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Small Scale Oil Extraction from Groundnuts and Copra (ILO - WEP, 1983, 128 p.)[edit]

APPENDICES[edit]

Appendix. I: Present worth of an annuity factor[edit]

How much 1 received or paid annually for X years is worth today

5%

6%

8%

10%

12%

14%

15%

16%

18%

20%

22%

24%

25%

26%

28%

50%

55%

40%

1

0.952

0.945

0.926

0.909

0.895

0.877

0.870

0.862

0.847

0.855

0.820

0.806

0.800

0.794

0.781

0.769

0.741

0.714

2

1.859

1.855

1.785

1.756

1.690

1.647

1.626

1.605

1.566

1.528

1.492

1.457

1.440

1.424

1.592

1.561

1.289

1.224

5

2.725

2.675

2.577

2.487

2.402

2.522

2.285

2.246

2.174

2.106

2.042

1.901

1.952

1.925

1.868

1.816

1.696

1.589

4

5.546

5.465

5.512

5.170

5.057

2.914

2.855

2.798

2.690

2.589

2.494

2.404

2.562

2.520

2.241

2.166

1.997

1.849

5

4.550

4.212

5.995

5.791

5.605

5.455

5.552

5.274

5.127

2.991

2.864

2.745

2.689

2.655

2.552

2.456

2.220

2.055

6

5.076

4.917

4.625

4.555

4.111

5.889

5.784

5.685

5.498

5.526

5.167

5.020

2.951

2.885

2.759

2.645

2.585

2.168

7

5.786

5.582

5.206

4.868

4.564

4.288

4.160

4.059

5.812

5.605

5.416

5.242

5.161

5.085

2.957

2.802

2.508

2.265

8

6.465

6.210

5.747

5.555

4.968

4.659

4.487

4.544

4.078

5.857

5.619

5.421

5.529

5.241

5.076

2.925

2.598

2.551

9

7.108

6.802

6.247

5.759

5.528

4.946

4.772

4.607

4.505

4.051

5.786

5.566

5.465

5.566

5.184

5.019

2.665

2.579

10

7.722

7.560

6.710

6.145

5.650

5.216

5.019

4.855

4.494

4.192

5.925

5.682

5.571

5.465

5.269

5.092

2.715

2.414

11

8.506

7.887

7.159

6.495

5.958

5.455

5.254

5.029

4.656

4.527

4.055

5.776

5.656

5.544

5.555

5.147

2.752

2.458

12

8.865

8.584

7.556

6.814

6.194

5.660

5.421

5.197

4.795

4.459

4.127

5.851

5.725

5.606

5.587

5.190

2.779

2.456

13

9.594

8.855

7.904

7.105

6.424

5.842

5.585

5.542

4.910

4.555

4.205

5.912

.5.780

5.656

5.427

5.225

2.799

2.468

14

9.899

9.295

8.244

7.567

6.628

6.002

5.724

5.468

5.008

4.611

4.265

5.962

5.824

5.695

5.459

5.249

2.814

2.477

15

10.580

9.712

8.559

7.606

6.811

6.142

5.847

5.575

5.092

4.675

4.515

4.001

5.859

5.726

5.485

5.268

2.825

2.484

16

10.858

10.106

8.851

7.824

6.974

6.265

5.954

5.669

5.162

4.750

4.557

4.055

5.887

5.751

5.505

5.285

2.854

2.489

17

11.274

10.477

9.122

8.022

7.120

6.575

6.047

5.749

5.222

4.775

4.591

4.059

5.910

5.771

5.518

5.295

2.840

2.492

18

11.690

10.828

9.572

8.201

7.250

6.467

6.128

5.818

5.275

4.812

4.419

4.080

5.928

5.786

5.529

5.504

2.844

2.494

19

12.085

11.158

9.604

8.565

7.566

6.550

6.198

5.877

5.516

4.844

4.442

4.097

5.942

5.799

5.559

5.511

2.848

2.496

20

12.462

11.470

9.818

8.514

7.469

6.625

6.259

5.929

5.555

4.870

4.460

4.110

5.954

5.808

5.546

5.516

2.850

2.497

21

12.821

11.764

10.017

8.649

7.562

6.687

6.512

5.975

5.584

4.891

4.476

4.121

5.965

5.816

5.551

5.520

2.852

2.49E

22

15.165

12.042

10.201

8.772

7.645

6.745

6.559

6.011

5.410

4.909

4.488

4.150

5.970

5.822

5.556

5.525

2.855

2.498

25

15.489

12.505

10.571

8.885

7.718

6.792

6.599

6.044

5.452

4.925

4.499

4.157

5.976

5.827

5.559

5.525

2.854

2.499

24

15.799

12.550

10.529

8.985

7.784

6.855

6.454

6.075

5.451

4.957

4.507

4.145

5.981

5.851

5.562

5.527

2.855

2.499

25

14.094

12.785

10.675

9.077

7.845

6.875

6.464

6.097

5.467

4.948

4.514

4.147

5.985

5.854

5.564

5.529

2.856

2.499


Appendix II: Equipment manufacturers[edit]

The following list of manufacturers of oil extractor equipment is far from complete. Other manufacturers, in both developed and developing countries, most probably exist which could supply the various pieces of equipment described in this memorandum. However, information at hand at the time the memorandum was published did not allow an exhaustive coverage of equipment suppliers. Would-be or practising oil producers are therefore urged to identify, in the trade catalogues (see, for example Appendix IV) or from importers of equipment, other manufacturers who may supply the type of equipment they are looking for. It must also be emphasised that the equipment suppliers referred to in this Appendix do not imply their endorsement by the International Labour Office, and any failure to mention a particular supplier in connection with the technologies described in this volume is not a sign of disapproval.

Belgium

De Smet, 265 avenue Prince Baudouin,
Edegem-Antwerp

Solvent extraction equipment



Brazil

Masiero Industrial S.A.
P.O. Box 218-219,
Jan Sao Paulo,

Pre-press expellers, solvent extraction equipment



China

China National Machinery Import and Export Corporation
Shandong Branch,
82 Fan Hsiu Road,
Tsingtao

Small oil expellers



Federal Republic of Germany




Mathias Reinartz,
Neuss

Decorticators, seed cleaners, expellers



Freid Krupp,
Harburger Eisen-Und Bronzewerke,
Hamburg 90

Full press expellers
Pre-press expellers
Solvent extraction equipment



Christiansen & Meyer,
Hamburg-Harburn Aussenmulhenweg 10

Solvent extraction equipment



Extraktiontechnik
Geselschaft f�r Olmuhleneirichtungen,
200 Hamburg, 13 Werderstrasse

Solvent extraction equipment



Lurgi,
D-6000 Frankfurt/Main 2

Solvent extraction equipment



France



Etablissement A. Olier,
Clermont-Ferrand

Decorticators, seed cleaners, expellers, presses, solvent extraction plants



India



Hindsons Pvt. Ltd.,
Patiala,
Punjab

Foot-operated groundnut shellers



The Punjab Oil Expeller Co.,
Patel Marg,
Ghaziabad

Small expellers, fitter presses



S.P. Engineering Corp.,
P.O. Box No. 218,
Kanpur

Small and medium scale expellers, decorticators, seed cleaners, small scale extraction plants



Kirloskar Brothers Ltd.,
Poona

Decorticators and seed cleaners



Swastik Expeller Industries,
Bombay

Baby oil expellers, small-scale expellers



Kamal Engineering Corporation,
Nagpur

Table model expeller



Dandekar Bros.,
Sangli,
Maharashtra

Hand-operated groundnut decorticators



United Engineering (Eastern)
Corporation,
22 Biplabi Rash Behari,
Bose Road,
Calcutta 1

Decorticators, seed cleaners, expellers, small-scale extractions plants



United Oil Mill Machinery and Spares,
D-298 Defence Colony,
New Delhi

Decorticators, seed cleaners, expellers, small-scale extraction plants



Premier Engineering Co.,
Cochin

Indirect hot-air copra driers



Numex Engineers,
P.O. Box 820,
Bombay

Small-scale oil extraction plants



Steel construction Co. Pvt,
Bangalore

Seed cleaners



Israel




H.L.S. Ltd Industrial Engineering Company,
P.O. Box 193,
Petah-Tikuah

Solvent extraction equipment



Italy



Construzzioni Meccaniche Bernardini,
C.M.B.,
Via Petronella,
0040 Pomezia (Roma)

Solvent extraction equipment



Fratelli Gianazza S.P.A.,
Via Le Cardona 78/84,
20025 Legano

Solvent extraction equipment



Japan



Chuo Baeki Goshi Kaiska (CECOCO),
P.O. Box 8,
Ibraki City,
Osaka Pref.

Small-scale oil extraction plants, groundnut decorticators.



Luxembourg



Usine de Wecker
Luxembourg

Presses



Malawi



Agrimal (Malawi) Ltd.
P.O. Box 143,
Blantyre

Groundnut shelters



Netherlands



Stork-Apparatenboun BV,
P.O. Box 3007,
Amsterdam

Complete oil mills



Switzerland



Buhler-Miag Ltd.,
Uzwil

Decorticators, seed cleaners



Tanzania




Ubongo Farm Implements,
P.O. Box 2669,
Dar es Salaam

Groundnut decorticators

United Kingdom



Messrs. Rose, Downs and Thompsons Ltd.,
Cannon Street, Hull

Large scale presses, and solvent extraction plants



Harrap Wilkinson Ltd.,
N. Phoebe Street,
Salford

Automatic groundnut decorticating machines



R. Hunt and Co. Ltd.,
Atlas Works,
Earls Colne,
Colchester,
Essex CO6 2EP

Groundnut decorticator



United States



V.D. Anderson Company,
Cleveland,
Ohio

Various pieces of oil extraction equipment and entire expeller plants



Anderson IBEC,
19699 Progress Drive,
Strongfield,
Ohio 44136

Full press expellers
Pre press expellers
Small oil expellers



French Oil Mill Machinery Company,
Pique,
Ohio 45356

Solvent extraction equipment Full press, pre-press expellers



Dravo Corporation, Chemical Plants Div.
One Oliver Plaza,
Pittsburgh,
Pa 15222

Solvent extraction equipment



Bauer Brothers Co.,
Springfield,
Ohio

Various pieces of oil extraction equipment and entire expeller plants


Appendix III: List of institutions and agencies involved in oil extraction[edit]

1.

FAO, Fats and Oils Section,
Commodities and Trade Division,
Economic and Social Department,
Via delle Terme di Caracalla
00100 Rome,
Italy



2.

African Groundnut Council
P.O. Box 3025,
Lagos, Nigeria



3.

Asian Coconut Community,
2nd Floor, Pantja Niaga Building,
94-96 Djalan Kramat Raya,
Djakarta,
Indonesia



4.

Oil Technological Research Institute (OTRI),
Anantapur,
Andhra Pradesh,
India



5.

Philippine Coconut Oil Producers Association,
Singson Building,
Room 309,
Manila,
Philippines



6.

Coconut Research Institute of Ceylon,
Bandirippura Estate,
Lunuwila,
Sri Lanka



7.

Tropical Products Institute,
Oil Palm Advisory Bureau,
56/62 GrayÂ’s Inn Road,
London WC1,
United Kingdom



8.

National Peanut Council,
1120 Connecticut Avenue,
Washington, D.C. 20036,
United States



9.

Department of Transport, Works and Supply,
P.O. Box 1108,
Boroko,
Papua New Guinea


Appendix IV: List of directories which provide information on equipment manufacturers[edit]

Australasian ManufacturersÂ’ Directory,

Manufacturer Publishing Co. Pty Ltd.,
Elizabeth and Hill Streets,
North Sydney,
N.S.W. Australia

ThomasÂ’ Register of American Manufacturers,

Thomas Publishing Co.,
461 8th Avenue,
New York, N.Y. 1001,
(United States)

Europ. Production,

ABC der Deutschen Wirtschaft,
Berliner Alice 8,
61 Darmstadt,
Federal Republic of Germany

Kompass Directories,

Kompass International AG,
Neuhausstrasse 4,
8044,
Zurich,
Switzerland


Appendix V: Selected list of journals on oil extraction[edit]

Ceylon Coconut Quarterly,

Publ:

Coconut Research Institute,


Bandirippura Estate,


Lunuwilla,


Sri Lanka

Tropical Products Quarterly,

Publ:

Commonwealth Secretariat,


Printing Section,


Pall Mall,


London, SW1,


United Kingdom

Coconut Bulletin,

Publ:

Directorate of Coconut Development,


Ministry of Food and Agriculture,


Government of India,


Ernakulam 1,


India


Appendix VI: Selected bibliography[edit]

Achaya, K.T: Appropriate technology for production and processing of oils and fats. Paper presented at International Forum on Appropriate Industrial Technology (New Delhi, UNIDO, 1978).

Aten, A., Manni, M., and Cooke, F.C.: Copra processing in rural industries FAO, Agricultural Development Paper No. 63 (Rome, FAO, 1958).

Boyd, John: A buyerÂ’s guide to low-cost agricultural implements (London, Intermediate Technology Publications Ltd., 1976).

De, S.S. and Cornelius, J.A.: Technology of production of edible flours and protein products from groundnuts. Agricultural Services Bulletin No. 10 (Rome, FAO, 1971).

Godin, V.G. and Spensley, P.C.: Oil and oilseeds. Crop and Product Digests No. 1 (London, TPI, 1971).

Grimwood, Brian E.: Coconut palm products (Rome, FAO, 1976).

Hagenmaier, Robert D.: Coconut aqueous processing (Cebu City, Philippines, San Carlos Publications, 1980).

Rao, P.V.S: A study of village oil industry in India (Lucknow, Appropriate Technology Development Association, 1980).

Thampan, P.K.: The coconut palm and its products (Cochin, India, Green Villa Publishing House, 1975).

Thieme, J.G.: Coconut oil processing (Rome, FAO, 1968).

Tropical Products Institute: An economic study of lauric oilseed processing (London, 1973).

Tropical Products Institute: An economic evaluation of the wet coconut process developed at the Tropical Products Institute (London, 1973).

Tropical Products Institute: Crop and product digest No. 1 (London, 1971).

Tropical Products Institute: Development of a wet coconut process designed to extract protein and oil from fresh coconut (London, 1973).

UNIDO: Appropriate industrial technology for oils and fats (New York, United Nations, 1979).

UNIDO: Coconut processing technology information documents. Part 1 to 7, Coconut harvesting and copra production (Vienna, 1980), limited distribution.

UNIDO: Coconut Processing Technology Information Documents, Part 2 of 7, Coconut oil extraction (Vienna, 1980), limited distribution.

UNIDO: Guidelines for the establishment and operation of vegetable oil factories (New York, United Nations, 1977).


QUESTIONNAIRE

1.

Full name .............................................................................................................




2.

Address ...............................................................................................................




3.

Profession (check the appropriate case)







(a) Small-scale oil producer ...............................................................................

Oil extract IMG002.GIF






(b) Official from the Agriculture Ministry ..............................................................

Oil extract IMG002.GIF






(c) Extension officer ..........................................................................................

Oil extract IMG002.GIF






(d) Staff member of a training institution .............................................................

Oil extract IMG002.GIF


If yes, specify...................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................








(e) University staff member ................................................................................

Oil extract IMG002.GIF






(f) Staff member of a technology institution..........................................................

Oil extract IMG002.GIF



If yes, specify ..................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................








(g) Staff member of a financial institution ............................................................

Oil extract IMG002.GIF






(i) International technical assistance expert..........................................................







(j) Other.............................................................................................................

Oil extract IMG002.GIF



If yes, specify ...................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................





4.

From where did you get a copy of the memorandum?
Specify if given free or bought.................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................





5.

Did the memorandum help you achieve the following
(Check the appropriate case(s))







(a) Learn about oil extraction techniques you were not aware of ...........................

Oil extract IMG002.GIF






(b) Estimate unit production costs for various scales of production/technologies .....

Oil extract IMG002.GIF






(c) Improve your current production technique .....................................................

Oil extract IMG002.GIF







(d) Cut down operating costs ..............................................................................

Oil extract IMG002.GIF







(e) Improve the quality of produced oil .................................................................

Oil extract IMG002.GIF







(f) Decide which technology to adopt for a new oil extraction unit ..........................

Oil extract IMG002.GIF







(g) If a government employee, to formulate new policies and measures in favour of
the small-scale oil extraction sector .....................................................................

Oil extract IMG002.GIF







(h) If an employee of a financial institution, to assess a request for a loan for the
establishment of a small-scale oil extraction plant .................................................

Oil extract IMG002.GIF







(i) If a trainer or extension officer, to use the memorandum as a supplementary
training material .................................................................................................

Oil extract IMG002.GIF







(j) If an international expert, to better advise counterparts on oil extraction
techniques ........................................................................................................

Oil extract IMG002.GIF







(k) Indicate any other help provided by this memorandum ......................................
.........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................

Oil extract IMG002.GIF

6.

Is the memorandum detailed enough in terms of:









- Technical aspects ...........................................................................................

Yes

No


- Costing information .........................................................................................

Yes

No



- Information on socio-economic impact ..............................................................

Yes

No






If some of the answers are “No”, please indicate why below or on a separate sheet of
paper ....................................................................................................................


7. How might this memorandum be improved if a second edition were to be published?
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................

8. Please send the questionnaire, duly completed, to:

Technology and Employment Branch,
International Labour Office,
CH-1211 GENEVA 22 (Switzerland)

9. In case you need additional information on some of the issues covered by this memorandum, the ILO and FAO will do their best to provide the requested information.