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STAR-TIDES Field Manual

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Sharing To Accelerate Research - Transformative Innovation for Development and Emergency Support
www.star-tides.net

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NOTICE The massive amount of information the Field Manual is to contain will soon make it unwieldy. To deal with this, separate wiki pages will be created for each chapter. The TIDES main page will remain as a table of contents, linked to each editable chapter within. This change will be executed in late April -- early May. Woody1 09:54, 27 April 2007 (EDT)

EDITING BEST PRACTICES

  1. Do not worry about making mistakes - all previous edits are saved in the database and can be recovered easily using the "history" button just above the document.
  2. Do use the little "edit" buttons on the side of the document rather than the edit button at the top of the document. The small edit buttons open only one section in your editor, and greatly reduce the odds of conflicting simultanious edits.
  3. Do sign your work. Click on the button (in Edit mode) which looks like a signature and it will insert some code into the document. This is important because we expect people who refer to the document to have questions, and having the person or persons responsible for each section will help with knowledge management issues.

Have at! --Vinay Gupta 09:07, 16 April 2007 (EDT)

Contents

Field Manual for Transportable Infrastructures for Development and Emergency Support (TIDES)[edit]

Purpose: This "draft" manual identifies standard Tactics, Techniques and Procedures (TTP) and Service and Non Governmental Agencies (NGO) capabilities for the establishment of Transportable Infrastructures for Development and Emergency Support (TIDES). It sets forth TTP at the tactical "task" level to assist the planner/commander in the employment of resources in response to domestic or international disasters. EIPTs are meant to provide inexpensive, environmentally friendly, rapidly deployable and comprehensive shelter and living options for a transient population. Initial target populations include refugees, first responders and assistance personnel (NGOs, civil government, military personnel).

Goals: 1. Develop guiding principles and strategies for refugee and other transit populations 2. Develop integrated set of best practices for hexayurt communities (using continual process improvement, technology improvement) 3. Develop supporting training resources 4. Develop supporting logistic infrastructure (building supplies, infrastructure components, etc.) 5. Develop a collaborating community of practice.

Organization[edit]

Table of Contents[edit]

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION[edit]

Problem Statement[edit]

  • Many events (disasters, wars, work projects) create a need to provide large transient populations with support infrastructures (food, water, shelter, power, cooking, lighting, heating, sewage, etc.)
  • Current solutions used such as canvas tents and open cooking fires have many limitations, such as cost, lowdurability, low global inventory, and high environmental impact (deforestation and pollution from wood fires).
  • Many innovative solutions exist, but limited “how to” information is widely available.
  • What information is available does not take into account the interdependencies of these infrastructures (e.g. uninsulated shelters require more fuel to heat, poor sewage solutions contaminate water sources, etc.)

--Woody1 03:25, 17 April 2007 (EDT)

Purpose of this Document[edit]

Origins of this Document[edit]

This document is currently being prepared and maintained by the STAR-TIDES project documentation team (an all-volunteer interdisciplinary group.)

Disclaimer[edit]

This disclaimer is important as the US Government and specifically the Department of Defense and the US Marine Corps are not tasking or directing any actions for the Expedient Infrastructure for Transient Populations (TIDES) Task Force (TF). The TIDES TF represents a convergence of many open source efforts to help refugees and disaster victims. This group is a voluntary collaboration of many individuals and organizations and is open to all. No warranties or endorsements are expressed or implied for the information contained in these slides or the various web sites that are used by the TIDESTF.

--Woody1 03:23, 17 April 2007 (EDT)

Safety[edit]

"Potential users of this information ...should exercise due care and diligence, especially in areas such as safety, health, building codes, and environmental laws and regulations."

--Woody1 03:18, 17 April 2007 (EDT)

Intellectual Property[edit]

  • All information produced by the TIDES Task Force is intended to be in the public domain. All intellectual property right claims should be clearly identified by contributors prior to submission.
  • The TIDES Task Force is an open-source collaborative effort and not a program of the US Government or specifically the United States Marine Corps.
  • Participation of the employees of the US Government in the TIDES Task Force is intended to help the US Government in its use of this public domain information and does not represent the official endorsement of specific positions, products, techniques, policies or opinions generated through this open-source, public domain effort.

--Woody1 03:13, 17 April 2007 (EDT)

Local Laws and Ordinances[edit]

"Potential users of this information are encouraged to review applicable laws and regulations prior to application or use and should exercise due care and diligence, especially in areas such as safety, health, building codes, and environmental laws and regulations."

--Woody1 03:15, 17 April 2007 (EDT)

Use of specific equipment and materials[edit]

Continual Process Improvement of TIDES Solution Sets and This Field Manual[edit]

TIDES Task Force[edit]

Recommendations and New Solution Sets[edit]

Characteristics and Special Considerations for Transient Populations[edit]

Refugees[edit]

Disaster Victims[edit]

First Responders[edit]

Detainees[edit]

Work Crews[edit]

Military Personal[edit]

Short-term Public Events[edit]

CHAPTER II: FUNDAMENTALS FOR PLANNING AND CONSTRUCTING TIDES[edit]

General[edit]

The Strategic and Operational Context[edit]

Concept for Transportable Infrastructures for Development and Emergency Support[edit]

It is possible to provide infrastructure services like electrical power for light, or sanitary toilets, at almost every level of economic activity from poor refugees up to first world grid services. TIDES is a project dedicated to identifying how to provide infrastructure in particularly challenging environments, at a cost which can be deployed widely.

The path towards TIDES starts with the work of Buckminster Fuller on reducing the cost and resource consumption of essential services to make them available globally at a price all could afford.

More recently, the Sustainable Settlements Charrette at the Rocky Mountain Institute framed the concept of a new generation of refugee camps which would use concepts from whole systems thinking and ecological design to create a higher level of wellbeing for inhabitants.

Jim Craft's Digital Solar Village project develops another set of concepts around fine grained infrastructure to provide ICT and other services at a village level.

Finally, the Hexayurt Project provided a worked example of what could be done using cheap materials and COTS products to create an incredibly functional shelter system with a utilitarian infrastructure package.

The next step in this long developmental agenda is developing a model which allows us to quickly and accurately size up the needs of a population and locate the tools and best practices which will meet their needs quickly and efficiently, and in line with all other appropriate guidelines.

The working model we are currently using is Craft's Pyramid of Need Fulfillment.

800px

Craft's pyramid takes Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs and, essentially, treats it as a roadmap and a shopping list for solutions. If people need water, we find water systems. If they need shelter, we find shelter systems. If they need educational materials, likewise.

One critical focus of the pyramid is the concept of left-to-right movement - that we can start with very simple, cheap, portable but rough and partial solutions, and move over time towards more complete fulfillment of each class of needs. Perhaps we start with wind up flashlights, then migrate to solar panels and wireless infrastructure, and finally build a microhydro or wind system, for example. --Vinay Gupta 03:36, 18 April 2007 (EDT)

Camp Planning Overview[edit]

Maintenance or Establishment of Social Structures[edit]

Inter-Organizational Coordination and Authorities[edit]

Investments and Donations[edit]

Other Factors[edit]

Range of Options[edit]

CHAPTER III: OPERATIONAL TASKS AND CONSIDERATIONS[edit]

Operational Level Joint Tasks[edit]

Command, Control, Communications and Computers[edit]

Site Selection[edit]

Camp Planning and Construction[edit]

Movement and Orientation of Staff and Transient Populations[edit]

Camp Operations[edit]

Logistic Support[edit]

Force and Refugee Population Protection[edit]

Health Management of Transient Populations[edit]

Infrastructure Services as Preventative Medicine[edit]

ROUGH NOTES

  • potable water stops water borne diseases.
  • sewage systems that work prevent epidemics.
  • smokeless cooking facilities prevent many lung and eye problems.

In terms of dollars per life saved, these are some of the most effective early stage interventions. They won't stop problems when they start, but they can help prevent issues.

Infectious disease[edit]

Malnutrition[edit]

  • Plumpynut
  • Micronutrient deficiency studies
  • Local food production systems as a long term goal (Farm In A Box) and transfer of agricultural knowledge to local populations.

Special Needs Populations (old, young, invalids, pregnant or lactating women)[edit]

Mortuary Affairs[edit]

Consequence Management[edit]

Cultural Considerations[edit]

Public Affairs Operations[edit]

Information Operations[edit]

Civil-Military Operations[edit]

Legal[edit]

Camp Dissolution[edit]

CHAPTER IV: NONCOMBATANTS[edit]

General[edit]

Populace and Resources Control[edit]

Health and Logistic Support[edit]

Security[edit]

Foreign Humanitarian Assistance[edit]

CHAPTER V: INFRASTRUCTURE[edit]

General[edit]

Start where you are, and work out from your skin to the edge of what you own and use.

For me, my clothes are mostly imported and/or high tech fabrics, then there is this laptop I'm writing on containing dozens of incredibly refined components, requiring tens of billions of dollars of capital to create. It plugs into 120V AC power. That runs back to another trillion dollars of capital: the National Grid. The lights over head are CFL, imported from China. The wireless internet connection goes to a cable modem, running over incredibly expensive buried copper wires laid to carry yesterday's-big-thing, Cable TV. The water I'm drinking is drawn from Lake Michigan, filtered and purified by a giant factory, and fed to my house through a baroque system of sterile pipes - another few hundred million, right there. The house I am in is, in itself, another couple of hundred thousand dollars worth of capital, and relies extensively on the availability of lumber, shingles, glass.

This is modernity: a pile of capital, of sunk costs, running into the quadrillions of dollars. This is the amount of capital that it takes to provide average Americans or Europeans with our lifestyle. --Envisioning a Leapfrogged World - 2005 essay from Vinay Gupta on infrastructure

Understanding infrastructure as an expression of capital is key to developing infrastructures for chaotic situations without much money. The things required for successful investment - good knowledge of conditions, an accurate map of the future, stability, security and connected economies - are also critical to successful deployments of large scale infrastructure. If you think of infrastructure investment as a form of banking it helps spark insight into the problems encountered in SSTR operations. (For more on infrastructure investments as financial investments, see Small is Profitable - a book on the subject from the [http://rmi.org/ Rocky Mountain Institute.)

The equation is something like this: costs are sunk in the form of capital investment on behalf of a population. This population then derives services from the physical plant purchased on their behalf. That's kind of like the "dividend" of the investment - services returned.

But, with all investments, there is risk: generators die, or fuel prices spike, or conditions change and half the population has to leave the service area of their infrastructure system. Infrastructure is investment, and investment has risk.

TIDES partly works with this model as a way to finding infrastructures which offer much more robustness and reliability - lower risk - for a given level of investment. Often the trade-off is between quality of service and availability of service: "less, but reliable" is chosen rather than "more, but fragile."

I can't recommend "Small is Profitable" enough for people who are serious about this stuff. It's 400 pages of the most in-depth study of distributed infrastructure theory, economics and practice you can imagine, and typically takes about a year to read by the time you've chased references. But it's worth it if you have the need to know.

Styles of Infrastructure[edit]

Centralized Infrastructure[edit]
  • Giant power stations, connected by an all-embracing electrical grid. Who pays for the grid?
  • Centralized water purification plant, connected to your house by a pipe network. Who pays for the pipes?
  • Enormous gas terminal, connected to your house by another pipe network. Same question.
  • One sewage treatment facility per town, connected by the sewer mains. Big engineering.

To pith this problem, realize that there is a patten of investment which generates and maintains this kind of infrastructure. The $300,000,000 to build a new power plant doesn't come from nowhere. It is produced by the entire history of power plant investment, by the stability of the banking system, by the availability of heavy engineering companies, by an accurate and reasonable forecast of future power demand and profitability, and so on. Centralized infrastructure is dependent on a highly complex system which is largely invisible to people who aren't in the business of building power plants.

So when you take this kind of model, and look at the price of electricity produced using this model, you say "this is very very cheap" - and it is. It is cheap because of the trillions of dollars of sunk costs which contribute to making it cheap.

Infrastructure in countries without this capital base cannot match these price/performance numbers.

If there is insufficient stabilized capital infrastructure and social infrastructure to maintain these systems, they die.

Hybrid Infrastructure[edit]

The standard military approach is "hybrid infrastructure" or "last thousand miles by plane" if you prefer.

You still have the enormous sunk costs back home, and then the infrastructure services are packaged up into modular, transportable pieces and sent out a chunk at a time as needed. An MRE or a genset are expressions of centralized infrastructure packaged up for shipping and use in the field.

The key here is the supply chain. The MRE eaten today is replaced (under ideal conditions). The genset has a maintenance and spare parts system right behind it. This supply chain is the equivalent to the pipes and wires. Centralized facilities at the end of the supply chain produce services and then these services are carried over highly resilient logistics infrastructure to the end-users, rather than over the fragile pipe and wire system.

Obviously this approach tries, as much as possible, to concentrate resilience forward. But the length of operations if the supply chain is completely withdrawn is short.

In the TIDES context, we are frequently going to be dealing with the transition from hybrid infrastructure to distributed infrastructure, as populations are settled and troops or peace-keepers withdrawn. Anything which still relies on a supply chain is going to become unreliable.

Distributed Infrastructure[edit]

Distributed infrastructure is the most resilient infrastructure available, but resilience comes at a price. Watt for watt, costs appear to be higher for electricity. Water may taste funny. Lights illuminate the page or the table, not the room. But, done right, when the trucks stop coming, the lights stay on, the water remains drinkable, and life goes on.

Efficiency and distributed infrastructure go hand in hand. If you are going to run a lighting system on solar power, the 90% waste of an incandescent bulb is going to cost you $1000 of solar panels and batteries to support. Because the capital cost of the power generation is paid by the person providing the lighting service, it soon becomes clear that common sense is to optimize the whole system: reduce the power consumption of the lights, reduce the size of the panel system, streamline the charge controller and storage system and deliver the same quality of service at the lowest possible cost.

If, when you bought a light bulb, you had to pay for the capital costs of the national grid infrastructure required to light it, you'd quickly see the light bulb market change in revolutionary ways. But because the capital costs in the developed world are masked by our model of electricity supply (i.e. fairly flat, low costs based on massive availability) we can't see the real efficiency landscape clearly.

But, at the end of the truck line, at the edge of the grid, the difference between $1000 per lit bulb and $30 per lit bulb is very, very visible. When the road washes out and the generator stops 24 hours later, what's left?

Hallmarks of distributed infrastructure[edit]
  • Typically deployed as a whole system - power generation coupled with efficient end use devices
  • Minimal requirement for external consumables like new bulbs or lubricants / fuels / etc.
  • Modular and small - per household is good, per village is ok, per town gets into distribution issues
  • Pipes and wires are absent, or are very short
  • No centralized points of failure except in telecommunications applications (satcom may have centralized failure points)
  • Individual entities (a person, a household, a school) own the system outright, from end to end, rather than "renting" power generation and owning end use devices (the classic developed world)

These, and other, attributes of distributed infrastructure are why it is so attractive in an TIDES context.

Key Facility Analysis[edit]

Protection, Restoration, and Joint Usage[edit]

Collateral Damage and Environmental Considerations[edit]

Financial Management and Asset Management[edit]

APPENDIX[edit]

Appendix A: Essential Elements of Information (EEI)[edit]

Appendix B: References[edit]

Appendix C: Administrative Instructions[edit]

Appendix D: Infrastructure Solution Sets[edit]

Overview[edit]

  1. Local Modification
  2. General Safety Considerations
  3. Training
  4. Sources of Supply

Shelter Solutions[edit]

Natural Shelters[edit]
  1. Summary
  2. Advantages and Disadvantages of this solution.
  3. Success Story (use vignettes)
  4. Safety Considerations
  5. Source (where did this come from)
  6. Investment
    1. Approximate Cost
    2. Needed Materials (Parts List)
    3. Labor
    4. Lifecycle Cost
  7. Logistics for this Solution
    1. Transportation specifics (size, weight, special handling, etc)
    2. Maintenance
    3. Sources of supply
  8. Instructions to Build/Deploy
    1. Summary and description (with figures and diagrams)
    2. Step-by-step instructions
  9. Training Resources, Weblinks and Points of Contact.
  10. Implementation Guidance (hints and warnings)
    1. Cultural sensitivities
    2. Tricks and tips
  11. Interdependencies (Relationship to other SPs and needed Infrastructure)
  12. Disposal or reuse
Use of Vehicles[edit]
  1. Summary
  2. Advantages and Disadvantages of this solution.
  3. Success Story (use vignettes)
  4. Safety Considerations
  5. Source (where did this come from)
  6. Investment
    1. Approximate Cost
    2. Needed Materials (Parts List)
    3. Labor
    4. Lifecycle Cost
  7. Logistics for this Solution
    1. Transportation specifics (size, weight, special handling, etc)
    2. Maintenance
    3. Sources of supply
  8. Instructions to Build/Deploy
    1. Summary and description (with figures and diagrams)
    2. Step-by-step instructions
  9. Training Resources, Weblinks and Points of Contact.
  10. Implementation Guidance (hints and warnings)
    1. Cultural sensitivities
    2. Tricks and tips
  11. Interdependencies (Relationship to other SPs and needed Infrastructure)
  12. Disposal or reuse
Use of Existing Structures[edit]
  1. Summary
  2. Advantages and Disadvantages of this solution.
  3. Success Story (use vignettes)
  4. Safety Considerations
  5. Source (where did this come from)
  6. Investment
    1. Approximate Cost
    2. Needed Materials (Parts List)
    3. Labor
    4. Lifecycle Cost
  7. Logistics for this Solution
    1. Transportation specifics (size, weight, special handling, etc)
    2. Maintenance
    3. Sources of supply
  8. Instructions to Build/Deploy
    1. Summary and description (with figures and diagrams)
    2. Step-by-step instructions
  9. Training Resources, Weblinks and Points of Contact.
  10. Implementation Guidance (hints and warnings)
    1. Cultural sensitivities
    2. Tricks and tips
  11. Interdependencies (Relationship to other SPs and needed Infrastructure)
  12. Disposal or reuse
Construction with Natural Materials[edit]
Lean To[edit]
  1. Summary
  2. Advantages and Disadvantages of this solution.
  3. Success Story (use vignettes)
  4. Safety Considerations
  5. Source (where did this come from)
  6. Investment
    1. Approximate Cost
    2. Needed Materials (Parts List)
    3. Labor
    4. Lifecycle Cost
  7. Logistics for this Solution
    1. Transportation specifics (size, weight, special handling, etc)
    2. Maintenance
    3. Sources of supply
  8. Instructions to Build/Deploy
    1. Summary and description (with figures and diagrams)
    2. Step-by-step instructions
  9. Training Resources, Weblinks and Points of Contact.
  10. Implementation Guidance (hints and warnings)
    1. Cultural sensitivities
    2. Tricks and tips
  11. Interdependencies (Relationship to other SPs and needed Infrastructure)
  12. Disposal or reuse
Litter Shelter[edit]
  1. Summary
  2. Advantages and Disadvantages of this solution.
  3. Success Story (use vignettes)
  4. Safety Considerations
  5. Source (where did this come from)
  6. Investment
    1. Approximate Cost
    2. Needed Materials (Parts List)
    3. Labor
    4. Lifecycle Cost
  7. Logistics for this Solution
    1. Transportation specifics (size, weight, special handling, etc)
    2. Maintenance
    3. Sources of supply
  8. Instructions to Build/Deploy
    1. Summary and description (with figures and diagrams)
    2. Step-by-step instructions
  9. Training Resources, Weblinks and Points of Contact.
  10. Implementation Guidance (hints and warnings)
    1. Cultural sensitivities
    2. Tricks and tips
  11. Interdependencies (Relationship to other SPs and needed Infrastructure)
  12. Disposal or reuse
Wikiup[edit]
  1. Summary
  2. Advantages and Disadvantages of this solution.
  3. Success Story (use vignettes)
  4. Safety Considerations
  5. Source (where did this come from)
  6. Investment
    1. Approximate Cost
    2. Needed Materials (Parts List)
    3. Labor
    4. Lifecycle Cost
  7. Logistics for this Solution
    1. Transportation specifics (size, weight, special handling, etc)
    2. Maintenance
    3. Sources of supply
  8. Instructions to Build/Deploy
    1. Summary and description (with figures and diagrams)
    2. Step-by-step instructions
  9. Training Resources, Weblinks and Points of Contact.
  10. Implementation Guidance (hints and warnings)
    1. Cultural sensitivities
    2. Tricks and tips
  11. Interdependencies (Relationship to other SPs and needed Infrastructure)
  12. Disposal or reuse
Tents[edit]
  1. Summary
  2. Advantages and Disadvantages of this solution.
  3. Success Story (use vignettes)
  4. Safety Considerations
  5. Source (where did this come from)
  6. Investment
    1. Approximate Cost
    2. Needed Materials (Parts List)
    3. Labor
    4. Lifecycle Cost
  7. Logistics for this Solution
    1. Transportation specifics (size, weight, special handling, etc)
    2. Maintenance

With "soft" walls of fabric or polymer, tents tear easily. Patch kits may be needed.

    1. Sources of supply
  1. Instructions to Build/Deploy

Instructions for erecting tents vary widely depending on style and design. Tents usually use a series of interlocking plastic or metal rods to hold sheets of canvas, vinyl, or similar "fabric" in tension to form walls.

    1. Summary and description (with figures and diagrams)
    2. Step-by-step instructions
  1. Training Resources, Weblinks and Points of Contact.
  2. Implementation Guidance (hints and warnings)
    1. Cultural sensitivities
    2. Tricks and tips
  3. Interdependencies (Relationship to other SPs and needed Infrastructure)
  4. Disposal or reuse
Hexayurts[edit]
  1. Summary

The hexayurt is a simple shelter suitable for both on-site manufacture from basic materials (cardboard, hexacomb, polyisocyanurate insulation boards like Thermax HD) or prefabrication in a factory context.

The Hexayurt Project includes a sample infrastructure solution which seems to represent a "sweet spot" of easily available tools, technologies and best practices to provide a really effective package for about $40 to $100 per head.

  1. Advantages and Disadvantages of this solution.

Hexayurts are untested in the field at this time.

Hexayurts are quite costly when measured against a typical relief budget for a developing world emergency.

Hexayurts encode a lot of assumptions and presumptions, and are not culturally appropriate for all situations in all liklihood.

Hexayurts, while lighter than tents, have a much larger cube, and the low-cube, high-density shipping approaches are still theoretical.

  1. Success Story (use vignettes)

File:Big sa hexayurt.jpg:800px

This is one of the hexayurts built at Strong Angel 3, a US DOD demonstration in San Diego in 2006. It was assembled in only a few hours

  1. Safety Considerations
  2. Source (where did this come from)
  3. Investment
    1. Approximate Cost
    2. Needed Materials (Parts List)
    3. Labor
    4. Lifecycle Cost
  4. Logistics for this Solution
    1. Transportation specifics (size, weight, special handling, etc)
    2. Maintenance
    3. Sources of supply
  5. Instructions to Build/Deploy
    1. Summary and description (with figures and diagrams)

Build a Durable Shelter for Your Family (One Page Flyer)

    1. Step-by-step instructions

All hexayurts cut neatly from 4' x 8' sheets, the standard size for most construction goods.

The large sizes require only one kind of cut - diagonal cutting straight across six boards to form the roof triangles. Six 4'x8' boards are cut along the diagonal, three right-to-left, and three left-to-right. From these twelve right-angled triangles, six equilateral triangles are formed, making the roof cone. The vertical walls are formed from whole 4'x8' sheets.

The smaller sizes require a somewhat more complex cutting pattern for efficiency but all details are below.

If you are cutting angles:

The angle between vertical boards and other vertical boards at the corners is 60° so you cut 30° on each edge. The angle between the vertical boards and the roof is also 60°. The angle between the boards on the roof cone is 29.5° so you might as well cut a 15° angle on each board. All boards which meet flat should have no angle cut on them at all, of course.

Angle cutting is not required for a perfectly good hexayurt of any size, as long as one is using wide enough tape. 3" will do, 6" is better.

  1. Training Resources, Weblinks and Points of Contact.
  2. Implementation Guidance (hints and warnings)
    1. Cultural sensitivities
    2. Tricks and tips
  3. Interdependencies (Relationship to other SPs and needed Infrastructure)
  4. Disposal or reuse
Trailiers[edit]
  1. Summary
  2. Advantages and Disadvantages of this solution.
  3. Success Story (use vignettes)
  4. Safety Considerations
  5. Source (where did this come from)
  6. Investment
    1. Approximate Cost
    2. Needed Materials (Parts List)
    3. Labor
    4. Lifecycle Cost
  7. Logistics for this Solution
    1. Transportation specifics (size, weight, special handling, etc)
    2. Maintenance
    3. Sources of supply
  8. Instructions to Build/Deploy
    1. Summary and description (with figures and diagrams)
    2. Step-by-step instructions
  9. Training Resources, Weblinks and Points of Contact.
  10. Implementation Guidance (hints and warnings)
    1. Cultural sensitivities
    2. Tricks and tips
  11. Interdependencies (Relationship to other SPs and needed Infrastructure)
  12. Disposal or reuse
Prefabricated Buildings[edit]
  1. Summary
  2. Advantages and Disadvantages of this solution.
  3. Success Story (use vignettes)
  4. Safety Considerations
  5. Source (where did this come from)
  6. Investment
    1. Approximate Cost
    2. Needed Materials (Parts List)
    3. Labor
    4. Lifecycle Cost
  7. Logistics for this Solution
    1. Transportation specifics (size, weight, special handling, etc)
    2. Maintenance
    3. Sources of supply
  8. Instructions to Build/Deploy
    1. Summary and description (with figures and diagrams)
    2. Step-by-step instructions
  9. Training Resources, Weblinks and Points of Contact.
  10. Implementation Guidance (hints and warnings)
    1. Cultural sensitivities
    2. Tricks and tips
  11. Interdependencies (Relationship to other SPs and needed Infrastructure)
  12. Disposal or reuse

Heating[edit]

Cooling[edit]

Ventilation and Air Filtering[edit]

Drinking Water[edit]

Food – Transport[edit]

Food – Preparation[edit]

Kearny Improvised Grain Mill[edit]
  1. Summary
  2. Advantages and Disadvantages of this solution.
  3. Success Story (use vignettes)
  4. Safety Considerations
  5. Source (where did this come from)
  6. Investment
    1. Approximate Cost
    2. Needed Materials (Parts List)
    3. Labor
    4. Lifecycle Cost
  7. Logistics for this Solution
    1. Transportation specifics (size, weight, special handling, etc)
    2. Maintenance
    3. Sources of supply
  8. Instructions to Build/Deploy
    1. Summary and description (with figures and diagrams)
    2. Step-by-step instructions
  9. Training Resources, Weblinks and Points of Contact.
  10. Implementation Guidance (hints and warnings)
    1. Cultural sensitivities
    2. Tricks and tips
  11. Interdependencies (Relationship to other SPs and needed Infrastructure)
  12. Disposal or reuse

Food – Cooking Stoves[edit]

Integrated Solar Cooking [[1]] This method combines the use of: 1. An appropriate solar cooker model whenever the sun is shining, 2. A retained heat (fireless) cooker or hay basket to continue the cooking process [[2]], 3. A rocket stove or other efficient cook stove for use after sunset or on cloudy days. The combined use of these three simple technologies can reduce fuel consumption by more than 75%.

Integrated cooking Wiki [[3]]

Cooking.JPG Darfur refugees in Chad using solar cookers and hay baskets


SOLAR COOKER BASICS

THE THREE TYPES OF SOLAR COOKERS AND HOW THEY WORK

Box cookers, which can be made of cardboard, metal or plastic, with glass lids and aluminum foil or metal reflectors, trap heat from sunlight inside a sealed, insulated box and cook food in 2-3 hours at between 250-350 F. and often accommodate multiple pots. They are the most common solar cooker used worldwide. There are several hundred thousand in India, which has developed an official rating system for solar cookers. All solar cookers work with varying degrees of efficiency in hot or cool weather as long as the sun is shining.

Curved concentrator cookers or "parabolic cookers," cook fast at high temperatures and are excellent for boiling and frying. They require frequent adjustment and supervision for safe operation. Several hundred thousand exist, mainly in China. They are used in large rooftop arrays in India for institutional steam kitchens. The two most common types of parabolic cookers are the SK model that resembles a satellite dish and the two panel Chinese, or “butterfly” model. Other models are made by hand using small vanity mirrors. These cookers are also used for indoor cooking by focusing sunlight through a hole in the wall on cooking pots or burners inside a kitchen.

Panel cookers incorporate elements of box and curved concentrator cookers. They are small, lightweight, foldable, portable and relatively inexpensive to buy or make by hand. They work like a crock-pot, with temperatures ranging between 225 and 275 F. Most panel cookers are made from cardboard and aluminum foil. They require a lightweight cooking pot painted black with non-toxic paint. Raw food is placed in the pot, which is put inside a heat resistant plastic bag and placed in the cooker. Food cooks in 2-3 hours.

TRAINING AND INTRODUCTION OF SOLAR COOKER TECHNOLOGY: The introduction of solar cooker technology in the developing world requires a culturally sensitive approach. The technology is so radically different from traditional three stone cooking that it is sometimes perceived as magic or trickery the first time it is demonstrated. Trainers must work closely with respected females in the community to demonstrate the cookers and then test and refine local recipes produced in solar cookers before presenting the technology to the wider community. When financially possible solar cookers should be presented as an opportunity for income generation involving men and women. The manufacture and sale of the cookers, maintenance and repairs, spare parts, food drying and food preparation and sales can all provide new sources of income. Once solar cooks develop a “feel” for the intensity of available sunlight, depending upon the time of day, time of year, their latitude and the food being cooked, solar cooking is easy, healthy and fun. Solar cooking, when combined with efficient cook stoves and retained heat cookers dramatically reduces deforestation, indoor and outdoor air pollution and improves the health of women and children who gather wood and breath in the smoke of cooking fires on a daily basis.

SOLAR INSOLATION: Most countries located between 40 degrees north and south of the equator with at least six months a year of sunny dry weather have a high potential for successful solar cooking. The sun is most intense between 10:00 a.m. and 2:00 p.m., which is when breads and pastries should be baked. Several years ago, NASA created this link to their solar insolation database for use by solar cooker advocates: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/. You can log on and create your own password to access data on the intensity of sunlight in selected regions.

SAFETY: Harmful food microbes, including bacteria and viruses, are killed when pasteurized (heated to 65ºC or 150ºF). Food cooks at 82ºC (180ºF) to 91ºC (195ºF), and is free from disease-causing organisms when fully cooked. Panel and box solar cookers cook food gently at temperatures just above these, so foods cook thoroughly, maintain moisture and nutrients, and rarely burn or overcook. With all cooking methods, certain bacteria can produce heat-resistant spores that germinate after food has been cooked and cooled. Cooked food should be kept at temperatures above 52ºC (125ºF). If cooked food is allowed to drop to temperatures between 52ºC (125ºF) and 10ºC (50ºF), these bacteria can spoil the food. Food that stays in this temperature range for more than four hours should be heated again to cooking temperatures before consumption or discarded. Cooks should always wash their hands before and after handling food. Utensils and pots should be washed with soap and water after each use.

SOLAR WATER PASTEURIZATION: Water can heated and made safe to drink in all types of solar cookers. Disease-causing organisms in water including Escherichia coli, Rotaviruses, Giardia and the Hepatitis A virus are killed by pasteurization—heating water to 65ºC (150ºF) for a short period of time. At around 70ºC (160ºF), milk and other foods are pasteurized. The WAPI (Water Pasteurization Indicator) a simple, reusable plastic tube containing a special soy wax that melts at 65 degrees centigrade can be used to indicate when water is safe to drink.

EXAMPLES OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE SOLAR COOKER MODELS

Cookit - A low cost, low-tech, PANEL SOLAR COOKER developed by Solar Cookers International of Sacramento, California. It is made of cardboard and aluminum foil. It works like a crock pot and cooks food in 2-3 hours at between 225 and 275 f. Thousands of CooKits have been manufactured by female refugees in Iridimi Camp, eastern Chad. Projects in Kenya, Ethiopia and Sudan are also training women to make and use CooKits. Plans for the CooKit are available on line at the solar cooking archive (http://www.solarcooking.org/). CooKits can be purchased on-line from Solar Cookers International. Food is cooked in a low-cost, light-weight aluminum or steel pot widely available in the developing world. The pot is placed inside a heat resistant plastic bag (oven cooking bag) to retain the heat. If cared for properly a CooKit can last one to two years. The oven-proof cooking bags last about 30 days. Two used bags can be placed one inside the other to extend their usable life. The CooKit needs little attention, food will not burn. The user should rotate it once or twice during the cooking process to keep it facing the sun. It is easy and safe to use, only the black pot gets hot, the reflector does not. It is most convenient for the aged and handicapped. It never reaches a temperature high enough to burn wood, cloth or paper. Placing it a table keeps it away from animals. The cooking pot and lid must be painted black on the outside with non-toxic "blackboard paint" which is readily available in the developing world (in the U.S. we would use barbecue paint or just buy a black enameled pot).

Solar Hot Pot - A more efficient, durable, user friendly panel cooker inspired by the CooKit. It is currently manufactured in Mexico. Solar Household Energy, Inc.(SHE), a DC-based non-profit organization contracted the Florida Solar Energy Center to develop it. The Hot Pot can last for 5-10 years. It consists of 3 parts: a durable exterior glass bowl and lid, an interior black enameled steel bowl that is suspended inside the glass bowl and a reflector. The transparent glass lid allows the cook to see the food cooking; it can be lifted to add ingredients. There are two different reflectors available: (a) a cardboard one similar, but slightly larger than that of the CooKit; (b)a more durable one made from polished aluminum that folds up like a Japanese fan. The latter is more costly. The HotPot works like a crock pot, it reaches 275-300 F. It is easy and safe to use, nothing is hot to the touch except the black pot. Food will not burn, it needs little attention. The user should re-orient it towards the sun once or twice during the cooking period. It is more efficient than the CooKit.

Global Sun Oven -- This is a SOLAR BOX COOKER. The two models described above are panel cookers. The Sun Oven is manufactured in Illinois and can be used by campers and even ice fishermen in the winter. Some retirees use them in desert communities to roast, stew and bake during the summer months so they don't have to turn on their ovens. This box cooker model provides more insulation and is less affected by the ambient temperature or the wind than are the panel cookers described above. (Note that solar cookers work in cold weather--all they need is direct sun light). The box cooker can (depending on its size) hold more than one pot. You can see the food cooking if the pot inside has a transparent lid. The box cooker reaches temperatures between 325-375 f. in bright sun. The Sun Oven is relatively expensive-- $229 if ordered on line, but similar designs (which can be made of cardboard, wood, or other locally available materials) are available in the public domain on the solar cooking archive.

Villager Sun Oven – This is the mother of all solar cookers. It can bake up to 300 loaves of bread a day. The Villager is for large operations and is completely reliable, because it has a propane back-up. It is portable (it comes with its own trailer), durable and when used as a bakery, can save 150 tons of wood a year. Villagers are made to order in Illinois by Sun Ovens International and are10-12 thousand dollars. The donation of Villagers to community-based micro-enterprises in Afghanistan, South Africa and elsewhere have been funded primarily by Rotary Clubs.

SOS Sport -- This is another type of BOX COOKER. It is made of recycled soda bottles. Coca Cola donated the money to the Solar Oven Society to buy a mold to press out the black boxes and the clear lids. This one can hold two pots or a sheet of cookies. The Sport is relatively inexpensive--$149 with two pots. It is lightweight, easy to use. After a few years of extensive use, the plastic eventually begins to show signs of wear from sunlight.

Tulsi Hybrid -- This high-end HYBRID SOLAR BOX COOKER (which has electric back-up) is made in India and marketed in the U.S. with a few modifications. The Tulsi is very reliable because a thermostat can be set at a desired temperature. If the sun goes behind a cloud and the temp drops, the electric power kicks in to keep the temp steady. It is fairly expensive--$275 on-line. The box is designed to hold several small pots (designed for Indian cooking).

SK-14 This is a PARABOLIC SOLAR COOKER, it concentrates light on a small area at the bottom of the pot. The parabolic cooker generates as much heat as a stove top or an open fire at 400-500 degrees F. It can be used for boiling and frying. It cooks as fast as a wood fire. Versions of this model can be assembled locally; the reflective panels made from polished aluminum are made in Germany. Millions are used in South and East Asia, especially in China, which along with Tibet also use a modified parabolic cooker called a butterfly cooker. This model has also been successfully introduced in Somalia by a California non-profit called Sun Fire Cooking. Since only the pot gets hot and not the reflective dish, there is less likehood of burning than when boiling or frying over a flame. Parabolic cookers require continuous adjusting (about every ten to fifteen minutes) as the sun moves across the sky. They cannot be left unattended (but then neither can an open fire or a gas burner). People need more training in how to use these because of the possible risk from sun glare, burns and the requirement to adjust the angle every few minutes.



Dakota Fire Hole[edit]
  1. Summary
  2. Advantages and Disadvantages of this solution.
  3. Success Story (use vignettes)
  4. Safety Considerations
  5. Source (where did this come from)
  6. Investment
    1. Approximate Cost
    2. Needed Materials (Parts List)
    3. Labor
    4. Lifecycle Cost
  7. Logistics for this Solution
    1. Transportation specifics (size, weight, special handling, etc)
    2. Maintenance
    3. Sources of supply
  8. Instructions to Build/Deploy
    1. Summary and description (with figures and diagrams)

File:Dakota.jpg

    1. Step-by-step instructions
  1. Training Resources, Weblinks and Points of Contact.
  2. Implementation Guidance (hints and warnings)
    1. Cultural sensitivities
    2. Tricks and tips
  3. Interdependencies (Relationship to other SPs and needed Infrastructure)
  4. Disposal or reuse
Clay Ovens[edit]
  1. Summary
  2. Advantages and Disadvantages of this solution.
  3. Success Story (use vignettes)
  4. Safety Considerations
  5. Source (where did this come from)
  6. Investment
    1. Approximate Cost
    2. Needed Materials (Parts List)
    3. Labor
    4. Lifecycle Cost
  7. Logistics for this Solution
    1. Transportation specifics (size, weight, special handling, etc)
    2. Maintenance
    3. Sources of supply
  8. Instructions to Build/Deploy
    1. Summary and description (with figures and diagrams)
    2. Step-by-step instructions
  9. Training Resources, Weblinks and Points of Contact.
  10. Implementation Guidance (hints and warnings)
    1. Cultural sensitivities
    2. Tricks and tips
  11. Interdependencies (Relationship to other SPs and needed Infrastructure)
  12. Disposal or reuse
Kearny Improvised Stove[edit]
  1. Summary
  2. Advantages and Disadvantages of this solution.
  3. Success Story (use vignettes)
  4. Safety Considerations
  5. Source (where did this come from)
  6. Investment
    1. Approximate Cost
    2. Needed Materials (Parts List)
    3. Labor
    4. Lifecycle Cost
  7. Logistics for this Solution
    1. Transportation specifics (size, weight, special handling, etc)
    2. Maintenance
    3. Sources of supply
  8. Instructions to Build/Deploy
    1. Summary and description (with figures and diagrams)

File:Kearny.JPG

    1. Step-by-step instructions
  1. Training Resources, Weblinks and Points of Contact.
  2. Implementation Guidance (hints and warnings)
    1. Cultural sensitivities
    2. Tricks and tips
  3. Interdependencies (Relationship to other SPs and needed Infrastructure)
  4. Disposal or reuse
Wood Gasification Stoves[edit]
  1. Summary
  2. Advantages and Disadvantages of this solution.
  3. Success Story (use vignettes)
  4. Safety Considerations
  5. Source (where did this come from)
  6. Investment
    1. Approximate Cost
    2. Needed Materials (Parts List)
    3. Labor
    4. Lifecycle Cost
  7. Logistics for this Solution
    1. Transportation specifics (size, weight, special handling, etc)
    2. Maintenance
    3. Sources of supply
  8. Instructions to Build/Deploy
    1. Summary and description (with figures and diagrams)

File:Woodgas.JPG

    1. Step-by-step instructions
  1. Training Resources, Weblinks and Points of Contact.
  2. Implementation Guidance (hints and warnings)
    1. Cultural sensitivities
    2. Tricks and tips
  3. Interdependencies (Relationship to other SPs and needed Infrastructure)
  4. Disposal or reuse

Food – Nutrition[edit]

Bean Sprouting[edit]

Garbage and Trash[edit]

Sewage[edit]

Pit Latrine[edit]
Composting Toilets[edit]
Chemical Toilets[edit]
Porta-potties[edit]
Septic Fields[edit]

Shelter Lighting[edit]

Improvised Oil Lamp[edit]
AA LED Camp Lanterns and flashlights[edit]

File:Led.JPG

Basic lighting Grid and Generators[edit]

Power[edit]

Communications[edit]

Security – Barriers[edit]

Security – Alarms[edit]

Security – Defensive Shelters[edit]

Security – Identity Systems[edit]

Security – Lighting[edit]

Security – Property and Shelter Identification[edit]

Fuel Storage – Petroleum Products[edit]

Fuel Storage – Wood[edit]

Fuel Storage – Coal[edit]

Fuel Storage – Natural Gas[edit]

Appendix E – Camp Planning[edit]

Protective Settlement Design[edit]

1) Suitability Constraints

a) Only suitable for dry areas b) Offers protection from wind and high temperature c) Offers mild protection from small arms fire

2) How it Works

By constructing a series of berms and pits into which the hexayurts (or other suitable housing option) can be placed, the entire settlement forms a more aerodynamic shape, guiding strong winds over the top of the settlement and through the lanes, and as it meets no resistance any force just comes right out the other side. While the primary object of this design is to improve quality of life, it has the potential fringe benefits of increased life expectancy for the shelters by protecting them from the elements. In addition the pits form cool wells into which the houses are placed - natural cooling technology (see Ray Mears - "Bushcraft Survival" under snow survival specific ref. tbc) which is very useful in the environments to which this is suited. A secondary benefit of the berms is to form basic entrenchment from gunfire.

300px 300px


300px 300px


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--Harrybuxton 03:36, 8 May 2007 (EDT)

Aerial Code Arrangements[edit]

Hexayurts or other structures could be arranged in such a way that an aerial camera could tell what was happening in a camp, what the inhabitants needed, and if the camp was under duress; this would be especially useful if other lines of communication with the camp were down.

Structures on the perimeter of the camp could be moved according to need. This could be accomplished with minimal labor in the case of light-weight (hexayurts) and/or empty (dummy) structures. The arrangement of the structures would be machine-readable, in the same way that QR code is machine readable. Each structure would be a "pixel" in the composition.

File:Hy-camp.JPG

Appendix F – Camp Operation[edit]

Appendix G – Camp Dismantling and Closure[edit]

Shelter Conversion to Long-Term Shelters[edit]

Shelter Disassembly[edit]

Site Clean-Up[edit]

GLOSSARY[edit]

Abbreviations and Acronyms[edit]

  • C4 Command, Control, Communications and Computers
  • EEI Essential Elements of Information
  • TIDES Transportable Infrastructures for Development and Emergency Support
  • TIDESTF Transportable Infrastructures for Development and Emergency Support Task Force
  • NGOs Non-Governmental Organization
  • PAO Public Affairs Officer
  • SPs Solutions Packages (needs further definition)
  • SSTR Stability, Security, Transition, and Reconstruction
  • TF Task Force
  • TTP Tactics, Techniques and Procedures

Terms and Definitions[edit]

Appropriate Technology[edit]

Technology that is appropriate to the environmental, cultural and economic situation it is intended for. It usually describes technologies which are suitable for use in the majority world (or "developing nations"). Excerpted from Appropedia Woody1 12:09, 26 April 2007 (EDT)

Investment[edit]

Let's measure the time, energy, money going into the project... but what level of detail are we working with? Cents and seconds, or dollars and minutes? This is the spot to suss out how precise we should be when talking about what it takes to get these projects going.

Interdependencies[edit]

"Relationship to other Solutions Packages and needed Infrastructure." "Mutual dependencies." When two elements of a Solution both depend on some common third element to work well, or depend on each other. (Examples:) Woody1 12:15, 26 April 2007 (EDT)

Lifecycle Cost[edit]

How is this different from investment? Investment over time?

Logistics[edit]

FIGURES[edit]

Appendix A Essential Elements of Information (EEI) Required for Establishment of an Expedient Infrastructure for Transient Populations (TIDES). These questions must be answered during the planning process for the establishment of an TIDES site.

  1. Purpose of the TIDES:
  2. Level of services expected to be delivered, full service camp or self serve?
  3. Short term and long term goal of the TIDES? (Provide relief until civil infrastructure can be reestablished, separate warring factions, protect persecuted groups, etc.)
  4. What level of Services are to be Provided?
  5. Food
    1. Packaged Rations
    2. Centralized preparation and distribution
    3. Distribute materials and supplies for self preparation
    4. Water
  6. Bottled
  7. Wells (drilled or exisiting)
  8. Purification of existing river/lake
  9. Climate
    1. Climate definitions
    2. Cold weather
    3. Hot weather
    4. Protective clothing
    5. Shelter cooling / ventilation
    6. Replacement of clothing, laundry - not the best section for this item.
    7. Toiletries
  10. Shelter
    1. Tents
    2. Rigid Temporary Shelters
    3. Permanent (existing) shelters
    4. Bedding
  11. Medical
    1. Preventive medicine
    2. Treating existing conditions
    3. Trauma care
    4. Relocation of hospital patients and elderly
  12. Communications
    1. Within the camp
    2. Outside the camp
    3. Internet access
  13. Power
    1. Electric
    2. Fuel
  14. Financial
    1. Access to existing accounts
    2. New accounts
    3. Relief payments
  15. Legal
    1. Repatriation
    2. Redress of grievances
    3. Status (Geneva Convention)
  16. Protection
    1. Crime
    2. External military threat
  17. Transportation
    1. Within the Camp
    2. Guest/visitors
    3. Arriving and leaving the camp
  18. Waste Removal
    1. Liquid
    2. Solid
    3. Sewage
    4. Medical (Biohazard)
  19. Livestock
    1. Pens
    2. Food
    3. Veterinary care
    4. Pets
  20. Storage
    1. Personal belongings
    2. Automobiles
  21. Governance
    1. Local
    2. External
  22. Education
    1. Long term elementary/secondary
    2. As required skill sets
  23. Entertainment
    1. Reading Material
    2. Games
    3. Movies
  24. Population Demographics:
  25. Number of people expected to initially require assistance?
  26. Expected growth rate per day?
  27. Maximum number of refugees possible?
  28. Expected duration of TIDES site?
  29. Baseline health of the population? (Are they relatively healthy or have they been in duress for a prolonged period of time prior to establishment of the TIDES?)
  30. Circumstances of the population (Why do they require assistance? Was it a natural disaster, a manmade disaster, civil strife, international conflict, etc.)
  31. Is the population indigenous to the area? Are they of the same nationality, religion, tribe or clan?
  32. Is it a homogeneous population?
  33. Will specific groups require segregation? (Prisoners, warring factions, agitators, etc.)
  34. Is the population free to come and go at will?
  35. Is it expected that the existing civil leadership will displace with the population? (Police, doctors, elected officials, etc.) Or are they expected to provide for their own needs elsewhere?
  36. How is the population expected to arrive? (On foot, vehicle, rail, boat, etc.)
  37. Site Location:
  38. Where is the proposed TIDES site?
  39. Who owns the proposed TIDES site?
  40. Does it have the capability to expand?
  41. What is the existing infrastructure? (Roads, sewer, electricity, buildings, etc.)
  42. Proximity to main supply routes, railways, ports or airfields for resupply?
  43. Is it far enough away from the source of the problem to ensure it won’t have to relocate?
  44. Resources Available
  45. Initial manpower (Civil, military, NGO, IO, etc.) available for TIDES setup?
  46. Local resources available (building materials, food, water, clothing, medicine, etc.)
  47. Population Protection
  48. Will the refugees require military protection?
  49. Will the population include prisoners that require detention? (Relocation of existing prisoners and detention facilities from the affected area and/or detention of personnel due to infractions committed at the TIDES)
  50. Is there an indigenous police force that will provide protection within the TIDES?
  51. Funding
  52. Initial amount of funding available?
  53. Source of funding?
  54. Sustainment funding?
  55. Administration
  56. Who will administer the TIDES?
  57. Database of residents?
  58. In processing/out processing?

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