight of the contents, added ingredients (if relevant) plus any other information that the country of origin and of import may require (a barcode, producer code and packer code are all extra information that is required in some countries to help trace the product back to its origin). See the Practical Action Technical Brief on labelling for further information on labelling requirements.

Storage

Dried cinnamon quills must be stored in moisture-proof containers away from direct sunlight. The stored cinnamon quills should be inspected regularly for signs of spoilage or moisture. If they have absorbed moisture, they should be re-dried to a moisture content of 10%.

The storage room should be clean, dry, cool and free from pests. Mosquito netting should be fitted on the windows to prevent pests and insects from entering the room. Strong smelling foods, detergents and paints should not be stored in the same room as they will spoil the delicate aroma and flavour of the cinnamon.

Equipment suppliers

This is a selective list of suppliers of equipment and does not imply endorsement by Practical Action.

This website includes lists of companies in India who supply food processing equipment. http://www.niir.org/directory/tag/z,,1b_0_32/fruit+processing/index.html

Dryers

Acufil Machines
India (See above)

Gardners Corporation
158 Golf Links
New Delhi 110003
India
Tel: +91 11 3344287/3363640
Fax: +91 11 3717179

Gurdeep Packaging Machines
Harichand Mill compound
LBS Marg, Vikhroli
Mumbai 400 079
India
Tel: +91 22 2578 3521/577 5846/579 5982
Fax: +91 22 2577 2846

MMM Buxabhoy & Co
140 Sarang Street
1st Floor, Near Crawford Market
Mumbai
India
Tel: +91 22 2344 2902
Fax: +91 22 2345 2532
yusufs@vsnl.com; mmmb@vsnl.com;
yusuf@mmmb.in

Narangs Corporation
India
P-25 Connaught Place
New Delhi 110 001
India
Tel: +91 11 2336 3547
Fax: +91 11 2374 6705

Orbit Equipments Pvt Ltd
175 - B, Plassy Lane
Bowenpally
Secunderabad - 500011, Andhra Pradesh
India
Tel: +91 40 32504222
Fax: +91 40 27742638
http://orbitequipments.com/

Pharmaco Machines
Unit No. 4, S.No.25 A
Opp Savali Dhaba, Nr.Indo-Max
Nanded Phata, Off Sinhagad Rd.
Pune – 411041
India
Tel: +91 20 65706009
Fax: +91 20 24393377

Rank and Company
India (see above)

Banyong Engineering
94 Moo 4 Sukhaphibaon No 2 Rd
Industrial Estate Bangchan
Bankapi
Thailand
Tel: +66 2 5179215-9

Technology and Equipment Development Centre (LIDUTA)
360 Bis Ben Van Don St
District 4
Ho Chi Minh City
Vietnam
Tel: +84 8 940 0906
Fax: +84 8 940 0906

John Kojo Arthur
University of Science and Technology
Kumasi
Ghana

Alvan Blanch
UK (see above)

Contacts

The following contacts should be able to provide further information:

Agricultural Engineering Department
University of Ruhuna
Galle
Sri Lanka
Tel: +94 41 2222681/82
Fax: +94 41 2222683
postmaster@cc.ruh.ac.lk
https://www.ruh.ac.lk/

Indian Institute of Spices Research (IISR)
Marikunnu PO, Calicut
Kerala
India 673012
Tel: +91 495 2731346
+91 495 2730294
parthasarathy@iisr.org; rdinesh@iisr.org
http://www.iisr.org/package/index.php?spice=Cinnamon&body=Overview

Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay
Powai
Mumbai 400076
India
Tel: +91 22 2572 2545
Fax: +91 22 2572 3480
http://web.archive.org/web/20170425034047/http://www.ircc.iitb.ac.in/webnew/

Further reading

Drying - Practical Action Technical Brief
Spice processing - Practical Action Technical Brief
Labeling food products - Practical Action Technical Brief

Practical Action

The Schumacher Center for Technology and Development Bourton-on-Dunsmore Rugby, Warwickshire, CV23 9QZ United Kingdom 电话:+44 (0)1926 634400 传真:+44 (0)1926 634401 电子邮件:inforserv@practicalaction.org.uk 网站: http://www.practicalaction.org/本文件由 S Azam Ali 博士为 Practical Action 于 2007 年 3 月制作。

页面数据
部分实际行动技术简介
类型技术简介
关键词食物肉桂
作者史蒂文·麦地那
发表2009
执照CC-BY-SA-4.0
隶属关系实际行动
衍生品齐姆特之死
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