尼泊尔农村照片:实际行动
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地点尼泊尔

尼泊尔拥有极端的地理条件,从高山和山脉到被称为特莱的平坦土地区域。丘陵和山区崎岖的地形、不利的天气条件和分散的定居点阻碍了人员流动和货物和服务的运输,也阻碍了发展努力。农村交通是尼泊尔的一个主要问题。聚居地分散,人口稠密的地区很少。

在如此恶劣的山区,道路建设既昂贵又耗时。运输建筑材料的成本很高,山体滑坡造成的损坏很常见。因此,重力索道在许多地方都是可行的替代方案。

实际行动 尼泊尔于 1998 年开始实施交通计划。它改进和促进了创新的交通系统,例如被称为 tuin 的电缆过河桥、丘陵和山区的重力索道以及特莱地区的自行车救护车和拖车。

索道运输系统 照片:Practical Action

索道运输已在尼泊尔使用多年。在其最基本的形式中,它由一个用纤维绳制成的跨度组成,简单地固定在每一端。尼泊尔的第一条主要索道于 1920 年代安装,随后于 1964 年进行了改进和扩展系统。尽管大型索道的发展出现了一些停滞,但小型系统在该国仍然具有经济可行性。

实际行动还有助于在国际农村交通与发展论坛(IFRTD)的框架下建立一个全国农村交通与发展论坛。

索道

尼泊尔实际行动与国际山地综合发展中心 (ICIMOD) 合作,将重力索道技术从印度北部转移到尼泊尔。Practical Action Nepal 与 ICIMOD 和一家私营制造商供应商合作,在 Mustang 区的 Marpha 和 Tukche VDC 安装了几条示范索道,以方便将苹果从果园运送到路边。在成功干预 Mustang 之后,Practical Action Nepal 安装了位于 Benighat VDC 的 Janagaon-Bishaltar 索道、位于 Dhading 地区 Kalleri VDC 的 Hadikhola-Chiraudi 索道和位于 Gorkha 地区 Torisawara VDC 的 Torisawara-Bishaltar 索道(由 The欧盟和英国信托和基金会)。

空中索道尼泊尔图.jpg

一项初步研究表明,一旦使用重力索道系统,农产品的运输成本至少会降低 50%。这些令人鼓舞的数据让村民有信心大量供应他们的产品,并进入竞争激烈的城市市场。使用交通系统和市场联系可以提高他们在收入、健康、教育和社区意识方面的社会经济地位。推广这项技术还可以通过创造就业机会和支持当地制造商和服务提供商来帮助当地经济。

原理

The gravity ropeway is an inexpensive and simple means of transportation. It operates by gravitational force without the use of external power. The gravity ropeway consists of two trolleys which roll on support tracks. These are attached to a control cable in the middle which moves in a traditional flywheel system. When the loaded trolley at the up-station is pulled downward by the force of gravity, the other trolley at the bottom-station is pulled up automatically by means of the control cable. In principal the goods coming downward from the up-station must to be thrice as heavy as the up-going load. The sliding down of the trolley and its speed depends upon the angle of elevation made by the cables installed with the horizontal ground.

A typical braking system Photo: Practical Action / Upendra Shrestha

A flywheel with bearing and bracket is used as a brake to control the landing speed of the trolley at the bottomstation. Communication between top and bottom stations is done by tapping the wire rope. The operator at the topstation strikes the wire rope with a stick to send a wave signal through the wire rope to the operator at the down-station. The operator at the down-station then applies the hand brake to control the flywheel.

Cost

The cost primarily depends upon the local topography, angle of inclination, the ropeway span at inclination between the two stations, and use of local raw materials and construction technology.

Braking system

The braking system is used to control the speed of the trolley during landing at the down platform. This is done by applying force to the handle. Brake strips are connected to a fixed support at one end, and to the brake handle at the other end.

空中索道尼泊尔制动系统图1.jpg

空中索道尼泊尔制动系统图2.jpg

Trolley guide pulley system

The trolley guide pulley system guides and provides cushioning effect to the support wire rope, as well as converting gravitational force into kinetic energy. The system consists of a pulley guide and a dummy pulley attached to the supporting channel. The wire rope slides between the two pulleys. The ring connected to the trolley hanger is also attached to the pulleys.

空中索道尼泊尔小车导滑轮1.jpg

Trolley

The trolley is made from mild steel (MS) pipes, and has a hanging trolley box where the load is placed. The flexible supporting hanger is connected to the guide pulley system. Its weight should be as light as possible – say, 30 kg. The center of gravity of the trolley should be wellbalanced during operation.

空中索道尼泊尔小车导滑轮2.jpg

Up- and down-station platforms

The up-station and the down-station platforms are civil foundations housing the control pulley, the supporting cable, the braking system and other functioning structures. Both stations are used as loading and unloading platforms. The civil structure and foundation should be stable enough to bear all the impact and operating load of the system. This can be constructed of dry timber, iron beams and/or concrete structures, depending upon availability of raw materials and technology. Concrete construction makes the structure more stable, which in turn allows the ropeway alignment to be stable.

空中索道尼泊尔站1.jpg

Aerial ropeways Nepal station2.jpg

Aerial ropeways Nepal station3.jpg

Support and control wire rope

Specifications

Aerial ropeways Nepal controlwirerope.jpg

- 6x7 strand steel core F 10-12mm wire rope for support cable
- 6x7 strand jute core F 8-10mm wire rope for control cable
- The factor of safety should be at least 3 or more
T = ((( 2 * W + w * L + Ww * L ) * l) / (8 * b)) / Cosß where,
T = Total load on the cable
W = Weight of loaded trolley (kg)
Ww = Wind load factor (kg/m2)
w = specific weight of wire rope (kg/m2)
ß = cable inclination with saddle point
L = l [ 1 + 0.5 * { (h / l)² } + 8/3 * { ( b / l )² } ] + Lb
b = l*h / (8*e-4*l)
where,
L = Total length of the wire rope
b = Sagging at mid-way from highest point
e = Lowest point horizontal distance from highest point
l = Horizontal distance
h = Vertical distance
Lb = Backstay length at up station and down station

Functions and components of the gravity ropeway

Top-station control pulley

The top-station control pulley is used to control and guide the control wire rope at the topstation. It is supported at the end by two bearings, and the housing is fixed rigidly on the base frame of the platform.

Aerial ropeways Nepal castironfly.jpg

Down-station control pulley and fly wheel

The down-station control pulley and fly wheel are used to control and guide the control wire rope at the down-station. They are supported at the end with two bearings, and the housing is fixed rigidly on the base frame of the platform. The fly wheel ensures smooth motion along the wire rope.

Aerial ropeways Nepal castironfly wheel1.jpg

Aerial ropeways Nepal castironfly wheel2.jpg

Bearing and housing

The bearing and the housing are used to support and provide free movement to the shaft, which contains the control pulley. For this purpose, an SKF Roller bearing No. 6212 (with corresponding bearing housing) are used.

Aerial ropeways Nepal bearinghousing.jpg

Tuin

Tuin is the main means of river crossing for the people of Kalleri Village, Dhading Photo: U. Shrestha / Practical Action Nepal

Wire Bridges (Tuin) are an indigenous technology, and one of the most common structures for river crossing in the hilly regions of rural Nepal. There are more than 6000 rivers in Nepal, most of them with no means of crossing. Many people die trying to cross during the monsoon season. There are more than 15 tuin in operation along the Trisuli River, each one serving approximately 50 households (300 people).

The new design of tuin

Practical Action Nepal has conducted a study looking to improve the existing technology. Ideas for improving the design came form the local community during discussions with Practical Action technical experts. The community expressed concerns about the safety of traditional tuins. Many people have lost fingers while operating tuins, and there also is the danger of falling out of a trolley while crossing a river. Practical Action has come up with lowcost improvements that address users' concerns.

Aerial ropeways Nepal newdesign tuin.jpg

One of the first changes was to develop a safe trolley to prevent people falling out. Seats were added and sidebars installed. Practical Action Nepal then went on to develop a new pulley system that makes pulling the trolley easier and eliminates the risk of trapping fingers in the mechanism. The pulley and bearing system also reduces friction and lessens the effort required to cross the river, doubling the overall efficiency.

Aerial ropeways Nepal improved tuin.jpg

The improved tuin was developed and tested at the village of Mahestar (about 60 km west of Kathmandu). Based on the experience gained here, the design has been further developed into a double-cable design. Although costing more it provides better balance and can carry a greater load. Double-cable prototypes have been built in the villages of Kalleri, Pimaltar and Balkhu, in Nepal's Dhading district.

Aerial ropeways Nepal newdesign tuininaction.jpg

The costs involved in the construction of an improved tuin are:

  • labour
  • manufacturing
  • tuin support system (pillar construction)
  • wire cable
  • tuin trolley
  • pulley system
  • anchor block and other accessories
  • installation
  • equipment transportation

The improved tuin is intended for areas where other forms of river-crossing are inappropriate or too expensive.

Reference

  • An Evaluation of a Micro-hydro Powered Ropeway in Nepal A. L. S. Duignan, Centre for Environmental Technology, Imperial College of Science, Technology & Medicine, University of London, 1998.
  • Ropeways in Nepal: Conceptual Analysis of Context and Viability, Interdisciplinary Analysis, ITDG Nepal, 1996.

Further information

Service Providers

For wire ropes of ISI standard
Usha Martin Industries Limited
14 Princep Street, Calcutta 700 072, India
Tel: 27-2203

For wire rope accessories
Navin Steel Industries
Dhangu Road, Pathankot – 145001, India
Tel: 01893-244690, Fax: 01893-24408

Installation Support
Ambika Fabrication and Repairing Pvt. Ltd.
Bhaktapur, Katunje, Ward No. 9, Sallaghari,
Tinkune
Ph: 977-1-6610353
Contact Person: Doordam Thapa
Cell Ph: 9851052853
Structo Nepal Pvt. Ltd.
P.O. Box: 228, Block No. 27,

Patan Industrial Estate, Patan
Ph: 977-1-5521192, Fax: 977-1-5542118
Contact Person: Rajendra Pradhan

Practical Action Nepal
P.O.Box 15135
Kupandol
Lalitpur
Kathmandu
Nepal
Tel: 977-1-4446015/4434482,
Fax: 977-1-4445995,
Email: info@practicalaction.org.np
Email: practicalaction@practicalaction.org.np
www.practicalaction.org

International Forum for Rural Transport and Development
IFRTD
2 Spitfire Studios
67-73 Collier Street
London N1 9BE
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 (0)20 7713 6699
Fax: +44 (0)20 7713 8290Email: ifrtd@ifrtd.orgWebsite: http://www.ifrtd.org

The International Forum for Rural Transport
and Development is a global network of
individuals and representatives from
government, academia, multilateral and
bilateral donor agencies, consultancies and
technical institutions, national and
international NGOs and groups of community
organizations.

Nepal Net
an electronic networking for sustainable
development in Nepal
http://web.archive.org/web/20040911044220/http://www.panasia.org.sg:80/nepalnet/technology/
hydro_trans.htm
Appropriate Technology Development and
Goods Manufacturing Industries (ATDGM)
Balaju Industrial Estate,
Balaju, Kathmandu
Tel: 977-1-4356191
Email: shankar@manjee.wlink.com.np

Page data
TypeLocation
Keywordstransport, ropeways, aerial ropeways
AuthorsSteven Medina
Published2009
LicenseCC-BY-SA-4.0
Ported fromhttps://practicalaction.org [see first revision]
Impact Number of views to this page and its redirects. Updated once a month. Views by admins and bots are not counted. Multiple views during the same session are counted as one.8,297
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