HAITI EARTHQUAKE ASSISTANCE PROJECT FOR HSU ENGINEERING 305

From Appropedia
Jump to: navigation, search

This Appropedia Web page is Dedicated to creating an appropriate technology emergency response to the earthquake in Haiti by HSU students enrolled in Appropriate Technology Engineering-305 spring 2012. Students enrolled in other college courses for which the instructor is willing to extend class credit are also invited to participate. Bart Orlando [1]


Call-to-action-1c.jpgRefugee camp1c.jpg

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! A CALL TO ACTION !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!


Many of the essential needs of the earthquake survivors in Haiti can be provided for using appropriate technology: geodesic storm-shelter domes, alternative tent shelters, alternative tensile shade structures, drinking water solar thermal pasteurization units, solar cookers, anerobic digester bags for converting human waste to methane fuel, solar charged night lighting, solar electric telecommunications, solar shower units, human powered-power tools and alternative systems emergency humanitarian aid delivery (Gigantic Solar/Electric Cargo-Airships). Appropriate Technology can make a difference in the lives of those it touches. This is our opportunity to demonstrate to the world what could be done! Students seeking to participate in this project are invited to contact Bart Orlando (bart6591@yahoo.com). (or Lonny Grafman - HSU Dept. of Engineering - Arcata, Ca)


CONTRIBUTIONS

Members of the HSU administration, faculty, student body, local community and those around the world who are interested in supporting this project with contributions of a shipping container, materials, hardware, workshop equipment access, work space, storage space, shipping logistics and expert advise are encouraged to participate. Please leave a message at the following link [2] or email Bart Orlando bart6591@yahoo.com

Ongoing Earthquake Recap And Information Updates

To recap, there are now (as of 1/13/2011) 316,000 confirmed fatalities from the earthquake of January 12th, 2010 as the death toll continues to rise. There are now estimated to be 1.5 million homeless Haitian earthquake refugees living in makeshift camps [3]. 400,000 earthquake refugees evacuated from Port-Au-Prince to Jeremie[4][5]and to more permanent refugee camps located near villages in the north of Haiti. The President of Haiti has made an urgent plea for tent shelters. The hospital ship USNS Comfort arrived at Port-Au-Prince on 1/20/2010. [6] By U.N. order, as of 1/21 no assistance had been sent to Leogane, the city closest to the epicenter of the quake and where 10,000 were (are) believed to be entombed in ruins. A contingent of British and Canadian search and rescue teams (Rapid-UK) finally arrived there almost two weeks after the quake. AS of 2/2/2010, other cities surrounding the epicenter had received little or no rescue assistance. The people of the city of Leogane asked reporters why they had been forsaken by the rest of the world. For weeks the survivors waited. This delay of medical assistance necessitated the amputations of infected arms and legs, often without anesthetic and were being performed in some cases by doctors, who because of lack of medical supplies, were forced to use hacksaws looted from demolished hardware stores. The number of amputations is estimated to approach that of the Crimean War and of the U.S. Civil War. [7] In addition, delayed surgeries are estimated to have cost approximately 20,000 lives per day. Hospitals continued to report dire shortages of medical supplies including: antibiotics, surgical anesthetics, painkillers and first aid supplies. A hospital in Jacmel says it was treating around 500 patients a day, many of them receiving medical attention for the first time as of 1/28. U.S. doctors in Haiti report that on 1/27 medical evacuation flights of Haitians requiring life saving surgery in Florida Hospitals have been halted because of logistical problems and disagreement over who shall pay their medical bills. The U.S. resumed medical evacuation flights on 2/1 and two clinics have been opened, one in Atlanta and one in Tampa to treat Haitians in need of emergency surgery. Limited food distribution sites are overwhelmed by mass crowds of starving Haitians.

3/11: As media coverage wanes, the rainy season begins and the hurricane season fast approaches. The primary concern of relief coordinators now is on sheltering 1.5 million homeless Haitians now living in makeshift camps. With time running out, geodesic dome kit assemblies are considered by many experts to be the only viable shelter option. These steel tube structures can be quickly bolted together and can withstand class 3 hurricanes. The people are still in desperate need of food and water for which they wait for hours in tremendously long lines. Experts warn that flooding from the rains will spread disease and cause mass epidemics of dysentery and cholera, claiming tens of thousands of lives.
Comparisons are now being made to the 8.8 earthquake in Chile on 2/27 which is now estimated to have claimed the lives of ~1,000 Chileans. This earthquake was 500 times more powerful and yet was dwarfed by the level of destruction in Haiti.


4/1/2010: International donors have pledged $9.9B for Haiti's Post-Earthquake Reconstruction. The rainy season has arrived in Haiti, threatening to turn refugee camps into fields of mud. Temporary shack housing construction is thwarted by disagreement over where to locate and build the housing because of the reluctance of land owners to provide access to their land. Sean Penn has publicly called for the Haitian government to seize private land by imminent domain to provide space for temporary housing for 1 million people. The hurricane season looms just two months away and is forecast to generate ~8 hurricanes in the region.


7/18/2010: Thousands now face eviction from tent city refugee camps on land coveted by private land owners and developers.[8][9]


9/28/2010: A strong storm severely damaged Haitian refugee camps, destroying ~ 8,000 tent/tarp shelters and killing five people. [10]


9/29/2010: The US still hasn’t delivered a cent of the $1.15 billion in new aid for Haiti it pledged earlier this year.[11] [12][13]

10/5/2010: Oxfam: Int’l Community Is Undercutting Haitian Agriculture [14][15]

10/22/2010: An outbreak of Cholera has occurred in the central region of Lower Artibonite has claimed 140 lives and 1,500 Haitians have fallen ill to the disease. [16] Estimates range as high as 200 dead and 3,000 ill. [17]

11/3/2010: Haiti is bracing for Hurricane Tomas, now bringing heavy rains, 25mph winds with 45 mph winds forecast. Low lying refugee camps are being evacuated. Cholera is spreading and has now claimed over 440 lives with seven thousand stricken with the disease. [18] [19]

1/12/2011: One Year Ago Today .....
AS of today, only 5 percent of the rubble has been cleared, only 15 percent of the temporary housing for the 1.5 million refugees has been built, cholera is epidemic killing 3,600/sickening 170,000, the 1.5 billion dollar promise of U.S. aid has yet to materialize and only 20 percent of international foreign aid as delivered. [20] [21]

1/19/2011: Baby Doc Duvalier returns to Haiti [22] [23]

1/21/2011: U.S Admin Confirms Opposition to Aristide's Return and Haitian Government officials refuse to issue him a passport. [24] [25]

1/21/2011: U.S. resumes deportation of Haitian immigrants to earthquake stricken Haiti. [26]

1/28/2011: Rape is now epidemic in Haitian refugee tent cities. Hundreds of women and children raped per day (night). Tarp tents provide no protection from armed gangs of rapists. The Haitian government is unwilling to deal with this crises.[27] [28]

2/10/2011: U.S. begins deportation of 700 Haitian immigrants with records of minor criminal offenses (including possession of marijuana)to crowded and inhumane Haitian prisons known to be infected with cholera. One deportee has died of cholera in prison thus far. [29] Haiti defies U.S. pressure to prevent exiled President Aristide, (following his kidnapping to the Republic of the Congo and exile to South Africa by U.S. special forces in the 2004 coop) from being allowed to return to Haiti and has sent him a passport by courier. Secretary of State Hilary Clinton flew from Egypt (where she spent 5 days pressuring the Egyptian government to back vise president Omar Suleiman, who ran the U.S. torture rendition program, as a replacement for Mubarak), .... she flew to Haiti to pressure the Haitian Government that only the two most conservative, Duvalier-like candidates be permitted to participate in a run off presidential election. Ex-Haitian dictator, Baby Doc Duvalier is as of yet, still enjoying his visit to Haiti. If he is permitted to leave Haiti without being arrested and charged with plundering Haiti's National Treasury, then Swiss banking officials will consider that as sufficient evidence of his innocence and shall therefore lift the seizure of his 6 million dollar Swiss bank account. [30]

3/20/2011: Aristide returns to a hero's welcome in Haiti [31] [32] [33] [34]

5/31/2011: The United States has released a report that states the death toll of last years earthquake in Haiti was overestimated and may be closer to 80,000. [35]

6/5/2011: Thanks to aid from Venezuela and Cuba, parts of Haiti now have electricity; that took two years in contrast to the 50 years of "aid" from the U.S. which produced no such results. The U.S. is actively trying to block aid from those countries to Haiti as revealed by Wiki-leaks. [36] [37]

10/25/11: Haiti now has the highest rate of cholera infection in the world; 6,000 dead, 500,000 infected. [38]

1/12/12: This Day Is The 2 Year Anniversary Of The Earthquake In Haiti. Memorials are being held in Haiti to mark the two-year anniversary of the devastating earthquake that killed roughly 300,000 people and left more than 1.5 million homeless. Two years later, the recovery process is just beginning in parts of Haiti. Half a million people are still living in crowded camps. According to the United Nations, of the $4.5 billion pledged after the earthquake, only about $2.4 billion has been delivered. Only half of the debris littering the capital of Port-au-Prince and its surrounding areas has been cleared.

3/9/12: Hundreds have marched in the capital Port-au-Prince calling on the United Nations to pay reparations for the cholera epidemic that’s killed more than 6,000 people. Some 450,000 Haitians have also been sickened since the cholera outbreak erupted in October 2010. This week, former President Bill Clinton, the U.N. special envoy to Haiti, acknowledged that the outbreak likely originated with a battalion of Nepalese troops with the U.N. peacekeeping mission.

8/27/12: Tropical Storm Issac floods Haiti, 19 killed.

10/30/12: Hurricane Sandy: Massive Flooding and crop damage. 54 Haitians reported killed and 200,000 now homeless. Tent city refugee camps devastated. Warnings of food shortages and greater outbreaks of water borne diseases.....

11/14/2012: Haiti - Floods Devastate Harvest, Threaten Disease

1/12/2013: Three Years Dispair......!

10/13/2013: Haitians Sue U.N. Over Cholera Outbreak - A group of Haitians and their advocates have filed a lawsuit against the United Nations for the cholera outbreak in Haiti that has killed more than 8,000 people and sickened more than 600,000. The disease strain has been traced to U.N. peacekeepers from Nepal who deployed after Haiti’s 2010 earthquake. The United Nations rejected a formal petition for compensation to the victims earlier this year. The lawsuit seeks damages from the United Nations and class-action status on behalf of thousands of victims and their families.

2/28/2014: 2,000 Haitians Mark 10th Anniversary of U.S.-Backed Coup In Haiti, some 2,000 people marched in Port-au-Prince to mark the 10th anniversary of the U.S.-backed coup that ousted Haiti’s first democratically elected president, Jean-Bertrand Aristide. On Feb. 29, 2004, Aristide was forced to flee Haiti in what he called a kidnapping by the U.S. government. The protesters denounced the current government of Michel Martelly and called for his resignation. [39]

3/17/2014: Haitians File New Suit Against U.N. over Cholera Outbreak. A group of Haitians and their advocates have filed a new class action lawsuit against the United Nations for the cholera outbreak in Haiti that has killed more than 8,000 people. The disease strain has been traced to U.N. peacekeepers from Nepal deployed after the January 2010 earthquake. The U.N. rejected a formal petition for compensating the victims last year. Federal prosecutors in New York recently sided with the U.N.’s claim to immunity from legal redress. [40]




Contents

[edit] CURRENT NEWS AND ANALYSIS OF THE EARTHQUAKE CATASTROPHE IN HAITI

  • Wiki Haiti earthquake information page [41]
  • Democracy Now Aired Jan. 13, 2010

Part 1 [42]

  • Democracy Now Aired Jan. 14, 2010

Part 1 [43] Part 2 [44] Part 3 [45] Part 4 [46]

  • MSNBC Rachel Maddow Show January 14, 2010 [47]
  • Democracy Now Aired Jan. 15, 2010

Part 1 [48]

Part 2 [49]

Part 3 Randall Robinson interview [50]

  • Tom Hartmann interviews Bill Fletcher, Commentator on History of Haitian/US/France international relations [51]
  • Telegraph.co.uk Jan.16, 2010 [52]
  • UN says 300 000 homeless after Haiti quake 2010-01-15 15:15 [53]
  • China View World Report: Haiti plans massive evacuation of quake-hit homeless [54]
  • Associated Press 01-17-2010 12:19am [55]
  • Daily News 11:35am 17/01/2010 Body of top UN envoy in Haiti found [56]
  • Mirror News U.K. 1/18/2010 25,000 dead and dying in Leogane at quakes epicenter [57]
  • Leogane destruction video 1/18/2010 [58]
  • Petit-Goave destruction video 1/18/2010 [59]
  • Democracy Now Aired 1/19/2010 [60]
  • Democracy Now Aired 1/20/2010 [61]
  • Democracy Now Aired 1/21/2010 [62]
  • Democracy Now Aired 1/22/2010 [63]
  • NY-TIMES Photo essay of limited food distribution sites overwhelmed 1/26 [64]
  • Democracy Now - Aired 2/16/2010[68]
  • French President Nicolas Sarkozy visits Haiti 2/17/2010[69]
  • U.N. Chief 'disappointed' with Haiti earthquake relief efforts 2/17/2010 [70]
  • Democracy Now - Aired 2/22/2010 [71]
  • 3/11 Media coverage has waned
  • 4/1/2010 Democracy Now: International Donors Pledge $9.9B for Haiti's Post-Earthquake Reconstruction [72]
  • Emergency Relocation of Tent City Haitians: Al Jazeera 4/10/2010 [73]
  • Sean Penn on Larry King Live 4/23/2010 Sean calls for Haitian government to seize private land for temporary refugee housing[74]
  • Fmr. President Clinton Apologizes for U.S./Haiti Trade Policies May 2010

[75]

  • Noam Chomsky Part 1 of 9 - @Riverside Church NYC - 8th June 2010

Haitian History [76]

  • Noam Chomsky - 3/2010 - History of French and U.S. Foreign Policy Towards Haiti [77]
  • Slow progress in Haiti quake reconstruction 7/2010 [78]
  • Thousands of Haitian refugees face eviction from land their tent cities are set up. [79][80]
  • France urged to pay Haiti 40 billion in reparations [81]
  • A strong storm severely damages refugee tent cities in Haiti. [82]
  • The US still hasn’t delivered a cent of the $1.15 billion in new aid for Haiti it pledged earlier this year.[83][84]
  • 10/5/2010: Oxfam: Int’l Community Is Undercutting Haitian Agriculture [85][86]
  • 10/6/2010 Bill Clinton tours Haitian refugee camps and vows speedy delivery of stalled U.S. aid within a week. [87]
  • 10/22/2010: An outbreak of Cholera has occurred in the central region of Lower Artibonite has claimed 140 lives and 1,500 Haitians have fallen ill to the disease. [88] Estimates range as high as 200 dead and 3,000 ill. [89]
  • 1/12/2011: Democracy Now - One Year Ago Today .....

AS of today, only 5 percent of the rubble has been cleared, only 15 percent of the temporary housing for the 1.5 million refugees has been built, cholera is epidemic killing 3,600/sickening 170,000, the 1.5 billion dollar promise of U.S. aid has yet to materialize and only 20 percent of international foreign aid as delivered. [90] [91]

  • Democracy Now 1/19/2011: Baby Doc Duvalier returns to Haiti [92] [93]
  • Democracy Now 1/21/2011: U.S Admin Confirms Opposition to Aristide's Return and Haitian Government officials refuse to issue him a passport. [94] [95]
  • Democracy Now 1/21/2011: U.S. resumes deportation of Haitian immigrants to earthquake stricken Haiti. [96]
  • Mother Jones 1/28/2011: Welcome To Haiti's Reconstruction Hell - Rape is epidemic in Haitian refugee tent cities. [97][98]
  • Democracy Now 2/10/2011: Haitian immigrants deported to Cholera infected Haiti. [99][100]
  • Democracy Now 3/21/2011: Aristide returns to a hero's welcome in Haiti [101] [102] [103]
  • Democracy Now 3/30/2011: Haitian tent city refugees face eviction. [104]
  • Democracy Now 1/13/12: The Two Year Anniversary Of The Earthquake [105]
  • Huffington Post 8/27/12: Tropical Storm Issac floods Haiti, 19 killed. [106]
  • The Gaurdian 10/30/12: Hurricane Sandy: Massive Flooding and crop damage. 54 Haitians reported killed and 200,000 now homeless. Tent city refugee camps devastated. Warnings of food shortages and greater outbreaks of water borne diseases.....[107]
  • Democracy Now 11/14/2012: Haiti Floods Devastate Harvest, Threaten Disease [108]
  • Democracy Now 1/11/2013: Three Years After the Quake, How the World Came to Save Haiti and Left Behind a Disaster [109] Part2 [110]


[edit] PHOTOS OF THE DEVASTATION

  • LA Times photo gallery [111]
  • CNN Photo essay of the devastation during the first week following 1/12 [112]


[edit] MAPS OF HAITI AND THE CARIBBEAN

  • Haiti Earthquake damage map [113]
  • Wikipedia Detailed Road Map Link [114]
800px-Haiti topographic map-fr.svg.png
Haiti regional map.jpg
Haiti map3.png

[edit] CHECK THE TIME AND WEATHER FORECAST IN HAITI NOW

  • Time and weather in Haiti now [115]

[edit] BACKGROUND INFORMATION AND FACTS ABOUT HAITI

  • Haiti's U.S. embassy [116]
  • WIKIPEDIA GENERAL INFO PAGE FOR HAITI[117]
  • Haiti Just Before The Earthquake - Short Video [118]
  • Wikipedia historical time line for Haiti [119]
  • Haiti's Ongoing Economic-Food Crises 1986-2009 [120]
  • Haiti Historical Analysis [121]
  • Peter Hallward on Democracy Now 2/22[122]
  • French and Haitian-Creole are the two official languages and here is a link to an English/French translation page. [123]
  • A travel guide's description of the climate in Haiti [124]
  • Home video tour of Port-Au-Prince 3 months before earthquake [125]
  • Gressier: Close to epicenter, 50% of structures destroyed - video [gressier]

[edit] NON GOVERNMENT RELIEF ORGANIZATIONS ASSISTING IN HAITI

  • The Jenkins/Penn Haitian Relief Organization [133]
  • World Food Program [139]
  • Engineers Without Boarders [140]
  • Doctors Without Boarders [141]
  • Partners In Health [142]
  • Shelter Haiti Project [146]
  • Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF)[147]
  • The San Damiano Foundation [150]
  • SCI Solar Cookers International & Sun Oven [153]
  • Cal-Earth: Earth and Ceramic Architecture [154]
  • Oxfam International [155]

[edit] FIRST STEPS

  • Begin discussion of our projects design.
  • Consider assembling large hurricane resistant geodesic storm shelters [156][157][158]
  • Consider consulting/networking with A.T. NGOs already working in Haiti
  • Consider focusing on alternative tent shelter and shade designs
  • Consider using a shipping container(s) for A.T. cargo and shelter(s)
  • Consider securing a donation of a shipping container(s).
  • Consider securing reservations for free shipping of the container(s) to Port-Au-Prince, Haiti via Florida
  • Consider securing space within a container already being sent.
  • Consider an A.T. parachute drop and how it might affect project parameters.
  • Considering chartering an airship Caribbean tour service willing to ferry doctors and nurses to remote earthquake stricken areas in Haiti.[159][160]

[edit] Related pages

[edit] PROJECTS SPECIFICALLY DEVELOPED IN OR FOR HAITI

[edit] Waste to Product

[edit] Water purification

[edit] Organizations

[edit] Cooking

[edit] Farming

[edit] Equipment

[edit] Shelter

  • Shipping containers converted into homes and schools [162] [163]

[edit] Composting Toilets

  • Sustainable Organic Integrated Livelihoods (SOIL) [164][165]

[edit] PARABOLIC SOLAR COOKERS AND PASTEURIZERS MADE USING SALVAGED ITEMS BY HSU STUDENTS

Engr 305 class demo.jpg

_________________Basket_____Stadium Lights____Satellite Dish______


Basket Solar Cooker [166]

Stadium Light Solar Cooker [167] Please Email this link to the Premier Soccer Player and World Food Program Spokesman ... Ronaldo [168][169] and to 2008, FIFA World Soccer Player of the Year and W.F.P. ambassador...Kaka[170]

Satellite Dish Solar Cooker [171]



[edit] Featured Project Design: The Earthen Solar Cooker/Water Pasteurizer[172]

Earthen Solar Cooker 2.jpg
























[edit] INSPIRING VISIONS OF APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY'S EMERGENCY RESPONSE TO DISASTER... (RISE UP!)

RAPID DEPLOYMENT OF A SOLAR POWERED AIRSHIP ARMADA RESCUE


11airships in formation Best copy2armardaTEXT.jpg

SOLAR POWERED AIRSHIP ARMADAS WOULD NOT REQUIRE REFUELING, ROADS, SHIPPING PORTS, AIRPORTS OR PERMISSION IN ORDER TO DELIVER AID! IN HAITI, THE PORT, INITIALLY IN RUINS, HAS BEEN RESTORED TO 10% CARGO RECEIVING CAPACITY. THE ROADS WERE DAMAGED, CLOGGED WITH RUBLE, DEAD BODIES AND REFUGEES. THE AIRPORT CONTROL TOWER WAS DESTROYED . THE AIRPORT IS TOO SMALL AND ILL EQUIPPED TO LAND AND UNLOAD LARGE TRANSPORT PLANES RAPIDLY.[173] THE FIRST RESCUERS TO ARRIVE WERE AN ICELANDIC SEARCH AND RESCUE TEAM 24 HOURS AFTER THE QUAKE. THEN, A JET ARRIVED FROM CHINA CARRYING MEDICAL PERSONNEL AND SUPPLIES WHICH TOOK 6 HOURS TO UNLOAD BY HAND. THE US MILITARY ARRIVED AND TOOK CONTROL OF THE AIRPORT ON 1/14 AND FOR AN ENTIRE WEEK, GAVE LANDING PRIORITY TO FLIGHTS CARRYING US WEAPONS AND THOUSANDS OF SOLDIERS WHILE TURNING AWAY MANY INTERNATIONAL FLIGHTS CARRYING FOOD, WATER, MEDICAL SUPPLIES AND MOBILE HOSPITALS. DOCTORS WITHOUT BOARDERS REPORTS THAT 10 OF ITS FLIGHTS CARRYING 85 TONS OF MEDICAL SUPPLIES HAVE BEEN DIVERTED TO OTHER COUNTRIES. THE BULK OF THE RELIEF SUPPLIES THAT DID MANAGE TO REACH THE AIRPORT AT PORT-AU-PRINCE WERE UNLOADED, STACKED NEAR THE RUNWAY AND HAD NOT REACHED THE HAITIAN PEOPLE AS OF 1/20/2010. ON 1/19, THE ORDER FORBIDDING PARACHUTE DROPS[174] OF AID WAS RESCINDED AND LIMITED AIRDROPS BEGAN [175]. ALMOST NO AID HAD REACHED THE SURROUNDING CITIES AS OF 2/2/2010. THE INITIAL DELAY OF AID FROM REACHING SURVIVORS IS THE NORM WHEN IT COMES TO THE WORLDS RESPONSE TO MAJOR DISASTERS.[176] [177] PERHAPS THE WORLD NEEDS AN INDEPENDENT RAPID DEPLOYMENT RESCUE "FORCE" ABLE TO LAUNCH A MISSION WITHIN HOURS OF A DISASTER, FROM WITHIN EVERY REGION ON EARTH. A RAPID DEPLOYMENT RESCUE AIRSHIP FLEET STATIONED IN FLORIDA ALONG WITH PRELOADED AIR DROP CARGO PLANES [178][179] COULD REACH THEIR DESTINATIONS WITH DOCTORS, MEDICINE AND RELIEF SUPPLIES IN LESS THAN ONE DAY! [180]

An inspiring vision and probably beyond the range of this semester's project. Yet, it is best to take a bearing on the horizon when charting a project's course. Though smaller in scale, our project can still prove to be very important to the individuals who will receive it and a shining example for others to follow in the future. The blimps above are of the type used by the US Navy fleet back in the 1950's[181] [182] [183]. Future next generation cargo airships are planned to be much larger, more aerodynamic, capable of carrying as much aid as a small freighter and yet able to reach even remote villages at speeds approaching 200 mph (174 knots). [184][185] The photovoltaic envelope of a lenticular airship could provide both electric power and an overhead shelter from rain or shade from intense sun for displaced refugees. [186].

(A special note: Please email a link for this web page to the United Nations High Commission For Refugees Goodwill Ambassador - Angelina Jolie [187] who once portrayed the commander of an alternative 1939 retro-futuristic airship armada in the movie Sky Captain [188]) and to the movie's director, Kerry Conran [189]







MORE TO COME!