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管理牛群

养兔的成功取决于有效的管理。彻底了解你的动物——它们的特征和行为,它们的好恶。为成功饲养动物,始终需要考虑动物的福利。正确安排设备、储藏室和建筑物的位置对于有效管理也是必不可少的。当您进入兔子场时,请安静地进行,并通过低声说话来表明您的存在。警告其他人也这样做。否则,兔子可能会受到惊吓,在笼子里跑来跑去伤害自己,或者跳进巢箱伤害垫料。

处理兔子的方法

切勿用耳朵或腿举起兔子。以这种方式处理可能会伤害它们,甚至导致耳朵下垂。

您可以轻柔而牢固地抓住小兔子的腰部,抬起并舒适地抱起小兔子(图 15)。将手的脚后跟放在动物的尾巴上。这种方法可以防止擦伤胴体或损坏毛皮。

文件:P30.JPG


图 15 - 轻轻抓住腰部抬起小兔子。

举起和搬运中等重量的兔子,让右手向下抚摸耳朵,抓住兔子肩膀上的皮肤褶皱。这允许增加对头部的控制。将左手放在兔子的臀部下方来支撑兔子。

以类似的方式举起和搬运较重的兔子。如果兔子抓挠挣扎,把后腿夹在右臂下,紧紧地抱住;或将动物放回地面并再次按照所述步骤操作(图 16)。

文件:P31.JPG


图 16 - 携带较重的兔子,将后腿夹在右臂下方并紧紧握住。

确定怀孕

通过“测试交配”(定期将母鹿放在公鹿的笼子里)来确定怀孕是不准确的。有些人会在怀孕时接受服务,有些人会在未怀孕时拒绝服务。通过注意腹部区域的发育和肉的增加来诊断怀孕直到怀孕后期才可靠。

在交配后 12 到 14 天后,您可以通过触诊快速准确地确定怀孕,但您必须轻柔地处理母鹿。图 17 显示了限制母鹿触诊的方法。母鹿可以在她自己的小屋中触诊,或者如果更方便,可以将她放在铺有饲料袋或地毯的桌子上以防止滑倒。耳朵和肩膀上的皮肤皱褶由右手或左手握住;另一只手放在后腿之间的肩部下方,骨盆稍前方;拇指放在右侧,手指放在两个子宫的左侧,用于触诊胎儿。在交配后 12 至 14 天,胎儿已发育成大理石形状,当手轻轻前后移动并施加轻微压力时,它们在拇指和手指之间滑动,很容易区分。在此操作中必须小心,因为如果施加太大的压力,组织可能会从子宫壁上擦伤或撕裂,并可能导致中毒或流产。

在 12 至 14 天的触诊中,组织瘀伤或导致胎儿从子宫壁上脱落的危险比后期要小。此外,在妊娠期第 16 天后诊断妊娠更为复杂,因为发育中的胎儿太大,可能与消化器官混淆。经验不足的兔主应在12-14天进行检查,随着技术的提高和对手术的信心,最早可能在第7-8天就可以培养出准确诊断妊娠的能力。早在第 7 天或第 8 天就进行触诊的主要优势在于饲养员出售品种的情况。在需要运送繁殖的时候做相当长的距离,

如果触诊时没有发现胎儿存在,则母鹿未能怀孕,在这种情况下,她应该退休。怀孕的母鹿可以立即进行最适合怀孕的饮食。繁殖后 25 天,母鹿可能会得到一个装有筑巢材料的巢箱,让她有足够的时间准备点火。

虽然触诊是确定怀孕的最可靠方法,但对于没有经验的看护人来说也是最危险的。作为触诊的替代方法,观察母鹿的以下迹象:

1.退回服务时拒绝降压。
2. 腹部增大。
3、新型饲料全面拒收。
4. 敲击头部或性格变化时发出咕噜声。
5. 会在她的笼子的一角划伤,从而显示她在第二至第三周期间最喜欢点燃的位置。

尽管上述迹象不如触诊准确,但它们将帮助看护人以高达 85% 的准确率确定怀孕。

Kindling

在母鹿在她喜欢的角落交配后约 25 天,将巢箱放在小屋中。这使母鹿可以提前准备巢穴,并确保有合适的地方出生。

有时确实没有拉毛盖住它们的垃圾,或者它们在厨房地板上点燃垃圾并让它们变冷。如果你及时发现了年轻人,即使他们看起来毫无生气,你也可以通过加热来拯救他们。为了给婴儿暖和,准备一杯温水。抱住宝宝的头,在杯子里蘸几下。然后,用布擦干。整理床上用品,做一个舒适的窝,把温暖的幼崽放在里面。母鹿通常会从那里接管。母鹿的皮毛在点燃时很容易去除,你可以从母鹿身上拉出足够的东西来覆盖巢穴中的垃圾。建议在这种情况下保留额外的毛皮。将一些毛皮从巢穴中取出过多的毛皮,并将其放在单独的袋子或盒子中,以便保持清洁。不需要对毛皮进行消毒或除臭,但是,在将毛皮放入巢箱之前,采取特殊措施防止母鹿闻到奇怪的毛皮. 这有助于将她的气味转移到奇怪的皮毛上。如果母鹿闻到奇怪的皮毛,如果不采取这些预防措施,她很可能会吃掉它。

在点燃前一两天,母鹿通常比平时消耗更少的食物。不要打扰她,但要尽可能让她舒服。那时你可能会用少量的绿色饲料和商业饲料来诱惑她。这将对她的消化系统产生有益的影响。母鹿点燃后,给她大量新鲜的绿色饲料。

大多数垃圾是在晚上点燃的。点燃后,母鹿可能会焦躁不安。在她安静下来之前不要打扰她。

将幼崽与母鹿一起留在小屋中,直到它们 8 至 12 周大。

照顾幼仔

点燃后几个小时,将巢箱从笼子中取出并检查垫料,以清除任何变形、尺寸过小或死幼的幼崽。如果您仔细且安静地进行检查,母鹿通常不会反对。没有让她与孩子断绝关系的危险。如果她紧张易怒,在检查前立即在厨房里放一些诱人的饲料,以分散她的注意力并让她安静下来。

窝大小不一。更常见的品种通常平均有八个年轻人。有些可能编号为 12 到 18。出于商业目的,母鹿可能会留下 7、8 或 9。来自为大量生产而开发的菌株可能会照顾 9 或 10。

您可以将一些小兔子从一窝大窝转移到一只窝小窝的养母身上。根据母鹿的能力调整幼仔的数量,以确保在断奶时更均匀的生长和发育。因此,交配几个这样做是为了让它们大约在同一时间点燃。为获得最佳效果,被转移的幼崽应在养母幼崽的 3 或 4 天内。为了便于养母接受,在她的鼻子和兔子的鼻子上擦 Vicks Vaporub,以减弱​​它们的嗅觉;或者更好的是,用手抚摸养母的皮毛,从而将她的气味传递给兔子。这将使母鹿能够成功接受。

新生仔猪流失的原因

如果母鹿受到干扰,她可能会在厨房地板上点燃,而垫料可能会因暴露而死亡。即使捕食者——猫、蛇、奇怪的狗、蚂蚁无法接近兔子,它们也可能离兔子足够近,以至于母鹿发现它们的存在,她可能会受到惊吓并过早地着火。如果在窝出生后被打扰并跳入巢箱,她可能会用后脚踩踏并伤害或杀死新生兔子。禁止陌生人,甚至是你的好朋友在点燃期间进入兔子的繁殖区,除了看守人,他们的声音和存在对兔子来说是熟悉的。

有时母鹿不能产奶。在这种情况下,除非注意到这种情况并将年轻人转移给养母,否则年轻人将在 2 或 3 天内饿死。在出生后的几天内密切检查新生儿窝,以确保它们得到适当的喂养和照顾。

有时会吃掉他们的幼崽。这可能是由于日粮的数量或质量不足,或者是由于点燃后受到干扰的母鹿的紧张。母鹿也有可能表现出较差的物质本能和食人行为。通常不会杀死和吃掉健康的年轻人,而是将他们的同类相食行为限制在刚出生就死去的年轻人,或者那些受伤并死去的年轻人身上。怀孕期间适当的喂养和处理将比其他任何事情都更能防止这种趋势。给破坏她第一胎的有价值的母鹿另一个机会;如果她继续练习,请处理掉她。

断奶

小兔子在 10 天大时睁开眼睛,在 19 或 20 天大时开始从巢中出来吃饲料。如果幼鸟较早从巢穴中出来,它们可能得不到足够的牛奶,或者巢穴可能太热或巢箱前部的门挡板太低。

在头 2 周的哺乳期,母鹿通常在晚上或傍晚和清晨哺乳她的幼崽。2 周后,她将按照自己的意愿为他们提供护理。如果垫料分裂,母鹿要么喂养巢中的幼崽,要么喂养地板上的幼崽。她不会照顾这两个群体,也不会抱起幼崽并将它们放回巢穴。当巢箱太大或没有向后或在前面向上倾斜时,就会出现这种情况。

让小兔子和母鹿在一起,直到它们 8 到 10 周大。到那时,乳汁供应会减少,幼崽会习惯吃其他饲料,从而让母鹿为下一次点燃做准备。油炸兔在 14-16 周龄时应达到适销对路的大小和重量。

确定幼兔的性别

如果您要保存初级替代品或种畜,则在断奶时将性别分开。可以准确确定不到 1 周大的小兔的性别,但在 8 周断奶时更容易做到这一点。为防止兔子挣扎,请牢牢地控制它,但要轻柔。一种常用的方法是将兔子仰卧在两腿之间,头朝上。用左手将兔子抱在胸前,将前腿放在头部旁边。用右手,将拇指放在右后腿后面,用食指和食指压下性器官前面的区域,露出微红色的粘膜(图18)。在雄鹿中,器官将突出为圆形尖端,而在雌鹿中,膜将突出形成一个狭缝,在肛门旁边的末端有一个凹陷。

如果您的眼睛或手不够敏锐,无法遵循上述方法,请在喂食过程中观察兔子,如果它们在 1.5 个月大时相互骑马或骑马,那么它们肯定是雄性,并且一定会成为优质的饲养员。未来。

记录

如前所述,记录保存对于良好的管理至关重要。图 19 和图 20 中显示了一个简单记录系统的最重要特征。

文件:P36.JPG


图 18 - 对母鹿进行性别鉴定:用拇指按压粘膜,使突出物在肛门下方的末端显示出一个带有凹陷的狭缝。

为您的记录系统标记每只繁殖兔子。纹身是最好的标记方法,因为它是永久性的,不会毁坏耳朵。一个可调节的盒子(图 21)便于约束兔子进行纹身。耳标和耳夹不能令人满意地进行标记,因为它们会撕裂并毁坏耳朵。

需要一个方便简单的记录系统来跟踪育种、引种和断奶操作。记录中的信息可用于淘汰非生产性动物并选择理想的种畜。

记录不需要非常详细,除非操作员的个人愿望和时间允许保留分钟记录。

保存的任何记录都应允许运营商计算生产成本并评估可比时间段内取得的进展(图 22)。

所需的基本信息包括:(a)繁殖的数量,(b)受孕的数量,(c)点燃的数量,(d)饲养一窝的数量,(e)留下的幼崽总数,和 (f) 每次育种时断奶或饲养的幼仔总数。这些事实将提供必要的永久生产要素。信息可以从厨房记录卡中获得,并在每月汇总表中编制。然后可以在年度汇总表上累积每月数据;并且可以通过在汇总图表上发布累积的投资、收入和支出数据来确定兔子的年度总结。

无论是在商业层面还是在后院和小规模,记录对于养兔场的成功都是必不可少的。可以从过去的替换库存和销售记录中获得高产的利润和利润。

图 19
用于记录的 Hutch 卡示例

A. 前面

厨卡

动物编号W 301出生12/12/61品种新西兰
白公公W 394母马W 604产仔数W 714

日期培育

降压

日期点燃

不。年轻的出生

保留青年人数

垃圾号

断奶日期

断奶号




死的





6/1/62

W 418

7/2

11

0

8

W 19

8/27

8

8/24/62

W418

9/24

9

0

8

W 175

11/19

8

11/16/62

W 418

通过

11/30






11/30/62

W 421

12/30

9

1

8

W 316

2/24/63

8

2/21/63

W 421

3/24

11

0

8

W 465

5/19

7










B. 返回

生产记录

垃圾号

穿着

笔记:


数字

年龄

重量


W 19

8

第 56 天

通用汽车 30.2


W 175

8

56

31.0


通过

11/30

56



W 316

8

56

32.0


W 465

7

56

28.0







图 20 - 雄鹿育种记录样本。

降压号________________

育种_________________ 父亲 _________________
出生日期 ____________ 母亲 _________________

能源部

地点

日期培育

育种结果

断奶




点燃

通过






死的

日期

数字

重量

















图 21
年产量或库存记录

没有

没有钱

可销售的兔子总数

总资产 *(1)

总借方 *(2)

1973年

50

12

1,200



1974年

70

15

1,600



1975年

80

16

1,900



1976年

100

22

2,000





















*(1) 包括设备、库存和毛皮。
*(2) 一般费用:饲料、人工、税收、电费等。

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图 22 - 用于约束兔子进行纹身的盒子的垂直剖面。固定在可移动地板下侧的弹簧式支架将兔子压向盒子的顶部。一个可移动的交叉隔板将兔子固定在前面。每侧的木块将兔子的头固定在顶部孔的中心。

预防伤害

良好管理的另一个方面 - 照顾动物的福利 - 是防止受伤。许多伤害,例如兔子的后躯瘫痪,通常是由于处理不当或在锻炼或试图逃离捕食者时在笼子里滑倒造成的伤害。这种滑倒通常发生在夜间点火时间前后。另一个造成伤害的原因是有突出的钉子、电线或不合适的电线尺寸的有缺陷的笼子。常见的损伤是椎骨脱臼、神经组织受损或肌肉和/或肌腱拉伤。

如果损伤轻微,动物可能会在几天内恢复。让受伤的动物感到舒适,并为它提供均衡的饮食。如果它在一周内没有改善,请将其销毁以防止不必要的痛苦。

因此,重要的是要为您的兔子提供安静、舒适的环境,并保护它们免受掠食者和不必要的干扰。再次强调,应始终避免兔子的噪音。也不要让游客戳兔子......相反,他们应该对他们有礼貌。

修剪脚趾甲是另一种预防措施。被关在笼子里的兔子的脚趾甲不能正常磨损。它们甚至可能长到足以导致足部畸形。钉子也可能卡在金属丝网地板上并造成伤害和痛苦。用侧剪钳定期剪指甲。在脚趾甲的锥形尖端下方切割。将脚放在日光下可以观察到锥体。这不会导致敏感部位出血或受伤。

卫生与疾病控制

每天清洁厨房、容器和周围环境是确保卫生条件从而控制疾病的最简单方法。当兔子生病时,请参阅以下页面中的表 4,该表以简明的形式提供了有关家兔更常见疾病的有用信息。

在菲律宾,兔子最常见的疾病是球虫病、巴氏杆菌型肺炎和肠炎。这些通常是由于兔子缺乏卫生设施造成的。通过严格的卫生措施,例如每天清洁所有笼子和水容器并从未受污染的区域收集粗饲料(理想情况下,您将提供种植自己草料的空间),您可以大大减少兔子甚至您自己患任何疾病的机会。(图 23)

文件:P41.JPG


图 23 -(左)健康的龙猫和(右)患病的新西兰白猫。

表 IV
疾病、原因、治疗

疾病和症状

原因

治疗和控制

皮肤

耳朵疥疮或溃疡 -摇头,抓耳朵。内耳基部有褐色鳞屑。

通过饲料或不卫生的笼子感染螨虫。

去除内耳的鳞屑和结痂,并用 1 茶匙的混合物擦拭。食用油至 3 滴碘。倒入受感染的耳朵。粉碎软骨以分解结痂。每周重复一次,直到痊愈。

皮肤疥疮 -鳞状皮肤发红,剧烈瘙痒和抓挠,皮毛脱落。

由于笼子和饲料的不卫生条件导致皮肤寄生虫感染。

Sevin Sprayable 85 与油混合并涂抹在感染区域。在严重的情况下,扑杀动物。

Favus 或癣 -圆形斑块或鳞状皮肤,带有红色、隆起的结痂。通常从头部开始,毛皮可能会脱落或脱落。

皮肤真菌感染。

以每磅体重 10 毫克的速度口服黄腐霉素治疗 14 天。将此处理与使用工业杀菌硫磺的巢箱除尘相结合。适用于感染区域,hexetidine,持续 7-14 天。与硫磺粉结合。

跗关节疼痛- 跗关节部位有瘀伤、感染或脓肿。在严重的情况下可能会在前脚上找到。动物将重心转移到前脚以帮助飞节。

被感染的瘀伤或擦伤区域。潮湿的地板、电线的刺激、紧张的“践踏者”都是原因。

将休息板放在笼子里可以帮助小病变。高级案例最好剔除。每周一次涂抹与三滴碘混合的原油,直至恢复。

Warbles - 皮肤下受刺激的凸起区域,通常是背部或侧翼。可以在皮肤下感觉到活跃的幼虫,该区域通常是潮湿的。

苍蝇幼虫感染皮肤。

将氯仿滴在幼虫上并用镊子取出。在伤口上涂抹温和的防腐剂

淋巴腺炎- 皮肤下或淋巴腺中的多处脓肿或病变。食欲不振和体重下降。可能成为全身性血流感染。

金黄色葡萄球菌引起的细菌感染。

消毒巢箱。严重感染的动物应被销毁。每 2 毫米应口服 400,000 单位青霉素和 ½ 克链霉素。1/2 毫升。每天3-5天。

粘液膜

尿壶烧伤- 外部性器官和肛门的炎症。该区域可能形成结痂和出血,如果严重感染,会产生脓液。

膜的细菌感染。

保持厨房地板清洁干燥。特别注意动物排尿的角落。每天使用羊毛脂会加速恢复。

螺旋体或通风口 - 与尿液或厨房烧伤产生的类似病变。通过交配传播的性器官上出现原始病变或结痂。

螺旋体、螺旋体感染

在病变愈合之前不要繁殖。如果只有少数动物被感染,则扑杀比治疗容易。不要借钱。肌肉注射 100,000 单位青霉素。

结膜炎或泪眼- 眼睑炎症分泌物可能是稀薄的水样或浓稠的脓性分泌物。眼睛周围的毛皮可能会变湿并变得粗糙。

眼睑细菌感染; 也可能是由于烟雾、灰尘、喷雾或烟雾的刺激。

早期病例可以用眼药膏、argyrol、氧化汞或抗生素清除。保护动物免受空气传播的刺激物。

受感染的鼻子- 发炎或肿胀,鼻子和嘴唇开裂和皲裂。有时棕色结痂在鼻子上的厚度相当大。

鼻子和嘴唇的细菌感染,类似厨具或尿灼伤。

去除鼻子和嘴唇上的结痂,肌肉注射 100,000 单位青霉素。对于结痂的鼻子持续 3 天 清理尿液清洁干燥的情况。

乳腺

结块的乳房- 乳房变得紧实和充血,后来在乳头两侧形成硬结。结可能会裂开,露出干牛奶。

由于幼仔太少或幼仔没有足够的哺乳,乳汁从腺体中抽出的速度不如形成的速度快。通常是高产奶量的管理问题。

不要突然断奶;如果垃圾丢失,重新繁殖母鹿并保护母鹿免受干扰,以便幼崽可以正常哺乳。纠正损坏乳房的有缺陷的巢箱。

乳腺炎或蓝色乳房- 乳房发热呈粉红色,乳头呈红色和黑色。体温偏高,食欲不振。然后乳房变成黑色和紫色。

乳房的细菌感染通常由葡萄球菌或链球菌引起

对于早期病例,肌肉注射 100,000 单位青霉素,每天两次,每次 3-5 天。消毒鸡舍,减少饲料浓缩物。如果案件进展,剔除。切勿将幼崽从受感染的母鹿转移到另一只母鹿身上。

打喷嚏或感冒- 打喷嚏、揉鼻子、鼻涕可能浓稠或稀薄。前脚内侧垫毛。可能发展成肺炎,通常是慢性感染。

鼻窦细菌感染。有时是由于干饲料醪液造成的。

个别动物可以用 400,000 单位的青霉素联合 ½ 克链霉素每 2 毫升进行治疗。肌肉注射 1 毫升。对于油炸锅大小,2 毫升。为成熟。第三天重复。如果倾向于再次出现添加饲料级磺胺喹喔啉,使该水平为 0.025%,饲喂 3-4 周。添加水溶性磺胺喹喔啉,使水平为 0.025%,喂食 2-3 周。这将减少对年轻人的传播。从干净的动物中保存备用库存,并从牛群中剔除鼻烟病例。

肺炎 -鼻高举,呼吸困难,眼睛和耳朵呈蓝色,肺部充血,红色,斑驳,潮湿,可能充满脓液。常继发于肠炎。

由于暴露于雨水和台风而导致肺部细菌感染。

Treatment the same as for snuffles. Eliminate stress factors, ear mange, sore hocks, abscesses on body all predisposing factors for pneumonia. Provide cover during windy, rainy season for cages.

Heat Prostration - Rapid respiration, prostration, blood tinged fluid from nose and mouth. Does that are due to kindle are most susceptible.

Lack of ventilation and improper location of hutch.

Ventilate hutch or building to allow air flow.

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Malocclusion or Buck Teeth - Incissors grow long so mouth cannot close properly Uppers curl back, lowers protrude. Animals cannot eat. Prone to pneumonia.

Some types are inheritable, others are result of injury.

DO NOT SAVE breading stock from parent showing long teeth. Trim teeth on fryers to get animals to market. CULL RABBITS.

Coccidiosis, (Liver) - White circular spots on and through enlarged liver. Bile appears yellow in color and bladder may show sediment of cocysts. Usually cannot detect in live animals, not fatal.

Parasitic infection of the liver and bile ducts caused by Eimeria stiedae

Keep floors clean, dry, remove droppings frequently. Prevent fecal contamination of feed and water. Treat w/ Belmet or Sulmet. Follow instructions on lable.

Coccidiosis (Intestinal) - Mild cases, no symptoms; moderate cases, diarrhea and no weight gain. Severe cases have pot belly, diarrhea with mucus; and pneumonia is often secondary.

Parasitic infection of the intestinal tract.

Keep floor clean, dry remove droppings frequently. Prevent fecal contamination of food and water. Sulmet or Belmet combined with SANITATION will greatly reduce numbers of parasites and animals infected.

Enteritis. Bloat, Scours - Loss of appetite, little activity, eyes dull and squinted, fur rough, and animal may appear bloated. Diarrhea or mucus in drop- pings and animal may grind teeth. Stomach contents fluid, intestinal contents fluid, gaseous, or filled with mucus.

Never has been shown to be infectious or transmitted to other animals. (Beware of fermented, spoiled feeds and forages.)

Terramycin scour tablets with vitamin A, D, and Niacinamide. If this is not available use Sulfasuxidine or Sulfaguanadine. Follow instruction on lable.

Fur Block - Animals reduce feed intake or stop eating completely, fur becomes rough and weight is lost. Stomach filled with undigested fur, blocking pas- sage to intestinal tract. Pneumonia may become secondary.

Lack of sufficient fiber, bulk or roughage in diet. Junior or developing does most susceptible.

Increase fiber or roughage in the ration. Feed dry Leucerne or timothy hay.

Tapeworm Larvae - White streaks in liver or small white cysts attached to membrane on stomach or intestines. Usually cannot detect in live animal.

Intermediate stage of the dog or cat tapeworm.

No treatment, keep dogs and cats away from feed, water and nest box material. Eggs found in droppings of dogs and cats.

Pinworms - No symptoms in live animals. White threadlike worms found in cecum and large intestine causes slight local irritation.

Parasitic infection of the intestinal tract.

None; infection not considered one of economic importance.

Metritis or White Discharge from female organs, often confused with sediment in urine. Enlarged uterus detected on palpation. One or both uteri filled with white, purulent material.

Infection of the uterus, by a variety of bacteria, nonspecific.

Dispose of infected animal and disinfect hutch. Infected area difficult to medicate. When both uteri are infected animal is sterile.

Myxomatosis 3 - Inflammation and swelling of the eyes, ears, nose and genitals, high fever, loss of appetite ears may droop from weight of swelling. Usually fatal, mature animals most affected.

Infection cased by virus.

None, antibiotics not effective. Reduce mosquito population by spraying, draining stagnant water. and screening, promptly dispose of infected animals.

Papilloma - Wrinkle horny growths, usually on ears, may form "stag horn" type of growth. Not fatal, cannot be transmitted to other domestic rabbits.

Infection caused by virus.

None, not fatal, self-limiting. Usually an infection of the wild rabbit, transmitted to the domestic by the bite of insects.

MILKWEED Poisoning - Paralysis of the neck muscles and lack of coordination. Head droops between front legs, and animal cannot eat or drink. General paralysis in advanced cases.

Paralysis caused by eating leaves or stems of the wolly-pod milk-weed, Asclepias eirocarpa.

Force feed and water into animal.

Pseudotuberculosis-Chronic infection, weight loss weakness, and progressive emaciation. Small abscesses found in liver, kidneys spleen, lungs, or intestine.

Bacterial infection.

Destroy hopelessly sick animals, disinfect hutches. Add 50 grams NF-180 per ton of feed to give a final concentration of 0.0055%. May be fed intermittently or continuously.

Listeriosis - Loss of appetite and emaciation, generally in young animals. Minute white abscesses in liver, spleen and reproductive organs. May involve central nervous system.

Bacterial infection.

Early treatment with Terramycin at a level of 1 pound to 100-150 gallons of water. Advanced cases should be destroyed. Disinfect hutches.

Hydrocephalus - Found in young only; top of skull raised, resembles large welt, firm to touch. Ventricles of brain enlarged, filled with fluid.

Nutrition deficiency, lack of sufficient Vitamin A in doe's diet.

Insure adequate vitamin A in ration. Damage is done during pregnancy. Symptoms appear in young about 10-20 days old.

Paralyzed Hind Quarters - Found in mature does, hind legs drag, cannot stand or support weight of pelvis. Urinary bladder fills but does not empty.

Injury, resulting in broken back displaced disc, damage to spinal cord or nerves.

Protect animals from disturbing factors; predators, night prowlers, and visitors or noises that startle animals, especially pregnant does.

Wry-Neck - Head twisted to one side, animals roll over, cannot maintain equilibrium.

Infection of the organs of balance in the inner ear, may be bacterial or parasitic. This is severe case of untreated ear canker.

None, eliminate those with ear canker from herd. Some cases result from nest box injuries.

Use Affsilin for general use as a disease resistor. It is used as a food supplement added to the feed. Terramycin premix added to the ration is a general treatment for common rabbit diseases in the Philippines to help prevent serious ailments.

There are certain principles, however, some of which may appear to be self-evident, that are so generally applicable that space would not permit their repetitious presentation in the table. These together with certain relevant comments are, therefore, enumerated:

1. Disease is in a sense a natural phenomenon which can never be completely eliminated but, can be greatly decreased through an intensive daily sanitation program. (Fig. 24)

File:P48.JPG


FIGURE 24 - Manure collects daily in corners of the cage. If not cleaned regularly, skin mites multiply and infest the rabbit.

2. Purposeful and intelligent sanitation practices may usually keep disease at a low level.

3. Prevention is vastly to be preferred to treatment and possible cure - proper sanitation practices are PREVENTION.

4. High natural resistance, long life and high productivity are as certainly inheritable as other traits, such as size, color, ear length, etc., but not necessarily in as simple a pattern. Persistent selection of breeding stock on the basis of superior performance will pay well for the trouble expended.

5. Do not overcrowd your animals (see "Hutches").

6. Observe good nutrition practices to permit the greatest expression of superior inheritable traits.

7. Provide plenty of draft-free ventilation. Up-drafts through selfcleaning floor result from over enclosure of the sides; and these drafts are particularly objectionable.

8. Permit your animals plenty of sunlight, if not attended by great heat. Shade must also be provided.

9. Keep all equipment CLEAN and DRY and, to minimize the possibilities of injury, keep it in good repair.

10. Avoid unnecessary handling of animals, their feed, their containers for food and water, or any equipment with which they come in contact. The clothing and hands of the caretaker may spread disease.

11. Isolate all stock being brought into your herd, for 1-2 weeks, whether it be a new introduction or one of your own animals that has been in possible contact with other rabbits, directly or through equipment and handlers.

12. Isolate animals suspected of having infectious diseases, and care for such animals AFTER the normal ones have had their attention.

13. Protect your animals from disturbing influences, particularly night prowlers. Allow your animals complete rest during the day as routine care will permit.

14. If rabbits are sold on regular schedule to a dealer, have marketable stock segregated and confined outside of the rabbitry or at its entrance. The pickup man visits may rabbitries in rapid succession and will appreciate your cooperation in minimizing the possibility of his becoming a factor in the spread of disease.

Fur eating habit

Rabbits that eat their own fur or bedding material, or gnaw the fur on other rabbits, usually do so because the diet is inadequate in quality or quantity. A common cause is a diet low in fiber or bulk. Sometimes the protein content of the diet is too low. Adding more soybean, sorghum, peanut meal or any other legume may correct the deficiency.

The experienced breeder notes the condition of each animal in the herd and regulates the quantity of feed to meet its individual requirement. Providing good-quality grass or feeding fresh, sound leguminous feed or rootcrops as a supplement to the home-mix or pelleted diet also helps to correct an abnormal appetite, or else remove all feed for 24 hours.

Preventing fur block

In cleaning themselves by licking their coats, or when eating fur from other animals, rabbits swallow some wool or fur which is not digested. The only noticeable result may be droppings fastened together by fur fibers. However, if the rabbit swallows any appreciable amount, it may collect in the stomach and form a "fur block" that interferes with digestion. If it becomes large enough, it blocks the alimentary tract and the animal starves. The most satisfactory method of preventing this is to shear Angoras regularly, and try to prevent fur eating among your rabbits by providing adequate roughage and protein in their diets. A block of wood soaked in salt for three days and hung in the cage for the rabbits to chew may be used to reduce fur chewing.

Gnawing wooden parts of the hutch

Gnawing wood is natural for the rabbit. However in excess, it may indicate insufficient amounts of salt in the diet. Protect wooden parts of the hutch by placing wire mesh on the inside of the frame when constructing the hutch or by using strips of tin, galvanized iron, or flattened cans (make sure there are no rough edges protruding) to protect exposed wooden edges. Again, a block of wood soaked in brine solution and hung in the cage is the best solution.

Rabbits that have access to good quality grass and are receiving legumes and rootcrops are less likely to gnaw on their hutches.

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AuthorsEric Blazek
Published2006
LicenseCC-BY-SA-4.0
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