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Difference between revisions of "Lifecycle and Economic Analysis of standard Czochralski-Si and multicrystalline black-Si PERC Literature review"

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=====Abstract=====
 
=====Abstract=====
 
Fabrication and research related to silicon devices, circuits and systems relies on the etching and characterization of silicon wafers. The etching process are used for different applications including micromachining, cleaning and defect delineation. Wet chemical etching principles used in silicon semiconductor defect analysis are described. Crystallographic effects and formation of pits during etching are explained. An extensive review of etchants used for a variety of materials is presented. The defects and impurities in silicon are examined by preferential etching and optical microscopy. This article presents the three configurations, namely plan view wafer surfaces, Bevel polish and etch and Cleavage face analysis to illustrate the applicability of defect analysis using etching.
 
Fabrication and research related to silicon devices, circuits and systems relies on the etching and characterization of silicon wafers. The etching process are used for different applications including micromachining, cleaning and defect delineation. Wet chemical etching principles used in silicon semiconductor defect analysis are described. Crystallographic effects and formation of pits during etching are explained. An extensive review of etchants used for a variety of materials is presented. The defects and impurities in silicon are examined by preferential etching and optical microscopy. This article presents the three configurations, namely plan view wafer surfaces, Bevel polish and etch and Cleavage face analysis to illustrate the applicability of defect analysis using etching.
====F. Schindler, A. Fell, R. Muler, J. Benick, A. Richter, F. Feldman, P. Krenckel, S. Riepe, M. C. Schubert, S. W. Glunz, '''Towards the efficiency limits of multicrystalline silicon solar cells''', ''Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells'' '''2018''' ''Volume 185'' 198-204   
+
====9. F. Schindler, A. Fell, R. Muler, J. Benick, A. Richter, F. Feldman, P. Krenckel, S. Riepe, M. C. Schubert, S. W. Glunz, '''Towards the efficiency limits of multicrystalline silicon solar cells''', ''Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells'' '''2018''' ''Volume 185'' 198-204====  
 
'''DOI''': https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2018.05.006
 
'''DOI''': https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2018.05.006
 
====Abstract====
 
====Abstract====
 
In this contribution, we present our recent results for high efficiency multicrystalline silicon solar cells. Based on n-type high-performance multicrystalline silicon substrates in combination with the TOPCon solar cell concept featuring a full area passivating back contact and a boron-diffused emitter as well as a plasma-etched black-silicon texture at the front side, a certified conversion efficiency of 22.3% has been achieved, which is currently the world record efficiency for multicrystalline silicon solar cells. A detailed loss analysis of the record solar cell batch discloses the nature of the remaining loss mechanisms, revealing the route for further improvements. We observe an efficiency gap between the multicrystalline and the FZ reference solar cells of ~1%abs. Compared to the FZ reference cells, the mc-Si cells also feature a significantly larger scattering in Voc and Jsc as well as a fill factor loss of ~1.5%abs. We show that the scattering in Jsc correlates with the area fraction of recombination-active structural crystal defects and the scattering in Voc additionally with lateral emitter-induced inhomogeneities. The fill factor loss is attributed to the general presence of strongly recombination-active grain boundaries. A detailed loss analysis of the record mc-Si solar cell shows that the major electrical losses are due to recombination at grain boundaries (0.7%abs) and recombination in the emitter (0.6%abs). By reducing these electrical loss channels, e.g. by an improved crystallization process together with a hydrogenation of the bulk and application of an adapted emitter, we expect to reach efficiencies for mc-Si solar cells in the range of 23%.
 
In this contribution, we present our recent results for high efficiency multicrystalline silicon solar cells. Based on n-type high-performance multicrystalline silicon substrates in combination with the TOPCon solar cell concept featuring a full area passivating back contact and a boron-diffused emitter as well as a plasma-etched black-silicon texture at the front side, a certified conversion efficiency of 22.3% has been achieved, which is currently the world record efficiency for multicrystalline silicon solar cells. A detailed loss analysis of the record solar cell batch discloses the nature of the remaining loss mechanisms, revealing the route for further improvements. We observe an efficiency gap between the multicrystalline and the FZ reference solar cells of ~1%abs. Compared to the FZ reference cells, the mc-Si cells also feature a significantly larger scattering in Voc and Jsc as well as a fill factor loss of ~1.5%abs. We show that the scattering in Jsc correlates with the area fraction of recombination-active structural crystal defects and the scattering in Voc additionally with lateral emitter-induced inhomogeneities. The fill factor loss is attributed to the general presence of strongly recombination-active grain boundaries. A detailed loss analysis of the record mc-Si solar cell shows that the major electrical losses are due to recombination at grain boundaries (0.7%abs) and recombination in the emitter (0.6%abs). By reducing these electrical loss channels, e.g. by an improved crystallization process together with a hydrogenation of the bulk and application of an adapted emitter, we expect to reach efficiencies for mc-Si solar cells in the range of 23%.
 +
 +
===10. S. Zhong, B. Liu, Y. Xia, J. Liu, J. Liu, Z. Shen, Z. Xu, C. Li, '''The study on the properties of black multicrystalline silicon solar cell varying with the diffusion temperature''', ''Energy Procedia'' '''2012''' ''Volume 14'' 505-511===
 +
'''DOI''': https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2011.12.966
 +
====Abstarct====
 +
The black multi-crystalline silicon (mc-Si) has been successfully produced by plasma immersion ion implantation. The microstructure and the reflectance of the black mc-Si have been investigated by atomic force microscope and spectrophotometer, respectively. Results show that the black mc-Si exhibits a hillock structure with a low reflectance. Besides, with decreasing the diffusion temperature, the external quantum efficiency of the black mc-Si solar cell increases below ∼550 nm wavelength due to reduced surface recombination. The optimal conversion effieciency of the black mc-Si solar cell is 15.50% at the diffusion temperature of 825 °C. Furthermore, it is interesting to find that there are something different between black mc-Si and acid etched mc-Si on the impact of diffusion.

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Contents

Lifecycle and Economic Assessment of Standard texturized Czochralski Silicon and Black Multicrystalline Silicon PERC cells

Source paper

Abstract

Industrial Czochralski silicon (Cz-Si) photovoltaic (PV) efficiencies have routinely reached >20% with the passivated emitter rear cell (PERC) design. Nanostructuring silicon (black-Si) by dry-etching decreases surface reflectance, allows diamond saw wafering, enhances metal gettering, and may prevent power conversion efficiency degradation under light exposure. Black-Si allows a potential for >20% PERC cells using cheaper multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) materials, although dry-etching is widely considered too expensive for industrial application. This study analyzes this economic potential by comparing costs of standard texturized Cz-Si and black mc-Si PERC cells. Manufacturing sequences are divided into steps, and costs per unit power are individually calculated for all different steps. Baseline costs for each step are calculated and a sensitivity analysis run for a theoretical 1 GW/year manufacturing plant, combining data from literature and industry. The results show an increase in the overall cell processing costs between 15.8% and 25.1% due to the combination of black-Si etching and passivation by double-sided atomic layer deposition. Despite this increase, the cost per unit power of the overall PERC cell drops by 10.8%. This is a significant cost saving and thus energy policies are reviewed to overcome challenges to accelerating deployment of black mc-Si PERC across the PV industry.

Keywords

  • black silicon; economics; manufacturing costs; multicrystalline silicon; passivated emitter rear cell; PERC; silicon solar cells; photovoltaic; photovoltaic manufacturing

Background

Journals

  • Energy
  • Solar Energy
  • Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews

Searches

Literature Review

1. What is Lifecycle assessment?

Economic Input-Output Lifecycle Assessment Life Cycle Analysis

2. Why Lifecycle assessment?

J. B. Guinée, R. Heijungs, G. Huppes, A. Zamagni, P. Masoni, R. Buonamici, T. Ekvall, T. Rydberg, Life Cycle Assessment: Past, Present, and Future, Environmental Science & Technology 2011 45 (1), 90-96 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es101316v/

3. History of Silicon Cell's Evolution

M. A. Green, The path to 25% silicon solar cell efficiency: History of silicon cell evolution, Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications 2009 Volume 17, 183-189 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/pip.892 Open Access

Abstract

The first silicon solar cell was reported in 1941 and had less than 1% energy conversion efficiency compared to the 25% efficiency milestone reported in this paper. Standardization of past measurements shows there has been a 57% improvement between confirmed results in 1983 and the present result. The features of the cell structure responsible for the most recent performance increase are described and the history of crystalline and multicrystalline silicon cell efficiency evolution is documented.

3. What are the methods of Lifecycle assessment in the PV industry?

Methodologies and Guidelines on Life Cycle Assessment of Photovoltaic Electricity

4. J. Kim., J. Rivera, T. Y. Meng, B. Laratte, S. Chen, Review of life cycle assessment of nanomaterials in photovoltaics, Solar Energy August 2016 Volume 133, 249-258

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2016.03.060

Abstract

Photovoltaic (PV) technologies are gaining a share in the renewable energy production market. Recently nanomaterials have been used by researchers to improve the performance and efficiency of PVs. Consideration to the environmental aspects of nanomaterials infused PVs is a growing area of interest. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to investigate the application of LCA to PV technology. Particularly, the authors are interested in scrutinizing the application of LCA to PV systems infused with nanomaterials. In this paper, a literature review was performed to describe and assess the limitations of current research on the usage of life cycle assessment (LCA) methodologies to predict the environmental impact of nanomaterials usage on PVs. The approach to this review focuses on two sub-categories: production and/or use of PVs, and end-of-life of PVs. Following this approach the context and progress of LCA is described. Research gaps and opportunities for improved environmental performance throughout the life cycle of nano-infused PVs are identified and discussed. This work provides a basis for the continue analysis of emerging nanomaterials and PV technologies.

5. N. A. Ludin, N. I. Mustafa, Marlia M. Hanafiah, M. A. Ibrahim, M. A. M. Teridi, S. Sepeai, A. Zharim, K. Sopian, Prospects of life cycle assessment of renewable energy from solar photovoltaic technologies: A review, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews November 2018 Volume 96, 11-28

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2018.07.048

Abstract

Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a comprehensive method used to investigate the environmental impacts and energy use of a product throughout its entire life cycle. For solar photovoltaic (PV) technologies, LCA studies need to be conducted to address environmental and energy issues and foster the development of PV technologies in a sustainable manner. This paper reviews and analyzes LCA studies on solar PV technologies, such as silicon, thin film, dye-sensitized solar cell, perovskite solar cell, and quantum dot-sensitized solar cell. The PV life cycle assumes a cradle-to-grave mechanism, starting from the extraction of raw materials until the disposal or recycling of the solar PV. Three impact assessment methods in LCA were reviewed and summarized, namely, cumulative energy demand (CED), energy payback time (EPBT), and GHG emission rate, based on data and information published in the literature. LCA results show that mono-crystalline silicon PV technology has the highest energy consumption, longest EPBT, and highest greenhouse gas emissions rate compared with other solar PV technologies.

6. Any records in Efficiency?

Z. Wang, P. Han, H. Lu, H. Qian, L. Chen, Q. Meng, N. Tang, F. Gao, Y. Jiang, J. Wu, W. Wu, H. Zhu, J. Ji, Z. Shi, A. Sugianto, L. Mai, B. Hallam, S. Wenham, Advanced PERC and PERL production cells with 20.3% record efficiency for standard commercial p‐type silicon wafers, Research in Photovoltaics, 2012 Volume 20 260-268 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/pip.2178

Abstract

Following intensive research and development, Suntech Power has successfully commercialised its Pluto technology with 0.5 GW annual production capacity, delivering up to 10% performance advantage over conventional screen‐printed cells. The next generation of Pluto involves the development of improved rear surface design based on the design features of passivated emitter and rear locally diffused cells. Cells with an average efficiency over 20% were fabricated on 155 cm2 commercial‐grade p‐type wafers using mass‐manufacturing processes and equipment, with the highest single‐cell efficiency independently confirmed at 20.3%. This is believed to be a record efficiency for this wafer type. Further optimisation work on contact pattern and rear surface passivation suggests the potential for further efficiency increase approaching 23%.

7. M. M. Lunardi, J. P. Alvarez-Gaitan, N. L. Chang, R. Corkish, Life cycle assessment on PERC solar modules, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 2018 Volume 187 154-189

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2018.08.004

Abstract

The screen-printed aluminium back surface field (Al-BSF) technology is the current industry standard process for crystalline silicon solar cells but, due to the search for higher efficiency, much attention has been paid to the passivated emitter and rear cell (PERC), which is gaining significant share in the world market. We undertake an environmental analysis comparing Al-BSF and PERC monocrystalline solar modules. Through the life cycle assessment (LCA) method we calculate the global warming, human toxicity (cancer and non-cancer effects), freshwater eutrophication, freshwater ecotoxicity, abiotic depletion potentials and energy payback time of these technologies considering solar, electronic and upgraded metallurgical grade silicon feedstock. The functional unit considered is 1 kWh of energy delivered over the modules’ lifetime. As a result of this work, we showed that PERC technology generates a slight improvement in the environmental impacts when compared with Al-BSF. The use of electronic and upgraded metallurgical grade silicon results in lower environmental impacts in most cases, compared with the other technologies analysed, based on the assumptions made in this LCA.

8. Some etching processes:

G. A. Rozgonyi, S. Sivarajan, Silicon: Characterization by Etching, Reference Module in Materials Science and Materials Engineering 2017

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-803581-8.03309-9

Abstract

Fabrication and research related to silicon devices, circuits and systems relies on the etching and characterization of silicon wafers. The etching process are used for different applications including micromachining, cleaning and defect delineation. Wet chemical etching principles used in silicon semiconductor defect analysis are described. Crystallographic effects and formation of pits during etching are explained. An extensive review of etchants used for a variety of materials is presented. The defects and impurities in silicon are examined by preferential etching and optical microscopy. This article presents the three configurations, namely plan view wafer surfaces, Bevel polish and etch and Cleavage face analysis to illustrate the applicability of defect analysis using etching.

9. F. Schindler, A. Fell, R. Muler, J. Benick, A. Richter, F. Feldman, P. Krenckel, S. Riepe, M. C. Schubert, S. W. Glunz, Towards the efficiency limits of multicrystalline silicon solar cells, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 2018 Volume 185 198-204

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2018.05.006

Abstract

In this contribution, we present our recent results for high efficiency multicrystalline silicon solar cells. Based on n-type high-performance multicrystalline silicon substrates in combination with the TOPCon solar cell concept featuring a full area passivating back contact and a boron-diffused emitter as well as a plasma-etched black-silicon texture at the front side, a certified conversion efficiency of 22.3% has been achieved, which is currently the world record efficiency for multicrystalline silicon solar cells. A detailed loss analysis of the record solar cell batch discloses the nature of the remaining loss mechanisms, revealing the route for further improvements. We observe an efficiency gap between the multicrystalline and the FZ reference solar cells of ~1%abs. Compared to the FZ reference cells, the mc-Si cells also feature a significantly larger scattering in Voc and Jsc as well as a fill factor loss of ~1.5%abs. We show that the scattering in Jsc correlates with the area fraction of recombination-active structural crystal defects and the scattering in Voc additionally with lateral emitter-induced inhomogeneities. The fill factor loss is attributed to the general presence of strongly recombination-active grain boundaries. A detailed loss analysis of the record mc-Si solar cell shows that the major electrical losses are due to recombination at grain boundaries (0.7%abs) and recombination in the emitter (0.6%abs). By reducing these electrical loss channels, e.g. by an improved crystallization process together with a hydrogenation of the bulk and application of an adapted emitter, we expect to reach efficiencies for mc-Si solar cells in the range of 23%.

10. S. Zhong, B. Liu, Y. Xia, J. Liu, J. Liu, Z. Shen, Z. Xu, C. Li, The study on the properties of black multicrystalline silicon solar cell varying with the diffusion temperature, Energy Procedia 2012 Volume 14 505-511

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2011.12.966

Abstarct

The black multi-crystalline silicon (mc-Si) has been successfully produced by plasma immersion ion implantation. The microstructure and the reflectance of the black mc-Si have been investigated by atomic force microscope and spectrophotometer, respectively. Results show that the black mc-Si exhibits a hillock structure with a low reflectance. Besides, with decreasing the diffusion temperature, the external quantum efficiency of the black mc-Si solar cell increases below ∼550 nm wavelength due to reduced surface recombination. The optimal conversion effieciency of the black mc-Si solar cell is 15.50% at the diffusion temperature of 825 °C. Furthermore, it is interesting to find that there are something different between black mc-Si and acid etched mc-Si on the impact of diffusion.