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Stamp sand literature review

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Search term: Stamp Sand[edit]

Rasmussen, Thomas, Rolland Fraser, David S. Lemberg, and Robert Regis. Mapping Stamp Sand Dynamics: Gay, Michigan

  • 25 billion kg of stamp sand deposited on Gay beaches
  • Length of shoreline affected increased 2.4 km in 59 years
  • 500 billion kg of total waste material from mines placed in and around Lake Superior
  • Ore was crushed and rinsed in a water and chemical bath to extract copper
  • Stamp sand beaches have little vegetation


W. Charles Kerfoot, Colin Brooks. “Gay Stamp Sands.” Accessed July 6, 2018. Gay Stamp Sands

  • Stamp sand spreads out to occupy more shoreline over time
  • Chemicals from stamp sand poison native fish and dam stream outlets


Search term: "Stamp sand" uses[edit]

Alfred a. United States US1310520A, issued July 22, 1919. Portland Cement and Conglomerate Copper Stamp Sand Composition

  • Patent was created for a material to be used in flooring that will be exerted to unusual physical strain as well as in ship hulls
  • Product is water impermeable
  • Composition created using Portland cement and stamp sand obtained from Point Mills, Michigan
  • Various sizes of sand used depending on desired result/product


U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Health Consultation, Torch Lake

  • Chemicals used to treat stamp sands to further extract copper include cupric ammonium carbonate, lime, pyridine oil, coal-tar and wood creosotes, pine oil, and xanthates
  • 200 Million tons of stamp sand in and around Torch Lake
  • Sand samples were tested and found to contain unsafe levels of arsenic, lead, and other semi-volatile organic chemicals


Search term: Cost of stamp sand[edit]

Gundlach Champion Gay, Michigan. Accessed July 6, 2018. Gay Stamp Sand Beneficial Re-Use

  • Potential uses for stamp sand include rock wool insulation, asphault roofing shingle granules, and copper extraction.
  • Testing on the process of creating rock wool insulation is in process in Europe
  • Initial testing on the shingles has been found acceptable


Search term: Landfill tipping costs "stamp sand"[edit]

ProQuest. Accessed July 7, 2018. Powering an Industry: The History of the Calumet and Hecla Electrical System and the Environmental Consequences Left Behind.

  • Mining in the US today produces 2 billion tons of waste per year
  • Mines in Montana and Utah have similar levels of dangerous chemicals in their stamp sands
  • Stamp sands in Torch Lake contain polychlorinated biphenyl compound (PCB) which is proven to cause environmental harm


Leopold, Dennis H. n.d., 71. Quincy and Torch Lake Railroad Engine House Facility Management and Interpretive Plan

  • Quincy Mine began to have a surplus of excess mine rock and used the Portage Canal shores as a dumping ground

Other[edit]

“Final TE Copy.Pdf.” Accessed July 7, 2018. Migrating Stamp Sand Mitigation Plan Technical Evaluation

  • Because of the amount of stamp sands in the UP, complete removal is not realistic
  • To keep stamp sand on Gay beaches from migrating towards Traverse harbor, a revetment will be placed costing 1.62 million dollars. 2 maintenance dredges will be preformed as well which will add to a total project cost of 3.42 million dollars.


References[edit]