Caption underneath These 3D printed models accurately simulate bone length and diameter, external contour, cross-sectional shape, bicortical anatomy, cortical hardness, cancellous bone porosity, and microstructure, and far cortex thickness for adult, non-obese males at left tibial shaft fracture pin drilling sites for modular external fixation.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10] These models feature a semi-engraved model number, gender symbol, and drilling direction arrow on the base of each model to assist with model identification and proper orientation. Each model has a vise attachment to allow the user to secure the model inside a standard vise clamp to maximize safety during simulation training. When a model is placed inside a standard vise clamp, the bone model will be properly positioned to simulate a patient in the supine position. These open-source, locally reproducible, and high fidelity 3D printed bone models teach essential irrigation and debridement, powered and manual drilling, and modular external fixation skills that are transferable to the performance of other limb-saving and life-saving surgeries that require hardware stabilization and fixation.[11]

Request Price Quote[edit | edit source]

Once you've heard back from the 3D print on demand service, feel free to use and adapt this introduction email template provided in italics below:

  1. *Include the 3D print on demand service's specific 3D printer and maximum build volume Z height;
  2. **Use your address for shipping the 3D printed bone models; and
  3. ***Add your name, clinical title, institutional affiliation, and city location.

Thank you so much for responding to our inquiry!

We are pleased to hear that you have a Prusa i3MK3S 3D Printer with a maximum build volume Z height of 210 mm.*

To minimize the risk of mechanical failure of the bone models during orthopedic surgical simulation training, we humbly request that you please use fresh PLA filament just out of its original packaging.

OPTIONAL: If possible, please try to obtain PLA filament with a Technical Data Sheet confirming that the filament's Shore Hardness D value is within the 3-sigma range (~79D to 93D) for the Shore Hardness D measurements of 86.7D + 1.91D (ave. ± s.d., n=1815) for human cortical bone. This is not a requirement but if you are able to obtain filament with a Technical Data Sheet, please email us this Technical Data Sheet for our records.

Please go to this link: https://www.appropedia.org/3D_Printed_Adult_Male_Tibial_Bone_Models/Obtain_Price_Quotes#General_Instructions_To_Prepare_Print_Files_(STL_->_GCODE_Files) and follow the instructions to download the STL files for Adult Male Tibial Bone Models 1 and 2 and create the GCODE files using a 3D slicing program.

You can look to see if your 3D printer is included in our printer-specific instructions on how to create GCODE files at this link: https://www.appropedia.org/3D_Printed_Adult_Male_Tibial_Bone_Models/Obtain_Price_Quotes#Printer-Specific_Instructions_To_Prepare_Print_Files_(STL_-%3E_GCODE_Files).

Please email us the screenshots of all the slicer settings you used. In the slicer program, please take note of the "Print Time" and "Filament Weight" values for Model #1 and #2.

Please go to this link: https://www.appropedia.org/3D_Printed_Adult_Male_Tibial_Bone_Models/Obtain_Price_Quotes#Calculate_Price_Quote and follow the instructions to create a price quote document.

The shipping address is: National Hospital Abuja, Plot 132 Central Business District (Phase II), PMB 425, Garki, Abuja, F.C.T. Nigeria.** If it is not practical for us to pick up the 3D printed bone models, please include the shipping costs in the price quote.

Please email us the price quote pdf document. At this stage, we are comparing price quotes from different potential vendors so this is not a guarantee of a future contract.

Please do not hesitate to contact us if you have any questions.

Sincerely,

Habila Umaru, MBBS, FWACS, MDM, MHPM***

Reader/Chief Consultant Orthopaedics/Trauma Surgeon***

Department of Surgery, National Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria***

3D Printer Build Volume Z Height Requirements[edit | edit source]

Print at 100% Scale with a Build Volume Z Height of 200 mm or Higher[edit | edit source]

**All the 3D printed models print support-free and are designed to be made at 100% scale on any single or multi-extruder, fused filament fabrication 3D printer with a build volume Z height of 200 mm or more.**

These include but are not limited to the following commercially available 3D printers:

  1. Creality Ender 3 ($189 USD)[12]
  2. Prusa i3MK3S ($999 USD)[13]
  3. LulzBot TAZ SideKick 747 ($1,285 USD)[14]
  4. Ultimaker 2+ Connect ($2,750 USD)[15][16]
  5. Lulzbot TAZ Workhorse ($2,950 USD)[17]
  6. FlashForge Creator 3 ($2,999 USD)[18][19]
  7. LulzBot TAZ Pro S ($3,995 USD)[20]
  8. LulzBot TAZ Pro ($4,950 USD)[21]
  9. LulzBot TAZ Pro XT ($5,495 USD)[22]
  10. Ultimaker S5 ($6,950 USD)[16][23]
  11. Ultimaker S5 Pro Bundle System ($11,369 USD)[16][24][25]
  12. Ultimaker 2+ Extended (discontinued as of October 6, 2021)[26][27]

Print at Less than 100% Scale with a Build Volume Z Height of 180 mm to 200 mm[edit | edit source]

**If the 3D printer has a maximum build volume Z height between ~180 mm to 200 mm, the 3D Printed Adult Male Tibial Bone Models must be uniformly rescaled to be printed at less than 100% scale.** For example, the Ultimaker S3 3D Printer has a maximum build volume Z height of 200 mm and can manufacture the 3D Printed Adult Male Tibial Bone Models at 95% scale.

These include but are not limited to the following open-source, open filament 3D printers:

  1. Prusa Mini ($349-$399 USD)[28]
  2. LulzBot TAZ SideKick 289 ($1,085 USD)[29]
  3. LulzBot Mini 2 ($1,495 USD)[30]
  4. Ultimaker S3 ($4,450 USD)[16][31]
  5. Prusa MK2/S

The average maximum length of the left tibial bone from a Nigerian population is 40.80 ± 3.91 cm (mean ± standard deviation) with minimum and maximum values of 34.60 cm to 56.0 cm.[32] Our Team Lead recommends scaling each Adult Tibial Bone Model to no smaller than 18.0 cm (180 mm) for a total tibial bone length of 36.0 cm (360 mm). Therefore, a fused filament fabrication 3D printer that has a maximum build volume Z height of ~180 mm or more can be used to manufacture the 3D Printed Adult Male Tibial Bone Models.

Filament Requirements[edit | edit source]

White Polylactic Acid Filament[edit | edit source]

These 3D printed bone models should be digitally manufactured using white polylactic acid (PLA) filament.

Proper Storage of PLA Filament[edit | edit source]

PLA is a moisture-sensitive material which may become brittle if improperly stored.[33] According to one filament manufacturer, "To check the quality of PLA, try to snap the filament. If the PLA filament snaps easily, it is too brittle for use and should be replaced."

Proper storage of PLA requires storage:

  • in a re-sealable bag with the silica gel desiccant provided to minimize moisture uptake
  • out of direct sunlight and in a dry and cool location (the optimal storage temperature for PLA is between -20°C to +30°C)
  • for a maximum shelf life of 1 year once the filament has been taken out of its original packaging.

Fresh PLA Filament[edit | edit source]

**To minimize the risk of mechanical failure of the bone models during orthopedic surgical simulation training, it is highly recommended to use fresh PLA filament just out of its original packaging.**

Advance Notice for Large Volume Orders[edit | edit source]

PLA filament is usually imported in low to middle income countries. If you want to order a large number of 3D printed bone models, please notify your local 3D printing organization well in advance to ensure adequate stock of fresh PLA filament will be available.

Optional: Check PLA Filament Technical Data Sheet for Shore Hardness D Value[edit | edit source]

When possible, try to use PLA filament with a Technical Data Sheet confirming that the filament's Shore Hardness D value is within the 3-sigma range (~79D to 93D) for the Shore Hardness D measurements of 86.7D + 1.91D (ave. ± s.d., n=1815) for human cortical bone.[34][35]

General Instructions To Prepare Print Files (STL -> GCODE Files)[edit | edit source]

1
Download STL Files
Download the 3D files (.STL) in the table below to input the print settings for the specific 3D printer to create the print files (.GCODE).
Adult Male Tibial Bone Model STL Files
Model Number Anatomic Region Simulator Build Module Skills Training Module File Name Revision Date Download File Comments
1 Proximal Fragment of Tibial Shaft Transverse Fracture Tibial Shaft Transverse Fracture Simulator Modular External Fixation for an Open Tibial Shaft Transverse Fracture Model 1 - Male -19-May-2022 version.STL May 19, 2022 File:Model 1 - Male -19-May-2022 version.STL Print testing in progress
2 Distal Fragment of Tibial Shaft Transverse Fracture Tibial Shaft Transverse Fracture Simulator Modular External Fixation for an Open Tibial Shaft Transverse Fracture Model 2 - Male -19-May-2022 version.STL May 19, 2022 File:Model 2 - Male -19-May-2022 version.STL Print testing in progress
3 Tibial Shaft Tibial Shaft Simulator Bicortical Drilling Skills Under revision Under revision Coming soon! Coming soon!
2
Install 3D Slicer Program

You are welcome to try using any 3D slicing software but we recommend downloading, installing, and using the latest version of:

  • Ultimaker Cura because it is the world’s most popular 3D printing software with millions of users, is compatible with any fused filament fabrication 3D printer, already has profiles for many existing commercially available 3D printers, and is open-source and free to download,[36] or
  • Cura LulzBot Edition if you are using any of the open-source, open filament LulzBot 3D printers.
3
Open the 3D Slicer Program.png
Open the 3D Slicer Program
Open the 3D Slicer Program.
4
Add 3D Printer.png
Add 3D Printer
Click on "Add printer."
5
Add A Non-Networked Printer.png
Add A Non-Networked Printer
Click on "Add a non-networked printer."
6
Select 3D Printer.png
Select 3D Printer
  • Scroll down to find and select the name of your 3D printer.
  • If you don't see your 3D printer, you can select "Custom" and fill in the "Printer" and "Printhead" settings for your 3D printer.
  • Click on "Add."
7
Select Filament Material.png
Select Filament Material
  • For the filament material, select the brand name of "PLA" that you will be using.
  • If your PLA filament brand is not an available option, select "Generic PLA" as the filament material.
8
Open Ultimaker Cura - Male Model 1.png
Verify Nozzle Diameter
  • Select the nozzle diameter that matches the nozzle installed on the 3D printer.
  • The default nozzle diameter is 0.4 mm.
9
Open Slicer Program.png
Import STL File
  • Click on "File."
  • Click on "Open File."
  • Select the filename of the .STL file you want to import.
  • Click on "Open."
10
Select Model - Male Model 1.png
Select Model
Click on the imported 3D model on the build plate.
11
Rotate Model - Male Model 1.png
Rotate Model If Required
  • If required, rotate the model so the base with the semi-engraved model number, gender symbol, and drilling direction arrow is lying flat on the build plate.
  • Model 1 usually requires rotation by 180 degrees in the X-axis (shown in red).
  • Model 3 should be oriented with the wider base with the semi-engraved drilling direction arrow lying flat on the print bed.
12
Lay Flat - Male Model 1.png
Apply Lay Flat Feature
Click on "Lay Flat" to ensure the model is lying flat on the build plate.
13
Lay Flat - Male Model 1.png
Rescale Models If Required
  • If the 3D printer has a maximum build volume Z height between ~180 mm to 200 mm, all 3D Printed Adult Male Tibial Bone Models must be uniformly and identically rescaled at less than 100% and at the highest scale factor which permits printing on the specific 3D printer.
  • The Ultimaker Cura 5.0 program shows the 3D model with grey stripes to indicate that the model does not fit inside the 3D printer's build volume and needs to be re-scaled.
TIP: For uniform scaling at the highest scale factor for both Models 1 and 2, we recommend scaling Model 2 before Model 1 because Model 2 is slightly larger than Model 1.
14
Re-Scale Model - Male Model 1.png
Select Scale Feature
  • Click on the 3D model on the build plate.
  • Click on "Scale."
  • Uniformly scale the model to the highest scale factor which permits printing on the specific 3D printer.
  • With the "Uniform Scaling" box checked, input a percent value less than 100% (i.e., 95%) in the X row and press "Enter" on your keyboard to uniformly re-scale the model.
  • Click on "Lay Flat" to ensure the model is lying flat on the build plate.
  • Check if the re-scaled model fits in the 3D printer's build volume. In the Ultimaker Cura 5.0 program, the 3D model's colour will change from grey stripes to solid yellow to indicate that the re-scaled model now fits in the 3D printer's build volume.
  • Repeat the prior 3 steps above with different percent values (i.e., 94%, or 96%, or 97%, etc.,) until you identify the highest percent value that permits printing of the rescaled model in the 3D printer.
  • Record the scale factor (i.e., 95%) and apply the identical scale factor for the other models.
  • To deselect the model, click anywhere in the slicer screen outside of the model.
15
Set Recommended Print Settings - Male Model 1.png
Set Recommended Print Settings
  • Profile: To minimize print times, use the lowest quality or fastest speed (layer height of 0.3 mm or less) recommended for the specific 3D printer
  • Support: none (unchecked)
  • Adhesion: none (unchecked)
  • Click on "Custom."
To avoid print quality issues, the layer height should not exceed 0.3 mm.
16
Set Custom Print Settings - Male Model 1.png
Set Wall Thickness
Walls -> Wall Thickness: 6.2 mm (this changes the Wall Line Count to 15)
The wall thickness value is set to the average far cortex thickness for the tibial lateral diaphysis for non-obese, male adults.[10]
17
Adjust Top Layer Setting - Male Model 1.png
Adjust Top Layer Setting
  • Top/Bottom -> Top/Bottom Thickness and Top Thickness: leave at default settings
  • Top/Bottom -> Top Layers: 0 (for Models 1 + 2)
  • Top/Bottom -> Top Layers: default setting which is usually 2-4 layers (for Model 3)
Since Models 1 and 2 are simulated fracture ends, then the top layer should be 0 for Models 1 and 2 to allow the tibial bone's interior anatomy to be exposed at each fracture end. Model 3 has a top and bottom base so the top layer should not be 0 to ensure the top base is covered.
18
Select Infill Pattern - Male Model 1.png
Select Infill
  • Infill -> Infill Density: 15%
  • Infill -> Infill Pattern: Tri-Hexagon or 3D Honeycomb
The infill density is set to simulate human cancellous bone porosity.[8] The infill pattern is selected to simulate human cancellous bone microstructure.[9]
19
Slice Model - Male Model 1 v2.0.png
Slice Model
  • Click on "Slice."
  • Click on "Save to Disk."
  • Save the G-CODE file to avoid errors when inputting the customized print settings and eliminate print file preparation time when re-printing in the future.
  • Record the "Printing Time" and "Filament Weight" values to calculate a price quote.

Printer-Specific Instructions To Prepare Print Files (STL -> GCODE Files)[edit | edit source]

We have provided step-by-step instructions and screenshots below on how to prepare the 3D Printed Adult Male Tibial Bone Models for printing on specific 3D printers.

Creality Ender 3 (Ultimaker) Cura Settings[edit | edit source]

1
Open Ultimaker Cura - Male Model 1 - Creality Ender 3.png
Open Ultimaker Cura
2
Add 3D Printer - Male Model 1 - Creality Ender 3.png
Add 3D Printer
Click on "Add printer."
3
Add A Non-Networked Printer - Male Model 1 - Creality Ender 3.png
Add A Non-Networked Printer
Click on "Add a non-networked printer."
4
Select 3D Printer - Male Model 1 - Creality Ender 3.png
Select 3D Printer
  • Scroll down to find and select "Creality Ender 3."
  • Click on "Add."
  • Click on "Next."
5
Select Filament Material - Male Model 1 - Creality Ender 3.png
Select Filament Material
  • For the filament material, select the brand name of "PLA" that you will be using.
  • If your PLA filament brand is not an available option, select "Generic PLA" as the filament material.
6
Verify Nozzle Diameter - Male Model 1 - Creality Ender 3.png
Verify Nozzle Diameter
  • Select the nozzle diameter that matches the nozzle installed on the 3D printer.
  • The default nozzle diameter is 0.4 mm.
7
Import STL File - Male Model 1 - Creality Ender 3.png
Import STL File
  • Click on "File."
  • Click on "Open File."
  • Select the filename of the .STL file you want to import.
  • Click on "Open."
8
Select Model - Male Model 1 - Creality Ender 3.png
Select Model
Click on the imported 3D model on the build plate.
9
Rotate Model If Required - Male Model 1 - Creality Ender 3.png
Rotate Model If Required
  • If required, rotate the model so the base is flat on the build plate.
  • Model 1 usually requires rotation by 180 degrees in the X-axis (shown in red).
  • Model 3 should be oriented with the wider base with the semi-engraved drilling direction arrow lying flat on the print bed.
10
Use Lay Flat Feature - Male Model 1 - Creality Ender 3.png
Use Lay Flat Feature
  • Click on "Lay Flat" to ensure the model is lying flat on the build plate.
  • In the Ultimaker Cura 5.0 program, the 3D model's colour will be solid yellow to indicate that the model fits in the 3D printer's build volume and no re-scaling is required.
  • To deselect the model, click anywhere in the slicer screen outside of the model.
11
Set Recommended Print Settings - Male Model 1 - Creality Ender 3 v2.0.png
Set Recommended Print Settings Profile
  • Profile: Low Quality - 0.28 mm
  • Support: none (unchecked)
  • Adhesion: none (unchecked)
  • Click "Custom."
12
Set Wall Thickness - Male Model 1 - Creality Ender 3.png
Set Wall Thickness
Walls -> Wall Thickness: 6.2 mm (this changes the Wall Line Count to 15)
13
Adjust Top Layer Setting - Male Model 1 - Creality Ender 3 v2.0.png
Adjust Top Layer Setting
  • Top/Bottom -> Top/Bottom Thickness and Top Thickness: leave at default settings of 1.12 mm
  • Top/Bottom -> Top Layers: 0 (for Models 1 + 2); 3 (for Model 3)
14
Select Infill - Male Model 1 - Creality Ender 3 v3.0.png
Select Infill
  • Infill -> Infill Density: 15%
  • Infill -> Infill Pattern: Tri-Hexagon
15
Slice Model - Male Model 1 - Creality Ender 3 v2.0.png
Slice Model
  • Click on "Slice."
  • Click on "Save to Disk."
  • Save the G-CODE file to avoid errors when inputting the customized print settings and eliminate print file preparation time when re-printing in the future.
  • Record the "Printing Time" and "Filament Weight" values to calculate a price quote.

Prusa i3 Mk3/Mk3S (Ultimaker) Cura Settings[edit | edit source]

1
Open Ultimaker Cura - Male Model 1 - Prusa i3MK3S.png
Open Ultimaker Cura
2
Add 3D Printer - Male Model 1 - Prusa i3MK3S.png
Add 3D Printer
Click on "Add printer."
3
Add A Non-Networked Printer - Male Model 2 - Prusa i3MK3S.png
Add A Non-Networked Printer
Click on "Add a non-networked printer."
4
Select 3D Printer - Male Model 1 - Prusa i3MK3S.png
Select 3D Printer
  • Scroll down to find and select "Prusa i3 Mk3/Mk3S."
  • Click on "Add."
  • Click on "Next."
5
Select Filament Material - Male Model 2 - Prusa i3MK3S.png
Select Filament Material
  • For the filament material, select the brand name of "PLA" that you will be using.
  • If your PLA filament brand is not an available option, select "Generic PLA" as the filament material.
6
Verify Nozzle Diameter
  • The default nozzle diameter is 0.4 mm.
  • Verify that the Prusa i3 Mk3/Mk3S printer has a 0.4 mm nozzle installed.
7
Import STL File - Male Model 1 - Prusa i3MK3S.png
Import STL File
  • Click on "File."
  • Click on "Open File."
  • Select the filename of the .STL file you want to import.
  • Click on "Open."
8
Select Model - Male Model 1 - Prusa i3MK3S.png
Select Model
Click on the imported 3D model on the build plate.
9
Rotate Model If Required - Male Model 1 - Prusa i3MK3S.png
Rotate Model If Required
  • If required, rotate the model so the base is flat on the build plate.
  • Model 1 usually requires rotation by 180 degrees in the X-axis (shown in red).
  • Model 3 should be oriented with the wider base with the semi-engraved drilling direction arrow lying flat on the print bed.
10
Use Lay Flat Feature - Male Model 1 - Prusa i3MK3S.png
Use Lay Flat Feature
  • Click on "Lay Flat" to ensure the model is lying flat on the build plate.
  • In the Ultimaker Cura 5.0 program, the 3D model's colour will be solid yellow to indicate that the model fits in the 3D printer's build volume and no re-scaling is required.
  • To deselect the model, click anywhere in the slicer screen outside of the model.
11
Set Recommended Print Settings - Male Model 1 - Prusa i3MK3S v2.0.png
Set Recommended Print Settings Profile
  • Profile: Extra Fast - 0.3 mm
  • Support: none (unchecked)
  • Adhesion: none (unchecked)
  • Click on "Custom."
12
Set Wall Thickness - Male Model 1 - Prusa i3MK3S v2.0.png
Set Wall Thickness
Walls -> Wall Thickness: 6.2 mm (this changes the Wall Line Count to 15)
13
Adjust Top Layer Setting - Male Model 1 - Prusa i3MK3S v3.0.png
Adjust Top Layer Setting
  • Top/Bottom -> Top/Bottom Thickness and Top Thickness: leave at default settings of 0.8 mm
  • Top/Bottom -> Top Layers: 0 (for Models 1 + 2); 3 (for Model 3)
14
Select Infill - Male Model 1 - Prusa i3MK3S v3.0.png
Select Infill
  • Infill -> Infill Density: 15%
  • Infill -> Infill Pattern: Tri-Hexagon
15
Slice Model - Male Model 1 - Prusa i3MK3S v2.0.png
Slice Model
  • Click on "Slice."
  • Click on "Save to Disk."
  • Save the G-CODE file to avoid errors when inputting the customized print settings and eliminate print file preparation time when re-printing in the future.
  • Record the "Printing Time" and "Filament Weight" values to calculate a price quote.

Ultimaker 2+ Connect Cura Settings[edit | edit source]

Since the Ultimaker 2+ Connect printer has a build volume Z height greater than 200 mm, please follow the Ultimaker S5 Cura Settings instructions below while using Ultimaker Cura for the "Ultimaker 2+ Connect" printer.

TAZ Workhorse Cura Lulzbot Edition Settings[edit | edit source]

Taz Workhorse HE | 0.5 mm

  • Category: All
  • Material: PLA
  • Profile: High Speed

Recommended

  • Print Setup -> Generate Support: no (leave unchecked)
  • Print Setup -> Build Plate Adhesion: None

Custom

  • Shell -> Wall Thickness: 6.2 mm (this changes the Wall Line Count to 12)
  • Shell -> Top Layers: 0 (for Models #1 + #2); 3 (for Model #3)
  • Infill -> Infill Density: 15%
  • Infill -> Infill Pattern: Tri-Hexagon

Ultimaker S3 Cura Settings[edit | edit source]

1
Open Ultimaker Cura - Male Model 1.png
Open Ultimaker Cura
  • Open Ultimaker Cura for the "Ultimaker S3" printer.
  • Select Material as "Generic PLA"
  • Verify the Print core type matches the Print core installed on the Ultimaker S3 printer (default Print core is AA 0.4)
2
Open Slicer Program.png
Import STL File
  • Click on "File."
  • Click on "Open File."
  • Select the filename of the .STL file you want to import.
  • Click on "Open."
3
Select Model - Male Model 1.png
Select Model
Click on the imported 3D model on the build plate.
4
Rotate Model - Male Model 1.png
Rotate Model If Required
  • If required, rotate the model so the base is flat on the build plate.
  • Model 1 usually requires rotation by 180 degrees in the X-axis (shown in red).
  • Model 3 should be oriented with the wider base with the semi-engraved drilling direction arrow lying flat on the print bed.
5
Lay Flat - Male Model 1.png
Use Lay Flat Feature
  • Click on "Lay Flat" to ensure the model is lying flat on the build plate.
  • The Ultimaker Cura 5.0 program shows the 3D model with grey stripes to indicate that the model does not fit inside the 3D printer's build volume and needs to be re-scaled.
6
Re-Scale Model - Male Model 1.png
Re-Scale Model
  • Click on the 3D model on the build plate.
  • Select the "Scale" feature.
  • With the "Uniform Scaling" box checked, input 95% in the percentage column in the X row and press "Enter" on your keyboard to uniformly re-scale the model.
  • Click on "Lay Flat" to ensure the model is lying flat on the build plate.
  • Confirm that the re-scaled model fits in the 3D printer's build volume. In the Ultimaker Cura 5.0 program, the 3D model's colour will change from grey stripes to solid yellow to indicate that the re-scaled model now fits in the 3D printer's build volume.
  • To deselect the model, click anywhere in the slicer screen outside of the model.
7
Set Recommended Print Settings - Male Model 1.png
Set Recommended Print Settings Profile
  • Profile: Extra Fast - 0.3 mm - Experimental
  • Support: none (unchecked)
  • Adhesion: none (unchecked)
  • Click on "Custom."
8
Set Custom Print Settings - Male Model 1.png
Set Wall Thickness
Walls -> Wall Thickness: 6.2 mm (this changes the Wall Line Count to 15)
9
Adjust Top Layer Setting - Male Model 1.png
Adjust Top Layer Setting
  • Top/Bottom -> Top/Bottom Thickness and Top Thickness: leave at default settings of 0.9 mm
  • Top/Bottom -> Top Layers: 0 (for Models 1 + 2); 3 (for Model 3)
10
Select Infill Pattern - Male Model 1.png
Select Infill
  • Infill -> Infill Density: 15%
  • Infill -> Infill Pattern: Tri-Hexagon
11
Slice Model - Male Model 1 v2.0.png
Slice Model
  • Click on "Slice."
  • Click on "Save to Disk."
  • Save the G-CODE file to avoid errors when inputting the customized print settings and eliminate print file preparation time when re-printing in the future.
  • Record the "Printing Time" and "Filament Weight" values to calculate a price quote.
Adult Male Tibial Bone Model GCODE Files for Ultimaker S3 3D Printer
Model Number Anatomic Region Simulator Build Module Skills Training Module STL File Name Ultimaker Cura Version Printing Time Filament Weight GCODE File Name Revision Date Download File Comments
1 Proximal Fragment of Tibial Shaft Transverse Fracture Tibial Shaft Transverse Fracture Simulator Modular External Fixation for an Open Tibial Shaft Transverse Fracture Model 1 - Male - 19-May-2022 version.STL 5.0 8 hours, 5 minutes 190 grams Model 1 - Male - Ultimaker S3 - 19-May-2022 version.GCODE May 19, 2022 File:Model 1 - Male - Ultimaker S3 - 19-May-2022 version.GCODE Print testing in progress
2 Distal Fragment of Tibial Shaft Transverse Fracture Tibial Shaft Transverse Fracture Simulator Modular External Fixation for an Open Tibial Shaft Transverse Fracture Model 2 - Male - 19-May-2022 version.STL 5.0 6 hours, 25 minute 147 grams Model 2 - Male - Ultimaker S3 - 19-May-2022 version.GCODE May 19, 2022 File:Model 2 - Male - Ultimaker S3 - 19-May-2022 version.GCODE Print testing in progress
3 Tibial Shaft Tibial Shaft Simulator Bicortical Drilling Skills Model 3 - Male - 16-Apr-2022 version.STL 5.0 Coming soon! Coming soon! Under revision Under revision Coming soon! Coming soon!

Ultimaker S5 Cura Settings[edit | edit source]

1
Open Ultimaker Cura - Male Model 1 - Ultimaker S5.png
Open Ultimaker Cura
  • Open Ultimaker Cura for the "Ultimaker S5" printer.
  • Select Material as "Generic PLA"
  • Verify the Print core type matches the Print core installed on the Ultimaker S5 printer (default Print core is AA 0.4)
2
Import STL File - Male Model 1 - Ultimaker S5.png
Import STL File
  • Click on "File."
  • Click on "Open File."
  • Select the filename of the .STL file you want to import.
  • Click on "Open."
3
Select Model - Male Model 1 - Ultimaker S5.png
Select Model
Click on the imported 3D model on the build plate.
4
Rotate Model - Male Model 1 - Ultimaker S5.png
Rotate Model If Required
  • If required, rotate the model so the base is flat on the build plate.
  • Model 1 usually requires rotation by 180 degrees in the X-axis (shown in red).
  • Model 3 should be oriented with the wider base with the semi-engraved drilling direction arrow lying flat on the print bed.
5
Lay Flat - Male Model 1 - Ultimaker S5.png
Use Lay Flat Feature
  • Click on "Lay Flat" to ensure the model is lying flat on the build plate.
  • In the Ultimaker Cura 5.0 program, the 3D model's colour will be solid yellow to indicate that the model fits in the 3D printer's build volume and no re-scaling is required.
  • To deselect the model, click anywhere in the slicer screen outside of the model.
6
Set Recommended Print Settings - Male Model 1 - Ultimaker S5 v2.0.png
Set Recommended Print Settings Profile
  • Profile: Extra Fast - 0.3 mm - Experimental
  • Support: none (unchecked)
  • Adhesion: none (unchecked)
  • Click on "Custom."
7
Set Custom Print Settings - Male Model 1 - Ultimaker S5 v2.0.png
Set Wall Thickness
Walls -> Wall Thickness: 6.2 mm (this changes the Wall Line Count to 15)
8
Adjust Top Layer Setting - Male Model 1 - Ultimaker S5 v2.0.png
Adjust Top Layer Setting
  • Top/Bottom -> Top/Bottom Thickness and Top Thickness: leave at default settings of 0.9 mm
  • Top/Bottom -> Top Layers: 0 (for Models 1 + 2); 3 (for Model 3)
9
Select Infill Pattern - Male Model 1 - Ultimaker S5 v2.0.png
Select Infill
  • Infill -> Infill Density: 15%
  • Infill -> Infill Pattern: Tri-Hexagon
10
Slice Model - Male Model 1 - Ultimaker S5 v2.0.png
Slice Model
  • Click on "Slice."
  • Click on "Save to Disk."
  • Save the G-CODE file to avoid errors when inputting the customized print settings and eliminate print file preparation time when re-printing in the future.
  • Record the "Printing Time" and "Filament Weight" values to calculate a price quote.

Calculate Price Quote[edit | edit source]

2
Print Info.png
Print Info
  • In order to be able to print this summary, you must type text (i.e., Printer Type - Model # - Male - DD-MMM-YYYY version.GCODE filename) into "Job Name."
  • Input the "Printing Time" and "Filament Weight" from the 3D slicing program.
  • If you are using a Prusa 3D printer, upload the GCODE file for that Prusa 3D printer and this will automatically populate the "Printing Time" and "Filament Weight."
File Name Prusa 3D Printer Type Model Scale Printing Time Filament Weight
PI3MK3M_Model 1 - Male - 19-May-2022 version.GCODE Prusa i3MK3S 100% 8 hours and 26 minutes 213 grams
PI3MK3M_Model 2 - Male - 19-May-2022 version.GCODE Prusa i3MK3S 100% 6 hours and 55 minutes 165 grams
3
Filament.png
Filament
  • For Filament Type, select "PLA."
  • Fill in the "Spool Price" and "Spool Weight" values of your locally available white PLA filament.
  • For the "Markup" option, we recommend up to a 20% markup on the total filament cost to cover the machine and upkeep costs. Our models have been previously tested so the potential risk of print failures and wasted filament is low.
4
Electricity Cost.png
Electricity
  • If known, fill in local values for the "Power Consumption" and "Electricity Cost."
  • Otherwise, leave the "Optional" slider button to the left.
5
Labor Cost.png
Labor Cost

Fill in labor costs, if any. Otherwise, leave the "Optional" slider button to the left.

To minimize labor costs for print preparation, we have provided the 3D model file, pre-tested print settings, and even the GCODE files for some 3D printers.

To minimize material, equipment and labor costs for post-processing, all the 3D printed bone models are designed to:

  • print without support material, rafts or brims
  • require no cleaning, sanding, gluing, priming, painting, dipping, coating, smoothing, polishing, or any post-processing
  • not require any non-3D printed parts, and
  • be ready for use right out of the 3D printer.[37]
6
Machine & Upkeep Costs.png
Machine & Upkeep Cost
Leave the "Optional" slider button to the left because this cost has already been factored into the "Markup" in the Filament step.
7
Print Summary.png
Other Costs
Include delivery costs in "Other Costs" if the client is not picking up the models.
8
Print Summary.png
VAT
If applicable, add local taxes in "VAT."
9
Print Summary.png
Print Summary
  • Click on "Print summary."
  • Save this document as a pdf.
  • Email this price quote pdf document to the client.

Confirm Order[edit | edit source]

Our research has found that the 2022 price of 3D printing each Adult Male Tibial Bone Model 1 and 2 at 95% scale in Nigeria is $11.25 and $10.90 USD (not including local taxes or shipping costs).[38]

Once you've reviewed the print settings screenshots (see checklist below) and received an suitable price quote, then request an invoice order with payment information from the 3D print on demand service.

Checklist for Print Settings for 3D Printed Adult Male Tibial Bone Models[edit | edit source]

Print Settings for 0.4 mm Nozzle 3D Printer Circle the most appropriate response
Filament Material is PLA Done Correctly / Done Incorrectly / Not Done
The Wide Base of the Model Is Flat On The Build Plate Done Correctly / Done Incorrectly / Not Done
Scale Factor of 100% if Maximum Build Volume Z Height is 200 mm or More Done Correctly / Done Incorrectly / Not Done / Not Applicable
Identical Scale Factor Used for All Models if Maximum Build Volume Z Height is Between 180 mm to 200 mm* Done Correctly / Done Incorrectly / Not Done / Not Applicable
Layer Height Does Not Exceed 0.3 mm Done Correctly / Done Incorrectly / Not Done
Wall Thickness is 6.2 mm Done Correctly / Done Incorrectly / Not Done
  • Top Layer is 0 for Models 1 and 2
  • Top Layer is Default Value (usually 2-4 layers) for Model 3
Done Correctly / Done Incorrectly / Not Done
Infill Density is 15% Done Correctly / Done Incorrectly / Not Done
Infill Pattern is Tri-Hexagon or 3D Honeycomb Done Correctly / Done Incorrectly / Not Done

*If the 3D printer has a maximum build volume Z height between ~180 mm to 200 mm, all 3D Printed Adult Male Tibial Bone Models must be uniformly and identically rescaled at less than 100% and at the highest scale factor which permits printing on the specific 3D printer.

Name of Reviewer #1:

Signature of Reviewer #1:

Name of Reviewer #2:

Signature of Reviewer #2:

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Ugochukwu EG, Ugbem LP, Ijomone OM, Ebi OT. Estimation of Maximum Tibia Length from its Measured Anthropometric Parameters in a Nigerian Population. J Forensic Sci Med [serial online] 2016 [cited 2021 Jun 27];2:222-8. Available from: https://www.jfsmonline.com/text.asp?2016/2/4/222/197928.
  2. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services  —  National Institutes of Health. Human tibia and fibula. [Internet]. Bethesda, (MD): NIH 3D Print Exchange; 2014 May 29 [cited 2021 Aug 17]. Available from: https://3dprint.nih.gov/discover/3DPX-000169.
  3. Gosman JH, Hubbell ZR, Shaw CN, Ryan TM. Development of cortical bone geometry in the human femoral and tibial diaphysis. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2013 May;296(5):774-87. doi: 10.1002/ar.22688. Epub 2013 Mar 27. PMID: 23533061.
  4. Ultimaker. Ultimaker PLA Technical Data Sheet [Internet]. Ultimaker Support. [cited 2021 July 29]. Available from: https://support.ultimaker.com/hc/en-us/articles/360011962720-UltimakerPLA-TDS.
  5. Vian, Wei Dai and Denton, Nancy L., "Hardness Comparison of Polymer Specimens Produced with Different Processes" (2018). ASEE IL-IN Section Conference. 3. https://docs.lib.purdue.edu/aseeil-insectionconference/2018/tech/3.
  6. Society For Biomaterials 30th Annual Meeting Transactions, page 332. Femoral Cortical Wall Thickness And Hardness Evaluation. K. Calvert, L.A. Kirkpatrick, D.M. Blakemore, T.S. Johnson. Zimmer, Inc., Warsaw, IN.
  7. Meyers, M. A.; Chen, P.-Y. (2014). Biological Materials Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-01045-1.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Forrest AM, Johnson AE, inventors; Pacific Research Laboratories, Inc., assignee. Artificial bones and methods of making same. United States patent 8,210,852 B2. Date issued 2012 Jul 3.
  9. 9.0 9.1 National Institutes of Health Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases National Resource Center. What is Bone? [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): The National Institutes of Health (NIH); 2018. [Cited 2021 Aug 17]. Available from: https://www.bones.nih.gov/health-info/bone/bone-health/what-is-bone.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Maeda K, Mochizuki T, Kobayashi K, Tanifuji O, Someya K, Hokari S, Katsumi R, Morise Y, Koga H, Sakamoto M, Koga Y, Kawashima H. Cortical thickness of the tibial diaphysis reveals age- and sex-related characteristics between non-obese healthy young and elderly subjects depending on the tibial regions. J Exp Orthop. 2020 Oct 6;7(1):78. doi: 10.1186/s40634-020-00297-9. PMID: 33025285; PMCID: PMC7538524.
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  36. https://ultimaker.com/software/ultimaker-cura
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