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HSU OZZI analysis

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This page is a page in progress by students in Engr308 Technology and the Environment. Please refrain from making edits unless you are a member of the project team, but feel free to make comments using the discussion tab. Check back for the finished version on December 20, 2017.


This is a research project in partnership between Engr308 Technology and the Environment and The Sustainability Office and HSU Dining at Humboldt State University during Fall 2017. The project includes analyzing the various impacts of OZZIs impacts on campus. Client leads are:

  • Katie Koscielak, Sustainability Analyst
  • Ron Rudebock, Director of Dining Services

Our object is to analyze the impacts of OZZIs on campus and the effects of HSU's policy regarding OZZIs versus disposables. A secondary goal is work towards a recommendation regarding the policy. Impacts will be focused primarily on $, CO2, and Energy. Final products will include:

  • Quantification of impacts over OZZI life cycle
  • Quantification of impacts over OZZI-similar disposable life cycle
  • A spreadsheet for HSU specific impacts with clear instruction, outputs and referenced sources. This spreadsheet will include best estimates of the current disposable versus OZZI landscape gathered from dining data, surveys, and observations. These numbers will be adjustable by the clients and shared for other schools or communities to adapt.
  • A graph of the number of times an OZZI must be reused before it buys back its energy in comparison to various disposables (and possibly other reusables).
  • Some compelling graphics.


Teams[edit]

The Wizard of Ozzi[edit]

Oz You Sure?[edit]

OZZI OZZI OZZI![edit]

Research[edit]

Use wiki markup for references, which is the following format:

  • Information. <ref>URL or Title of reference. </ref>

See Help:Footnotes for more.

I will not be too draconian on writing style... but make sure NOT TO PLAGIARIZE![1]. The following is just a starting point for your research.

The Wizard of OZZI Research[edit]

Embedded Energy, CO2, and Life Cycle Analysis Concepts[edit]

Embedded Energy describes the energy used throughout the lifecycle of a product. The lifecycle of a product includes raw material extraction, transport, manufacture, assembly, installation, disassembly, deconstruction and/or decomposition. [2]

Embedded Energy and CO2 in materials[edit]

Some brief introduction and general description, then find numbers and support for the following:

  • Embedded energy in different types of paper
  • Embedded CO2 in different types of paper
  • Embedded energy in OZZIs
    • Embedded energy of Polypropylene
Market Average: 95.89 MJ/Kg
Unspecified: 90.89 MJ/Kg
Virgin: 107.44 MJ/Kg [3]
  • Embedded CO2 in OZZIs
  • Embedded energy in Bagasse (Sugarcane pulp/byproduct)
In producing 1 pound of bagasse (sugarcane) pulp: 2.08 kWh, releases 5.62 lbs of CO2, 0.4 gallons of water[4]
In molding 80-100 plates per minute from bagasse pulp is 350 kWh. [5]

Embedded Energy and CO2 in shipping[edit]

Some brief introduction and general description, then find numbers and support for the following:

  • General embedded energy in shipping by sea
  • General embedded CO2 in shipment & transportation
    • Very Large Container Vessel
      • Shipment Capacity: 18,000 teu
      • 3.0gCO2/tonne-km
    • Oil Tanker
      • Shipment Capacity: 80,00-119,999 dwt
      • 5.9gCO2/tonne-km
    • Bulk Carrier
      • Shipment Capacity: 10,000-34,999 dwt
      • 7.9gCO2/tonne-km
    • Truck
      • Shipment Capacity: >40 tonnes
      • 80.0gCO2/tonne-km
    • Air Freight (747)
      • Shipment Capacity: 113 tonnes
      • 435.0gCO2/tonne-km [6]


  • General embedded energy in shipping by land
  • General embedded CO2 in shipping by land
Approximately 22.38 pounds of CO2. [7]

HSU eating vessels[edit]

  • What are HSU's reusable eating containers?
GET 3 compartment EC-09-1-JA 9" x 9" x 3" deep container [8]
100 % Virgin Polypropylene (PP) [8]
  • Where do HSU's reusable eating containers come from?

The units are produced in China, then shipped to Houston, Texas to G.E.T. Enterprises, then shipped to their final destination (i.e. HSU). The containers are shipped by the dozen, weighing a total of 7lbs and occupying 0.73 ft³ of space [8]

  • When did HSU purchase reusable eating containers? Includes how many and volume of shipped product.
7/30/2008 (660 containers: 40.15ft³)
2/18/2009 (1,440 containers: 87.6ft³)
7/26/2010 (1,440 containers: 87.6ft³)
11/7/2012 (1,440 containers: 87.6ft³)
7/26/2016 (3,000 containers: 182.5ft³)
10/2/2017 (3,000 containers: 182.5ft³)
  • What are HSU's reusable eating containers made from?


HSU's other disposable eating containers

HSU uses a 9” white plate (WHBRG-09) which is molded by Bridge Gate from Boulder, Colorado. These 9” white plates are molded from a sugarcane byproduct called bagasse. Each box/case contains 500 plates which is about 19 pounds, therefore each plates weighs roughly 0.038 pounds. Although these plates are molded by Bridge Gate, the cases are distributed by Sysco distributions, either from Sacramento or San Jose, California to Humboldt State University. After usage, these disposable plates can be discarded naturally or commercially (advance) composting. According to worldcentric, the degradation cycle for bagasse is usually between 2-4 months for natural compost and 1-3 months for commercial compost. [9][10][11][12] [13]

HSU uses 24-32oz (#BO-SC-U24) bowls made by World Centric [14] . The bowls are made from unbleached plant fiber, which mainly consists of wheat straw (or the stalks from wheat plants) [15] They are sent to HSU in boxes with a 500 count, and a gross weight of 31 pounds. They are manufactured in China, however they are shipped afterwards to warehouses located in San Leandro, CA and Grove City, OH. Wheat straw consists of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignen [16] Dry matter of wheat straw contains about 50% of carbon, 6% hydrogen, and 42% oxygen[17] Manufacturing production materials from raw materials from one pound of wheat straw has an energy consumption of 0.66kwh, water consumption of 13.33 gallons, and CO2 emissions of 0.69 lbs Manufacturing products from one pound of wheat straw has an energy consumption of 2.066 kWh and CO2 emissions of 2.02 lbs [18]

Oz You Sure? Research[edit]

Embedded Energy, CO2, and Life Cycle Analysis Concepts[edit]

Embedded Energy describes the energy used throughout the lifecycle of a product. The lifecycle of a product includes raw material extraction, transport, manufacture, assembly, installation, disassembly, deconstruction and/or decomposition. [19]

Embedded Energy and CO2 in materials[edit]

Some brief introduction and general description, then find numbers and support for the following:

  • Embedded energy in different types of paper: 25-50MJ (5550 to 9700 watthours)[20]
  • Embedded CO2 in different types of paper
    • 200 kilograms of carbon dioxide per tonne of paper[21]
  • Embedded energy in OZZIs
    • Plastic material contains around 60-120 MJ[22]
  • Embedded Energy of Polypropylene: Production of 1000 kg of Polypropylene requires 4.0 GJ of electricity.
  • Embedded CO2 in PP production: For every 1000 kg produced there are 3530 kg of CO2 eq (80% more than PHB production) due to crude oil that is required for both energy and propylene monomer unit production [23]
  • Primary Polypropylene (PP): (Embodied Energy MJ/Kg) 80 MJ/Kg
  • recycled Polypropylene (PP) more than 70%: (Embodied energy MJ/Kg) 24MJ/Kg[24]
  • Based on another article Polypropylene (PP)
    • 3.4 kg CO2/kg-polymer
    • 85.9 MJ/kg-polymer

[25]

Cradle to Polymer(PP): 73.4 MJ/kg [26]

Production of 1 tonne PP from natural gas emits 2 tonnes of CO2. Production of 1 tonne of PP pellets from recycled PP bottles emits 1.2 tonnes of CO2. [27]

  • Embedded CO2 in OZZIs
  • Embedded energy in disposable plates
  • Embedded CO2 in disposable plates
  • OZZI spec sheet [28]

Embedded Energy and CO2 in shipping[edit]

General embedded energy in shipping by sea

General embedded CO2 in shipping by sea

10 Grammes of Carbon Dioxide to carry 1 Ton of Cargo 1 Kilometer[29]

-Very large container vessel (18,000 teu): 3.0 Grams per tonne-km[30]

- Bulk carrier (10,000-34,999 dwt): 7.9 Bulk carrier [31]

General embedded energy in shipping by land General embedded energy in CO2 shipping by land Truck (> 40 tonnes): 80.0 Grams per tonne-km [32]

HSU eating vessels[edit]

  • What are HSU's reusable eating containers?

3-Compartment: 9 inch X 9 inch X 2.5 inch deep [33]

Single Compartment: 9 inch X 6 inch X 2.5 inch deep [34]

  • Where do HSU's reusable eating containers come from?

According to their website the containers are made in the USA. [35]

  • When did HSU purchase reusable eating containers? Includes how many and volume of shipped product.

Information was not found. Assumption from personal experience, when I was a freshman 2013-2014 the OZZI program was available for students.

  • What are HSU's reusable eating containers made from?

Polypropylene (PP) [8]

  • Where do HSU's other related disposable eating containers come from?
  • What are HSU's other disposable eating containers made from?

Embedded Energy and CO2 in Waste Disposal[edit]

Humboldt County trucks waste 175 miles to Dry Creek landfill in Medford, Oregon or to the Anderson landfill in Redding[36]

Truck Loads, Bailed Plastic is sent to Ming’s Recycling Corporation: Plastic. 3316 47th Ave Sacramento, CA 95824 [Jane Elson at HWMA]

Other Useful Information Found[edit]

Berkeley Study OZZI GET container [37] Other Study [38]

Related Cost for OZZI[39]

1 OZZI Machine: $2,017.00

1 Year online Maintenance: $1,308.00

2,000 Reusable Containers: 9,980 (each 4.99)

4,000 Tokens: $800


Product is sanitized for reuse. Annual cost kW used based on 2000 containers: 121.42 kW cost for HSU*must be checked*: $0.12

200 washings before they are recycled again[40]

Cal Poly finds a way to track their OZZI containers! Read more about it here [41]

OZZI OZZI OZZI![edit]

Embedded Energy, CO2, and Life Cycle Analysis Concepts[edit]

Embedded Energy and CO2 in materials[edit]

  • Embedded energy in different types of paper
    • Food Tray (boats) made out of cardboard paper avg. EE 29.97 MJ/kg
      • Predominantly recyclabled 25.66, Virgin 35.5
  • Embedded CO2 in different types of paper
    • Food Tray (boat) Paperboard CO2 1.29 CO2e/kg
  • Embedded energy in OZZIs
    • Made from Polypropylene: Market avg. 95.89, Virgin 107.44 (MJ/kg)
  • Embedded CO2 in OZZIs
    • Injection Moulding 4.49 CO2e/kg
  • Embedded energy in disposable plates
  • Embedded CO2 in disposable plates

Embedded Energy and CO2 in shipping[edit]

Some brief introduction and general description, then find numbers and support for the following:

  • Shipping cost by sea origin charges (china): $5425 destination charges (United States): $1528 [42]
  • General embedded energy in shipping by sea
  • General embedded CO2 in shipping by sea
  • General embedded energy in shipping by land
  • General embedded CO2 in shipping by land

HSU eating vessels[edit]

  • What are HSU's reusable eating containers?
    • 9"x9" 3 compartment food container
  • Where do HSU's reusable eating containers come from?
    • GET Enterprise
  • What are HSU's reusable eating containers made from?
    • Polypropylene

Truck/Trailer Specs[edit]

  • 53’ Air Ride Dry Vans

Length: 52 feet 6 inches Width: 102 inches Height: 102 inches Hi-Cube Van Height: 110 inches Tare Weight: 15,000 pounds GVW: 44,000 pounds Capacity: 3800 cubic feet Suspension: Air-Ride [43]

  • 24’ Straight Trucks

Length: 24 feet Width: 98 inches Height: 102 inches Hi-Cube Height: 110 inches Tare Weight: 10,000 pounds GVW : 26,000 pounds Capacity: 1550 cubic feet Options: Power Tailgate, Refrigeration [44]

References[edit]

  1. Humboldt Plagiarism
  2. http://www.appropedia.org/Embedded_energy
  3. Inventory of Energy & Carbon, Version 2.0, Sustainable Energy Research Team (SERT) Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Bath,UK
  4. http://worldcentric.org/sustainability/manufacturing/bagasse
  5. http://www.greenlandinternational.in/biodegradable-plates-making-machine.html
  6. http://www.ics-shipping.org/docs/co2
  7. https://nnsa.energy.gov/sites/default/files/nnsa/08-14-multiplefiles/DOE%202012.pdf
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 https://get-melamine.com/ec-09-1
  9. http://geotegrity.com/raw-materials-2/the-product-lifecycle/
  10. http://worldcentric.org/biocompostables/plant-fiber
  11. http://www.sysco.com/about-sysco/our-locations.html
  12. http://www.restockit.com/bridge-gate-9-white-sugarcane-plate-num-whbrg-09.html
  13. http://bridge-gate.com/eco-awareness/
  14. http://worldcentric.org/biocompostables/bowls/plantfiber
  15. http://worldcentric.org/about-us/faq#bagasse1
  16. http://eprints.lincoln.ac.uk/3846/2/The_Carbon_Reduction_Potential_of_Strawbale_Housing.pdf
  17. https://issuu.com/mariepoulsen/docs/halmpjeceuk_2011
  18. http://worldcentric.org/about-compostables/eco-profiles/wheatstraw
  19. http://www.appropedia.org/Embedded_energy
  20. http://www.lowtechmagazine.com/what-is-the-embodied-energy-of-materials.html
  21. http://www.motherjones.com/environment/2012/04/paper-carbon-dioxide-sequester/
  22. http://repository.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1030&context=psr
  23. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168165607001514#bib16
  24. http://www.tectonica-online.com/topics/energy/embodied-energy-materials-enrique-azpilicueta/table/31/
  25. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168165607001514
  26. fibervisions.com
  27. http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:rHkEDvnHRfwJ:www.fibtex.lodz.pl/2012/3/12.pdf+&cd=9&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us
  28. http://www.agreenozzi.com/wp-content/uploads/docs/datasheet.pdf
  29. http://www.worldshipping.org/industry-issues/environment/air-emissions/carbon-emissions
  30. http://www.ics-shipping.org/docs/co2
  31. http://www.ics-shipping.org/docs/co2
  32. http://www.ics-shipping.org/docs/co2
  33. http://www.agreenozzi.com/wp-content/uploads/docs/t1.pdf
  34. http://www.agreenozzi.com/wp-content/uploads/docs/t4.pdf
  35. http://www.agreenozzi.com/wp-content/uploads/docs/salestrifold.pdf
  36. https://ca-humboldtcounty.civicplus.com/DocumentCenter/View/1892
  37. http://nature.berkeley.edu/classes/es196/projects/2013final/HarnotoM_2013.pdf
  38. https://erefdn.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/EREFEckerdCollegeFinalReportEcoClamshellReusableToGoProgram121809.doc
  39. https://dspace.allegheny.edu/bitstream/handle/10456/42824/Senior%20Thesis%20Merged%20Final.pdf?sequence=1
  40. http://www.ucmerced.edu/news/2012/campus-diners-pioneering-zero-waste-take-out-system
  41. http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1203&context=imesp
  42. https://www.searates.com/reference/portdistance?A=ChIJuSwU55ZS8DURiqkPryBWYrk&K=ChIJAei5Zw5X0VQRhoeFoY_Xin0&D=33126&G=17960&shipment=1&container=20st&weight=1&product=0&request=&mode=&
  43. http://www.shipnorthamerica.com/
  44. http://www.shipnorthamerica.com/htmfiles/equipment.html