Sharing knowledge to build rich, sustainable lives.
is the site for collaborative solutions in sustainability
reduction and international development
through the use of sound principles
and appropriate technology
and the sharing of wisdom and project
information. It is a wiki
, a type of website which allows anyone to add, remove, or edit content. Registration is encouraged but not required for contributors.
Appropedia has been described as an "appropriate technology wiki," but it is much broader than that - it is a green wiki, and a wiki for all matters of international development and aid. But most importantly, Appropedia is an open site for stakeholders to come together to find, create and improve scalable and adaptable solutions.
Want to collaborate & share ideas for sustainability, poverty reduction and international development?
You're at the right place — see our Mission.
Contributors have made 365,089 edits and uploaded 29,273 files. — Browse our categories or all 57,563 pages.
Small Scale Vegetable Oil Extraction
. Oilseeds are the major source of edible oils. The oil-cake remaining after the greater part of the oil has been extracted is a valuable source of protein for animal feeds. Nutritionally, oils provide the calories, vitamins, and essential fatty acids in the human diet in an easily digested form. Oils are used in cooking to enhance the flavour and texture of food. It has been estimated that while 30% of malnourished children in developing countries suffer from a lack of both energy-producing and protein foods, the other 70% suffer from a lack of calories which could be obtained largely from oils and fats. The per caput consumption of fats in tropical Africa is roughly one-quarter of that in North America. Only a small number of developing countries have surpluses of vegetable oils for export. Malaysia and Indonesia export palm oil, the Philippines export coconut oil, and Brazil and Argentina export soy-bean oil. In most developing countries, vegetable oils are in short supply with the rising demand due largely to population growth. The need to import uses up scarce foreign exchange.
Most developing countries have large-scale oilseed processing facilities which are generally located near large towns. Oilseeds grown in rural areas are normally transported to the urban oil mills for processing, but poorly maintained roads and vehicles make the transporting of oilseeds from rural areas to urban oil mills both difficult and costly. Haulage of cooking oil back to rural areas presents the same problems. The high urban demand for vegetable oil leads to shortages in rural areas. Oil that does reach the rural areas is sold at a much higher price than in the large towns.
"It can be built as a : Do-It-Yourself (DIY) project where expert masonry skills are not required" and "by using common and inexpensive materials available anywhere."
is vital for all known forms of life. Covering 71% of the Earth's surface, it is found mostly in oceans and other large water bodies. 1.6% of the total mass of the Earth's water is below ground in aquifers and 0.001% is in the air as vapor, clouds, and precipitation (rain, snow and sleet).
The Earth's water moves constantly through a cycle of evaporation and transpiration (evapotranspiration), precipitation, and runoff, usually reaching the sea. Over land, evaporation and transpiration contribute to the precipitation over land - thus deforestation and other changes to land can have wide and long-lasting effects through their impact on the water cycle.
Some observers estimate that by 2025 more than half of the world population will be vulnerable to a lack of water. Appropriate water supply and water purification technologies can help.