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Robotics

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This article considers the increasing impact of robots and artificial intelligence on the planetary system.


Contents

Definition[edit]

Robots are autonomous or manual handled technical machines, which can be static or mobile. They were initially invented to help humans in hazardous environments and repetitive tasks, but nowadays robots are also starting to replace human labour. Robots are controlled by computer programs, or electronic circuitry. A robot is any machine or mechanical device, which operates automatically or semi-automatically. Hence we general consider a robot to be limited to something which is powered by electricity.

robot says hi.

The main usage of modern robots is in the workplace on product lines. They are used specifically to make production more efficient for the company, cheaper for the customers and safer for the employees. Robots are widely used in such industries as automobile manufacture to perform simple repetitive tasks, and in industries where work must be performed in environments hazardous to humans. Many aspects of robotics involve artificial intelligence; robots may be equipped with the equivalent of human senses such as vision, touch, and the ability to sense temperature. Some are even capable of simple decision making, and current robotics research is geared toward devising robots with a degree of self-sufficiency that will permit mobility and decision-making in an unstructured environment. Today’s industrial robots do not resemble human beings; a robot in human form is called an android.

Chronology[edit]

Past[edit]

In 1920 the Czech writer Karel Capek firstly mentioned the word "robot" in one of his plays. It described an artificial creature. Namely his brother Josef Capek suggested the word "robot" from the Latin word "robota" (meaning serf labor), because he didn’t like the word "labori" (or worker in Latin).

In 400 BC, the first known real robot was invented by the Greek mathematician Archytas, who developed a mechanical bird. The bird, also known as "the pigeon", was able to fly over 200 meters. It was operated by steam. This was also the first instance of the study of how birds were able to fly. Considered the father of Mechanical Engineering, Archytas was also a philosopher, astronomer, mathematician, statesman, strategist, and even a commander.

In the Elizabethan era John Dee of England invented a flying wooden beetle.

In 1739, Jacques de Vaucanson invented the "Digesting Duck", a mechanical duck build to imitate a real duck. It had the ability to recreate the "quack" sound from a real duck, eat grain and excrete fake feces.

Later in 1944 science fiction writer Isaac Asimov decided to expand the meaning of the word. So he used the word "Robotics" in his short story "Runaround". The main idea of this story began to repeat itself in almost every future Asimov’s book, which helped to increase the usage and the popularity of the word "Robotics".

In 1950 Alan Turing released the paper "Computing Machinery and Intelligence" which was a milestone in Artificial Intelligence and Robotics research. He switched the general used question from "Can machines think?" which is quite imprecise to "Are there imaginable digital computers which would do well in the imitation game?". With this question it was possible to get an answer.

Present[edit]

In the year 2004, roughly two million robots were put to use worldwide, mainly in industrial environments. This marked a big change for the modern production industry. Many people have lost their jobs to robots.

Robots are not just used in industrial environments as they are sometimes to be found in our daily lives. Vending machines are the most common type and just one of the many robots we come across daily. The food we eat may also have been produced by robots.For example, many tractors in the agricultural sector are GPS assisted and can drive on their own to harvest all sorts of crop.

People have already sent robots into space to explore planets, into nuclear reactors and even into hostile situations with real soldiers.

Nowadays we can also see robots, which look like humans. They cannot really move and speak like real humans, but at least they can do some basic movements and speak. For example the robotic "popstar", which sings and dances for an audience. For more information please visit the website: http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=ZZXzjkaYQHI

The future[edit]

The future of AI lies in people cooperating with AI systems. It is unlikely that strong AI will be developed any time soon. Artificial Intelligence can only exist in a network of interacting systems. It will not be possible in the next years that a robot is better in everything than a human or animal, or maybe it is, with the further development of the quantum computer. But in single services a network of robots can do better work than the human. E.g. reconnaissance drones are immune to temperatures and when a swarm of them can discover unexplored areas each interacting with the others, it is possible that they can spot other planets without having human contact from earth just by interacting with each other. On the other side we have so many people working on this and after the 'Infinite monkey theorem' ([1]) it seems to be realistic, that someone somewhere and maybe in the near future could find the 'holy grail' of the AI-programming. Even the complex human brain works by simply electric impulses.


Projected robotics timeline:

  • May 2013 - launching the Quantum Artificial Intelligence Lab by google [2]
  • 2018 - robots will routinely carry out surgery BBC News
  • 2022 - intelligent robots that sense their environment , make decisions and learn TechCast
  • 2030 - robots capable of performing at human level Marshall Brain
  • 2034 - robots performing most household tasks Wikipedia: Home automation
  • 2050 - robot brains based on computers that execute 100 trillion instructions per second will start rivalling human intelligence Scientific American

Advantages and disadvantages[edit]

Advantages[edit]

  • Physical labour will and can be turned over to robots. Examples for this are:
    • Picking fruit
    • Driving a car
    • Fire fighting
    • Simple tasks in household (doing dishes, vacuuming, etc.)
  • Robots will take over work, which humans don’t like to do. This includes most dangerous tasks like working in a mine or disgusting tasks (eg. cleaning the toilet).
  • Robots can discover places (e.g. deep sea, space exploration, deep earth) which are impossible to discover for humans under normal conditions.
  • Robots mostly work in the industry because they are more efficient, precise and accurate than humans, for example the car industry.
    • Or they often help humans with their work in the industry.
  • Robot designing and maintenance create new jobs.
  • Less workloss caused by illness.
  • They are able to work without exhaustion.
  • Robots could become a big part in the medical field. They could assist doctors in surgeries or maybe do routine surgeries. In that case humans would only be needed to observe the robot and its actions.
  • Robots keep the proprieties of the source code.
  • Jobs which are in extremely harsh conditions like underwater, in the space, where air is needed. Robotics can work without problems.
  • Robots don’t need a rest they can work 24 hours.
  • They could help the elderly so retirement homes would be useless.
    • Robots could take over the part of assisting, help the pensioners and do their household or maybe even manage their medications.
  • Robots need many different mechanical components (see: Mechanical Components)
    • Cameras, Cables, Processors etc. all need to be build and bought from somewhere so the market of those chips and devices would be influenced positively but this could be rated as a disadvantage too.
  • Cost-efficiency
  • High precision -> robots can work with nanotechnology

Disadvantages[edit]

  • Many people are likely to lose their job as robots can easily replace many jobs because on the long therm they are cheaper than men. Some of them are:
    • Cashiers
    • Cab drivers
    • Waitresses
    • Factory workers
  • Jobs and productions of devices needed for the building of robots could not be done by humans because robots could take over in this parts of the industry, too.
  • Expensive to build & maintain
  • Limited to only the work/task they're build and programmed for.
  • If used wrong robots can become really dangerous for humans.
  • Humans will depend too much on their robots and will unlearn basic skills the robots are doing for them.
  • Robots are often developed and used by the military.
  • Wrong programmed factory robots can destroy a whole production which costs a lot of money for the company.
  • Robots need a constant supply of power.
  • Employees will need a training program to interact with robots which takes time and costs money.
  • They can’t respond to danger like humans can if not programmed so.
  • Robots are very expensive to buy.
  • The worker will require a training program to interact with the new robotic equipment. It takes time to learn these things and financial output.
  • Robots are very good at doing their jobs but they can’t handle unexpected situations as well as people.

Types of robots[edit]

Robots can be separated into different types. Most of them share the same basics like components but their purpose can be very different. While some robots are built to improve the productivity, others are built to help us in our daily life or to entertain us.

Mobile robots[edit]

In contrast to industrial one arm robots, mobile robots have the ability to move around, they are not fixed to one location. An example for mobile robots are automated guided vehicles (AGV). They use markers or wires in the floor to navigate, some also use vision or lasers. Most of them are used in warehouses to move materials.

Mobile robots are also found in military and security. There are also vacuum cleaners designed as mobile robots.

The current research has a big focus on mobile robots, so every university has a lab focusing on mobile robot research.

Medical[edit]

Intuitive Surgical, Inc. da Vinci Surgical System

The use of robots in health care can offer significant benefits to both patients and staff in a hospital.

Surgical robots have multiple arms where different tools are attached. The surgeon is able to ensure precise actions with these robotic arms. The movement control of these arms is controlled via a computer station. Using such an surgical robot offer significant advantages for the patient and the surgeon compared to previous techniques.

Some advantages include:

  • More accurate surgery
  • Lower risk of bleeding
  • Smaller scars
  • Risk of infections is reduced
  • Faster healing process due to lesser strain on the body


Subtypes of Medical robots[edit]

Surgical robots[edit]

Their most important feature is their high precision.

Rehabilitation robots[edit]

This group facilitates and supports the lives of infirm, elderly people, or those with dysfunction of body parts effecting movement. These robots are also used for rehabilitation and related procedures, such as training and therapy.

Biorobots[edit]

A group of robots designed to imitate the cognition of humans and animals.

Telepresence robots[edit]

Allow off-site medical professionals to move, look around, communicate, and participate from remote locations.

Elderly care / Support robots[edit]

A support robot helps disabled or old people to move, hear and see. They come in a various forms. These robots can be used as a stairlift. It is also possible to use them as hearing aids, so that even deaf people can hear again.
Another usecase is to support the work of the care assistants.

NASA[edit]

Robots are used by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). There is a current big project called "Curiosity". That is the name of the robot. It checks the planet "Mars" for symptoms of life, because it will be assumed that this planet got life many million years ago. Curiosity has the following instruments equipped:

  • Mast Camera (MastCam)
  • Chemistry and Camera complex (ChemCam)
  • Navigation cameras (navcams)
  • Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS)
  • Hazard avoidance cameras (hazcams)
  • Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI)
  • Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS)
  • Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin)
  • Sample analysis at Mars (SAM)
  • Dust Removal Tool (DRT)
  • Radiation assessment detector (RAD)
  • Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons (DAN)
  • Mars Descent Imager (MARDI)
  • Robotic arm

[3]|NASA’s Curiosity

Military[edit]

A U.S. Marine Corps technician prepares to use a telerobot to detonate a buried improvised explosive device near Camp Fallujah, Iraq

Robots that are used in the military are often remote-controlled devices for different purposes and are often used in dangerous situations where human lives would be at stake. In the case that something goes wrong, the military would only lose the robot and no human life, which is more valuable than just a robot. In other cases it’s cheaper to build and use robots to do the same tasks again and again. The Military also uses drones for surveillance, sniper detection or neutralizing bombs. Robots to neutralize bombs are also used by police and the bomb disposal. Especially in Germany, you can find a lot of bombs from World War 2, which didn’t detonate, so they have to be eliminated. Robots are used, so if the bomb explodes no human will be killed or hurt. In another case drones were used in Poland for the European Soccer Championship 2012: The project INDECT is an European surveillance programme which should be used for more safety while big festivals. Flying drones should identify humans who are displaying behavioural problems with the help of social networks and send the identity and the position to the police.

Experts and academics question robots for military use. In particular they question the use of robots with autonomous functions or robots controlling other robots. Some experts mention that the decisions made by robots could be more humane and effective, but others also question this.

Military Future[edit]

The Department of Defense is expanding its robotics research with new initiatives to creat machines that can climb, drive, extinguish fires, or other automated tasks. But the most important goal involves the use of robots in dangerous situations that would otherwise put U.S. soldiers at risk.

The Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) has a "huge challenge" for robot builders and the Naval Research Laboratory opened its Laboratory for Autonomous Systems Research (LASR) that focus on cutting-edge research in robotics and autonomous systems.

DARPA is offers a $2 million prize to build a robot that using human tools and navigating disaster-response scenarios. For example, the robot will be able to travel across rubble, remove debris from a blocked entryway and climb a ladder. A humanoid form isn't important in the challenge, but DARPA does plan to create a hardware platform with arms, legs, torso and head to some entrants.

A previous DARPA challenge produced several automobiles who were able to driving themselves. And Cheetah, a four-legged robot, who were able to galloping with a speed of up to 18 miles per hour, a new record for legged robots.

The new Naval Research Laboratory facility is used to develop robots for use by the Navy or Marines. They work with the National Robotics Initiative together to develop robots to help solve problems in defense, space, health and manufacturing.

Killer Robots[edit]

Robots armed with automatic weapons, anti-tank missiles and even grenade launchers are marching, er, rolling ever closer to the battlefield now that they’ve shown they can actually hit what they’re supposed to.

Four robotics companies — HDT Robotics, iRobot, Northrop Grumman and QinetiQ — recently ran their M240 machine gun-armed robots through a live-fire demo at Fort Benning in what has been dubbed the “Robotic Rodeo.” The point was to give the brass a chance to see just how viable such systems are. The Army, which issued a favourable assessment of the technology last week, doesn’t see our armed robotic overlords as weapons taking the place of boots on the ground, but rather as combatants working alongside troops in the field. “They’re not just tools, but members of the squad. That’s the goal,” Lt. Col. Willie Smith, chief of Unmanned Ground Vehicles at Fort Benning told Computerworld. “A robot becoming a member of the squad, we see that as a matter of training.” Senior Army officers attending the rodeo appeared satisfied with the robots after seeing them accurately hit targets 500 feet away, and they hope to see battle ‘bots in action within five years.

Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)[edit]

UAVs (also called drones) are remotely controlled from the ground or autonomously by on-board computers. That means that no human has to be on board. In the military these flying robots have high performance cameras and lots of high-tech sensors on-board to detect the enemy’s positions and to deliver an overview of the battlefield. Many of them are also armed, to eliminate enemies with computer-guided-missiles from far distance. They also cause some ethical questions, because they give one the ability to kill a lot of people by just clicking a few buttons or by a computer algorithm.

In civil situations drones are also used more often. They are unarmed and mostly to watch over large group of people, where you normally need many people.

Unmanned combat air vehicle (UCAV)[edit]

These air vehicles are a special type of UAVs. The main difference is that UCAVs carry lethal weapons like machine guns or tactical missiles.

List of all unmanned air vehicle (currently in use):

  • Honeywell RQ-16A
  • Wasp III BATMAV
  • RQ-11 Raven
  • RQ-7 Shadow
  • MQ-8 Fire Scout
  • Predator und Reaper
  • Global Hawk


Those weapons are almost exclusively used to fight against supposed combatants who are hiding in terrain which is otherwise inaccessible. UCAVs have created a huge debate all over the world wether or not this is 'ethical warfare'. The problem is that a large group of people are often seen as enemy combatants and thus are free to engage. (See the 13.12.2013 bombing of a wedding ceremony in Yemen.) There are numerous cases , most in mid-east Asia , where military drones caused a great deal of civilian casualties. To protect the US government from any legal damage the families of those who had been killed could cause , drone missions are often classified and thus not open to debate nor legally assailable. A side effect of this practice is that those who had been killed never appear as civilian casualties to the public. According to official stats , Barack Obama still is the President with the lowest civilian casualties being killed in a war with the US.

Unmanned ground vehicle (UGV)[edit]

An unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) is a semi-autonomous robot. It’s loaded with sensors, cameras and a computer and can control itself by an A.I or can be controlled remotely by a human. Application fields are spying enemies, immobilizing enemies and disarming bombs. They can be used in operations that are too dangerous or even deadly for a human. One of the first UGVs was used in the World War II by the German Wehrmacht, it was called the Goliath tracked mine, a remote controlled small tank, armed with a minimum of 50 kg of explosives.

List of all unmanned ground vehicle (currently in use):

Unmanned surface vehicle (USV)[edit]

Unmanned Surface Vehicle or Autonomous Underwater Vehicles are types of vehicles, which are rediscovered in the last year and used in Afghanistan. There are few systems, that are remote-controlled and autonomous, but they are not referred to as robots.

List of all unmanned surface vehicles(currently in use):

  • Spartan Scout und Bluefin
  • C-Sweep

Drones - advantages and disadvantages[edit]

Pros:

  • Are able to save soldiers’ lives by “replacing” them in dangerous situations
  • More efficient in fighting terrorism (?)

Cons:

  • Attack on civilians/innocents (see “Drones in the past and present”)
  • Risk of malfunctions
  • Ethical issues: it is easier to kill someone at the touch of a button -> the death is simplified
  • Drone strikes could increase extremism and therefore also terrorism

Drones in the past and present[edit]

On the one hand, military drones seem to have the big advantage to save lives in many different types of warfare (especially terrorism). On the other hand, there have been and still are cases that prove they have many downsides.

For example, the drone attacks in Pakistan: The attacks which are also known as a “drone war” are happening since 2004 and still ongoing to fight the terror. Compared to George W. Bush, the drone strikes were increased under Barack Obama’s administration. [4] So what is negative about fighting terrorism? It is fact, that these drones have killed many innocent civilians (about 474 to 881) including at least 176 children. As a consequence, the war against terrorist groups has also indirectly turned into a war against civilians. [5] Additionally, the drone war is entitled as a “direct contravention of the international law” by experts in international law. [6]

Nanobots[edit]

Nanobots are robots whose components are at or close to the scale of a nanometer. <br\>Currently they are in development but in near future they could be used in medicine. <br\>One way to build nanobots is to use Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).<br\> The way to form DNA to structures is called DNA origami. Currently it is possible to make billions of these structures in a tube in a single reaction. <br\>Currently it is possible to form DNA to machines for example boxes that can contain molecules like drugs as cargo. <br\>They can open when they recognize a type of cancer cell to let the contained cargo free. So the contained drug only harms the cancer cell. <br\>For example the Nanobot named "Nano-Bot" is used to decode DNA. This Nanobot can decode the complete human DNA in only 15 Minutes. <br\>Multiple nanobots can connect so they can time their activity or count themselves. <br\>As a result it is possible to program them for example to let a large amount of drugs free at once. It is possible to connect nanobots to logic gates that can compute. <br\>Currently there are systems that have computing capacity of an eight bit computer possible. <br\>There are also versions of nanobots that carry antennas so they can respond to external electromagnetic fields like a remote control.

[1][2]

Industry[edit]

A factory robot used for welding

Industrial robots (also called 'industrial manipulators') are autonomous universal programmable machines, often guided by sensors, which edit and assemble on work pieces. The machine is usually made up of the 'manipulator' (a robot-arm), the control-system and an effector (e.g. a tool or a gripper etc.). With the help of industrial robots, things like mass production technique are possible to realise. They are a great addition to the human coworkers and allow companies to produce amazing things which would be difficult without the help of robots.

An automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multi-purpose manipulator programmable in three or more axes, which may be either stationary or mobile for use in industrial automation applications. The main customer for industrial robots – the automotive industry – is changing and diminishing. There is a worldwide trend towards automation in the “non-automotive industry”. Robot suppliers are offering increasingly tailored solutions to these customers. The metal industry, the food and beverage industry, the glass industry, the pharmaceutical and medical devices industry, and the photovoltaic industries to name a few.

History[edit]

The first industrial robots were used in the atomic industry. Because of the radioactive material, some works were too dangerous for humans so robots were very important for working in this dangerous area. The first industrial robot was built in 1954 by George Devol. In 1956, George Devol and Joseph F. Engelberger founded the first robot company with name Unimation. In 1961 the first autombile manufacturer used the first robot Unimate in his factory (General Motors). The first use of robots in the German car industry was in 1970 by Mercedes Benz. After that robots became more and more important and they improved very fast. Today most of the factories, especially in the car industry, are depending on robots.

Cartesian robot / Gantry robot

A Cartesian robot is also called a pick & place machine and is used for assembly operations. [3]

Car production

Over the last three decades, automobile factories have become dominated by robots. A typical factory contains hundreds of industrial robots working on fully automated production lines, with one robot for every ten human workers. On an automated production line, a vehicle chassis on a conveyor is welded, glued, painted and finally assembled at a sequence of robot stations.

Packaging

Industrial robots are also used extensively for palletizing and packaging of manufactured goods, for example for rapidly taking drink cartons from the end of a conveyor belt and placing them into boxes, or for loading and unloading machining centers.

Transportation / Delivery drones[edit]

These kind of robots are basically used for transportation of packages. Their main purpose is to reduce cost and to be fast when delivering packages to remote places.

Two common examples which has been on news lately:

  • Matternet - using drones in developing countries where the transportation network is bad or broken
  • Amazon Prime Air - using drones to deliver packages directly to the customer

But since the drones could eventually distract the air traffic, the Amazon Prime Air especially needs to face some issues that need to be discussed and figured out.

Robots in Fukushima[edit]

After the nuclear disaster in Fukushima robots were used and are still in use to work in radioactive areas. The first robot used in Fukushima was a remote controlled concrete pump to pump cool water into the destroyed power plant. Later remote controlled diggers and trucks were used to transport the radioactive material. Robots were also used to measure the nuclear radiation inside the building and to find water leaks. There is a high demand in new robot technologies because the robots are still very limited and the clean-up needs at least in Fukushima 30 to 40 years.

Fukushima Daiichi unit 2 quince robot investigation video:

Problems with robots in Fukushima: One problem with the robot’s cameras technology because the camera fogging, so nobody can saw the recordings. The material must be heated, rays and high atmospheric moisture resist. So a robot can help in for normal work in a nuclear power plant, e.g. by amendment with a swimming robot.

[7]

Service[edit]

The tasks of a service robot exclude industrial automation applications. A service robot for personal use assists his owner with daily tasks like pet exercising, mobility assistance or other duties of a domestic servant. There are also professional service robots, which is used for commercial tasks. For example clean public places or assist in hospitals as a rehabilitation and surgery robot. They are controlled by a robot system, which is monitored, started and stopped by an operator. Since few years everybody can buy e.g. vacuum robots or lawn cutter robots. They scan the setting and work if they notice for example grown lawn. Most of them are independent, because they produce their own energy with solar.


Humanoid[edit]

definition:

The construction of a humanoid robot is as near as possible like the human’s shape. They walk on two legs and have two arms with which they can work. The movements are often inspired by the human movements. They should be autonomic and in the best case interact in their environment.


Artificial intelligence:

Most of the scientist today think, that humanoid robots artificial intelligence has to be manlike. So the AI cannot be programmed, there has to be a learning process. The robot has to interact with people and has to learn through watching, interacting and communicating. The aim today is to get a highly technologized copy of a human physiology.

Humanoid robots as working machines:

humanoid robots are seen as a multifunctional working machine, because if you can use adaptive multifunctional robots, you do not need special robots, which might be very cost-effective. They also can do more complicated work easy. All in all the robot should help the humans at the work to save time or in other situations he should entertain them.

Another aspect is the ageing of the population: The robots can help older people in their daily life or they support the nursing staff.

Example: Atlas[edit]

Atlas is an example of a humanoid robot. He can walk bipedal which means he walks on two legs and his arms are free to carry stuff. He is a high mobility robot who can climb difficult to attain terrain for human beings with his arms and legs. Atlas has specifically designed hands to operate tools which are normally designed for humans. Beside being controlled by a computer board beyond his body and a power source Atlas is free to move anywhere.[4]

Example: ASIMO[edit]

ASIMO is the currently most advanced humanoid robot from Honda. The hardware of the presented on 15 December 2004 research model of ASIMO is 1.20 meters tall and weighs 54 kg. The integrated power supply is enough for about 40 minutes of running, while the robot moves. On the other side of the battery takes about 3 hours until it is fully charged. ASIMO has in the current version of 34 degrees of freedom. On 13 December 2005, an improved control was presented , which allows the robot at a speed of about 2.7 kilometers per hour move when walking ( previous model : 2,5 km/h. This speed is reduced to 1.6 km/h when ASIMO carrying something . In addition, ASIMO can in the current version up to 9 km/h " race " ( previous model : 6 km/h). The phases in which at the same time not touch Asimos feet off the ground , 80 milliseconds (ms ) long ( previous model : 50 ms). ASIMO is also the first time able , at 5 km/h run around in circles ( radius : 2.5 m). Honda began in 1986 with the development of humanoid robots , but the trend continued up to the idea of "P2" in December 1996 under wraps. In the summer of 1999 began " Honda Research & Development Wako Fundamental Technical Research Center" in Japan with the development of ASIMO , which was finally completed on 31 October 2000 and presented to the public on 20 November 2000 . Asimos software is designed according to the top-down approach. This means that it has no learning abilities . Any information that ASIMO to its activities needed to be entered by programmers . So ASIMO belongs to the older generation of robots, because the bottom-up approach allows machines to "learn" . According to modern robots do not need that they are supplied with very much information. They can, for example, perceive obstacles and avoid them on the principle of "chance and error " after a training phase sometime independently, without having to rely on a programmer.

Toys[edit]

Most of robot-like toys are not true robots because otherwise every toy which can move on its own would have to be categorized as a robot. But even so, there are some toys which can be called toy robots. The dog robot Aibo from Sony is a good example because it walks like a real dog and you can play with it, but it has no research relevance and it is not helpful. Still, at least it doesn’t shit all over the place...

Education[edit]

Some robots are used for education, for example in schools or Universities. The most used robot are the LEGO mindstorms. You can easily learn the basics of robots with engines different sensors. Also it makes more fun if you learn with an object than just listen to the teacher. The robots do easy things like escaping a maze or drive on a table without falling down. In China there are tests to use robots as a replacement for teachers, the students are educated by a robot that looks human. These cases are still being tested and not able to replace real people just yet.

Speech recognition[edit]

Speech recognition is handled by artificial intelligence modules inside the robots. Of course, understanding in the meaning of translating speech into text and understanding what those words meant, are two very different things. The recognition of the words as such is already at a very advanced level. Software like "MacSpeech Dictate", "Google Voice Search", "Siri", "Dragon" or "Windows Speech Recognition" are widely in use. The understanding of natural speech is a more advanced problem though and is called "natural language processing". One project which shows just what capabilities are needed to solve this problem is IBM’s Watson. Other software like "cleverbot" also try their hand at it but are usually quickly discovered as being computerized. In 1950, Alan Turing proposed the "Turing test" to test a software in how good it is in imitating a human. In that test a human has to communicate with said software via an interface hiding wether or not the human is talking to a computer or a human. After the test the participant has to state if he believes to have talked to a human or a computer. If the computer is indistinguishable from the human, then he would have won the Turing test. To this date, no software or computer system was able to complete this task repeadedly.

Problems and solutions[edit]

There are several problems by converting a speech or command to the text wanted. In a world with nearly 200 states and about 6000 languages it seems impossible to create a program that can handle them all. Especially when it comes to people not talking a specific language perfectly due to an accent, mumbling, different pronunciation or just bad articulation. Additionally there can be sounds that the machine should not interpret as speech like echos, background noises or variations in speed or volume of the speaker. A speech recognition program needs to handle all this things or have a solution to solve it.

One of the possible solutions for the amount of different languages is a speaker dependent system with a preset of main languages, where the individual user has to speak certain sentences to teach the program his/her articulation of the phonemes, before he/she can use the program the first time. During the use of the program it leans the users speech type as well because of the corrections he is making to the suggested text.

Another solution is the use of a robot interaction language ( ROILA ) which was specifically created to be easy to lean for humans and also easy to understand for machines.

For the problem of noise and volume the speech recognition software can use normalising algorithms and noise-cancelers which detect unhuman sounds and lowers its specific volume to extract the real speech. This needs a huge amount of processing power which leads so a delay between speaking and interpreting the command depending on the power of the used algorithms and computers.

Future goals are a huger variety of preset languages and dialects as well as better algorithms leading to nearly real-time translation between human and machine.

Example: Hearsay II[edit]

The Hearsay II is a speech recognition AI, which analyses the spoken language, by using different smaller programs, which are grouped into seven layers. The first layer is called parameter layer, here the spoken language gets separated into smaller segments. These segments then go into the segment layer, the second layer, and are sorted into syllables. The next layer summarizes them into words, these words are then summarized again into word combinations. The next layer tries to understand these word combinations, if the combination passes this test, they are converted into phrases. These phrases are then marked either as complete or they get extended. Also the phrases are then combined into a sentence that matches with the machines grammatical knowledge. The last layer determines if the process is complete by comparing the result with additional parameters given by the first layer, if the result is sufficient the program stops and gives out the answer, if not it restarts the procedure. In each of the layers a verification program controls the input and output given to and taken from the layers, if this program identifies a mistake or a contradiction it aborts the procedure and starts it again from the last point without mistake.

Example: Siri[edit]

Siri is an personal assistant and uses natural language user interface to answer question, making actions or recommending something. The software adapts the preferences from the user overtime and personalizes results. It supports 19 languages and got introduced in iOS 5 on the IPhone 4S. It uses voice recognition from Nuance and their partners. The original American voice used by Siri is from Susan Bennett.

Robotic voice / Speech synthesis[edit]

Speech synthesis is a technology that can convert text information in normal speech. With the development of "smart machines", this technology is becoming increasingly important.

Speech synthesizers can be used in completely different areas, and are used to solve many problems, ranging from "reading" of books, production of "talking" toys, ads stops in the public transport systems or support services,and ending medicine (here it is worth remembering about Stephen Hawking-using a voice synthesizer to communicate with the world.)


most important properties of a voice synthesizer are how natural and understandable it sounds.

Concatenative synthesis[edit]

Concatenative synthesis is based on stringing together pieces of recorded speeches. In order of doing so the speeches have to be segmented into syllables, words, phrases, etc and put into a database. Normally it is the most natural-sounding synthesized speech.

Format synthesis[edit]

Format synthesis is also called “rules-based synthesis”. It does not use human speech sample for creating an artificial voice, that is why it can not be mistaken for a human voice. Instead it uses additive synthesis(rules to create timbre by adding sine waves together) and physical modelling synthesis(method to create a waveform of a sound to simulate a physical source). Regardless of the produced inhuman voice generally it is understandable even at high speeds. Programms based on format synthesis are usually smaller because they do not use huge databases like programs based on concatenative.

Autonomous driving cars / Google Car[edit]

Google Car is a self-driving car, which software-system is based on artificial intelligence. Furthermore there are systems used, which are actually used in the car industry today, like the lane departure warning system, emergency break assistent and the automatic parking assistant. These systems work only with cameras and radar sensors but in Google Car are obviously other sensors added, because with only these sensors the car would not keep on the track.

The term "autonomous vehicle" includes further trucks, agricultural tractors and military vehicles without the driver's influence or without driver at all. An autonomous car is also known as a driverless car, self-driving car, auto, or robotic car.

Autonomous cars can understand and analyze their environment through various sensors and the information achieved about their position and the other road users, in cooperation with the navigation software, make them capable to determine exactly the destination and avoid collisions along the way. Currently, many of the major car manufacturers are already investing worldwide in the development of autonomous cars, at the same time electronics and semiconductor industry are doing their best to afford the development of technologies in order to support as much as they can the car industry. Through various levels of automation generally from 2025 is targeted the full automation of new cars(with driver from 2030 also as robots taxis without driver), which should be accompained with a parallel law regulation reform.

The Sensors[edit]

So there is a GPS sensor used in addition with tachometers, altimeters and a gyroscope, to be more accurate than only GPS. Another sensor is the wheel control, to measure the position of objects and persons beside the car, which are close to the vehicle. It controls the position on the track and the movements of the car. Different to the radar sensors in cars used today, it only monitors the position of other vehicles and fast moving objects. It can see far enough to deal with fast traffic, so that the system in the car can react early enough without to risk an accident. Video Cameras detect the traffic lights and road signs, then the computer analyzes them. The laser is the most important component of Google Car. It is called Lidar and was invented, of course from the Google engineers, for a DARPA challenge from 2005 for a kind of Rally Dakar for autonomous vehicles. This laser is always turning in a circle so that a 3D map of the environment around the car can be created. With this map it is possible to identify edges of the road and pedestrians walking on the street. Furthermore the on-board computer combines high resolution maps of the world with the created 3D map and its measurements.

Problems[edit]

Obviously the engineers have to solve different problems concerning the used sensors and traffic laws. If the car drives in snowy areas, the sensors around the car can not detect track lines or traffic signs which are hided behind snow. Humans could identify a traffic sign by its contours but for the sensors and the computer system it is not so easy to make it possible to do this, because the system does not know if this could be a sign or something else which has the same contours. Furthermore there are licenses needed to drive the car on public roads. The first US-state which allowed this was Nevada, but there has to be a safety driver behind the wheel, with a current driver license.

Reasons of building Google Car[edit]

The autonomous driving car is safer, because it can react faster than any human could. It sees more of what is happening around the car and it prevents accidents. The car is more efficient in two aspects. The first one is that it reduces the fuel consumption because the computer controls everything, so a kind of motormapping is used, which means that less fuel is used, by the same speed, but with less quickening. The second aspect is that the empty on the street is could be used better, while the car drives near to the front driving car. So in much traffic the can drive faster than we can do now.

Flying-Robots[edit]

A modern passenger airliner is essentially a flying robot, with two humans to manage it. The autopilot can control the plane for each stage of the journey, including takeoff, normal flight, and even landing. Other flying robots are uninhabited, and are known as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). They can be smaller and lighter without a human pilot on board, and fly into dangerous territory for military surveillance missions. Some can even fire on targets under command. UAVs are also being developed which can fire on targets automatically, without the need for a command from a human. Other flying robots include cruise missiles, the Entomopter, and the Epson micro helicopter robot. Robots such as the Air Penguin, Air Ray, and Air Jelly have lighter-than-air bodies, propelled by paddles, and guided by sonar.

Snaking-Robots[edit]

Several snake robots have been successfully developed. Mimicking the way real snakes move, these robots can navigate very confined spaces, meaning they may one day be used to search for people trapped in collapsed buildings. The Japanese ACM-R5 snake robot can even navigate both on land and in water.

Android[edit]

Repliee Q2, an actroid

Android refers to a humanoid robot which was designed to aesthetically resemble humans, detailed to the point of having a flesh-like resemblance. Although android was mostly used in fiction, modern scientific advances has made it possible to built a functional and realistic humanoid robot.

Androids are used as research tools in some scientific area such as human-robot or robot-enviroment interactions. It has been suggested that very advanced robotics will facilitate the enhancement of ordinary humans, for more information, see Transhumanism. The attempt of creating a human-like body also leads to a better understanding of it.

Besides the research, androids are also being developed to perform human task like personal assistance, for example: assisting the sick and elderly, being a receptionist. They can also provide entertainment too, an android can sings, play music and dances.

Notable Project:

  • Actroid: An android with strong visual human-likeness developed by Osaka University.
  • BINA48: One of the most shockingly realistic androids ever made, created and programmed by David Hanson of Terasem Movement.
  • EveR: a series of female androids developed by a team of South Korean scientists from the Korea Institute of Industrial Technology in Korea University of Science and Technology. The danroids can express human emotion, have a conversation in Korean and English, lip-sync to a song.




Gesture Recognition[edit]

Gesture recognition can be seen as a way for computers to begint to understand human body language. Gesture recognition enables humans to communicate with the machine and interact naturally without any mechanical devices. It can be conducted witch techniques from computer vision and image processing.

Rui Yan and co-workers at the A*STAR Institute for Infocomm Research in Singapore have adapted a cognitive memory model called a localist attractor network (LAN) to develop a new system that recognize gestures quickly and accurately, and requires very little training.

Yan and his co-workers used ShapeTape, a special jacket that uses fibre optics and inertial sensors to monitor the bending and twisting of hands and arms. The ShapeTape provides data 80 times per second.

They are currently building a new recognition system with the help of a Microsoft Kinect camera. [5]

Technologies[edit]

Voice recognition[edit]

The robots are control via natural voice language voice commands.For this feature he needs an electronic ears and a big database of human language that means with the words, which have to used by the machine in right structure. With a special software it translates the speech into numbers, the language of the machines and the robot will implement the command. The voice recognition in the health care:

"In the health care domain, speech recognition can be implemented in front-end or back-end of the medical documentation process. Front-End speech recognition is where the provider dictates into a speech-recognition engine, the recognized words are displayed as they are spoken, and the dictator is responsible for editing and signing off on the document. Back-End or deferred speech recognition is where the provider dictates into a digital dictation system, the voice is routed through a speech-recognition machine and the recognized draft document is routed along with the original voice file to the editor, where the draft is edited and report finalised. Deferred speech recognition is widely used in the industry currently. " "dd"

Bionics[edit]

Bionics is a combination of technologies between biology and engineering. It solves problems of any kind by copying mechanics from the nature and integrating them in machines, robots, tools etc.[6] The best examples are the Velcro which is inspired by the burdock and the lotus effect in car finish. Studies and notes of Leonardo da Vinci show that he observed birds and the mechanics of their wings and transferred it to his drawings. He is often referred as the first bionic engineer. The US Department of Defense works together with a development firm on military robots. They designed and named a robot after the African big cat cheetah. Due to its body construction the robot reaches a speed up to 45,5 km/h.[7]

Sensor bionics[edit]

Sensor bionics is a part of bionics. It deals with the task of measuring physical and chemical stimuli and how to make it comprehensible for our minds. Also location and orientation belong to this field of science.

Example: The bat is a nocturnal animal. It locates its food with a sonar system. The system is similar to that of the radar. They generate ultrasound and emit the sound through the open mouth. The surrounding reflects those echoes and the Bat now calculate how long the difference is. This method is used in many devices to measure distances e.g. parking sensors.

Mechanical components[edit]

Robots nowadays have a lot of components and structure. Some components of a robot are for example:

The control unit which monitors and give the movement and the action which is to do to the robot.

The drive unit which moves the limbs of the robot. The drive can be electrical, hydraulic or pneumatic.


Manipulation[edit]

How a robot can control things:

Robot arms[edit]

Notable open source arms:

MeArm 0.4, CC-BY-SA, For sale as at [Kickstarter] [Thingiverse] [Phenoptix, designer/manufacturer/seller], many other sellers locally

Lite Arm i2, CC-BY-SA as at [Thingiverse] [ArmaDynamics, designer/maker]

RARM, CC-BY-SA as at [Thingiverse] [Oomlout] 6 year old design

Not commercial: UArm, CC BY-NC, For sale [Ufactory website], as at [Kickstarter], Laser cut plans at [Thingiverse]

Robot claws[edit]

Ideal for your Remote Operated Vehicle [OpenROV] and [Space Apps Challenge]

Sensory[edit]

A Sensor is defined by its ability to convert physical information (colors, temperature, sound and pressure for examples), into measurable signals (mostly electronic today). Those signals mostly differ by voltage. For accuracy, they are mostly calibrated against known standards. There are passive and active sensors. Active sensors are creating the electric signal themselves, while passive sensors require a source of electricity to work.

Sensors are used to let robots gather information about their environment. Sensors represent the human senses in a robot, which means they can enable a robot to touch, hear or see. With the use of chemical mechanisms robots can even be evolved to smell or taste. There are different sensor categories:

  1. Visual sensors such as cameras or photo diodes, which represent the human sense of vision.
    • Method - The visual sensing system can be based on anything from the traditional camera, sonar, and laser to the new technology radio frequency identification (RFID), which transmits radio signals to a tag on an object that emits back an identification code. All four methods aim for three procedures—sensation, estimation, and matching.
    • Image processing - Image quality is important in applications that require excellent robotic vision. Algorithm based on wavelet transform for fusing images of different and different foci improves image quality. Robots can gather more accurate information from the resulting improved image.
    • Usage - Visual sensors help robots to identify the surrounding and take appropriate action. Robots analyze the image of the immediate environment imported from the visual sensor. The result is compared to the ideal intermediate or end image, so that appropriate movement can be determined to reach the intermediate or final goal.
  2. Tactile sensors such as bumpers or button, which represent the human sense of touch. Additionally some tactile sensors can sense vibration.
    • Signal processing - Touch sensory signals can be generated by the robot’s own movements. It is important to identify only the external tactile signals for accurate operations. Previous solutions employed the Wiener filter, which relies on the prior knowledge of signal statistics that are assumed to be stationary. Recent solution applies an adaptive filter to the robot’s logic. It enables the robot to predict the resulting sensor signals of its internal motions, screening these false signals out. The new method improves contact detection and reduces false interpretation.
    • Usage - Touch patterns enable robots to interpret human emotions in interactive applications. Four measurable features—force, contact time, repetition, and contact area change—can effectively categorize touch patterns through the temporal decision tree classifier to account for the time delay and associate them to human emotions with up to 83% accuracy. The Consistency Index is applied at the end to evaluate the level of confidence of the system to prevent inconsistent reactions. Robots use touch signals to map the profile of a surface in hostile environment such as a water pipe. Traditionally, a predetermined path was programmed into the robot. Currently, with the integration of touch sensors, the robots first acquire a random data point. The algorithm of the robot will then determine the ideal position of the next measurement according to a set of predefined geometric primitives. This improves the efficiency by 42%.
  3. Acoustic sensors such as microphones, which represent the human sense of hearing.
  4. Biosensors that function with the use of chemistry to represent the human senses of smell and taste.
  5. Distance sensors to provide security for human beings while a robot works among them in example.

Even with a hugh variety of sensors, it is still difficult to simulate human senses. The difference between a sense and a sensor is, that one sensor can't simulate one human sense. In order to simulate senses, a humanoid robot would need a big surface full of different sensors, which is very difficult to build without removing a humanoid look.

Development[edit]

In 1982, companies started using the first electric sensors to measure pressure, the companies developed piezoresistive pressure sensors and started to work with semiconductors next. Meanwhile all leading companies started settings standards for sensors. From 1990 - 1999 the first digital sensors were developed and later produced, with digital signals they could start to use microprocessors to increase precision. Between 2000 - 2004 sensors got improved to work with automation processes, so companies started to built scaled-down versions of sensors. The last years sensors started to get cheaper and even smaller and are now common tools in electric devices in a usual human life, like in smartphones and other devices.

Future prospects[edit]

Sensors are used today to built devices and robots, but only non humanoid robots. Creating a robot that can sense things exactly like a human would be the next big step in robotics. One of the main goals for sensor development is to unify many small sensors into a huge network to start simulating human senses better. Another interesting field is the development of an artificial brain, which would eventually enable a robot to sense actual feelings.[8]

Locomotion[edit]

Locomotion (latin: locus "place" and motio "movement") describes the way machines are moving. Robot can actually use many different technologies to move.

  • wheels
  • propellers (drones)
  • legs
  • wings
  • HyDRAS[9]
  • whole skin

Degrees of Freedom (DoF)[edit]

The degrees of freedom indicate how versatile a machine is in a three-dimensional room. There are mainly six DoF necessary for a full movable robot arm.

  1. move up and down
  2. move left and right
  3. yaw: turn left and right
  4. move forward and backward
  5. pitch: tilt forward and backward
  6. roll: tilt side to side

In most cases a robot with more joints has a higher DoF and better motion capabilities. A human hand has 22 DoF because it has 22 joints.

If a robot has 2 identical arms the DoF is doubled, so a humanoid robot has many more DoF because there are more joints in its hands, arms, legs, torso and head.

"Project Nao"[10] for example is a human like robot, which has 25 DoF.

Accuracy[edit]

The accuracy is the smallest step or motion a robot can do. It is the difference between the planed position and the actual position archived.

Absolute accuracy

Absolute accuracy is the difference between the planed position and the actual position while repeating the same motion.

Resolution

The resolution is the smallest step a robot can detect. [11]

Power Supply[edit]

There are two different ways to charge a robot. This depends on either the robot is mounted or mobile.

Mounted: One example for mounted robots is a car manufacturing robot that mounts vehicles automatically and without any humanity influence. Usually these have no battery to get energy but are included in the energy network.

Mobile: Here are the difference that makes it difficult to let work robots for many hours days or even days because the power supply has also to be mobile and thereby need to be small enough so that the mobility would not been squeezed. For normal sized robots that problem could be solved well but one with a ton of sensors need to get so much power that the battery would discharge within a small timespan. A very good instance to illustrate the problems are smartphones. Those are not robots but need much energy to survive one or two days.

Self replacing robots[edit]

A self-replacing machine has the ability to make a copy of itself using raw materials found in its environment.

Basic Concept: In order to be able to replace itself the machine consists out of nanorobots which can be produced from found materials. This step will. Most likely be happening in a special factory. The produced nanobots than assemble themselves into bigger machines which collect materials or do other assigned work and which will be able to maintain themselves.

Self replacing 3D printer: In 2005 researchers developed a 3D printer capable of printing most of the parts needed to assemble a new printer, exception being all electrical components. Their goal was to make 3D printers more affordable.

Navigation and Environmental interaction[edit]

They are different robots which are not human controlled or operate in a static environment. there is an increasing interest in robots that can operate autonomously in many different ways. These robots require some combination of navigation hardware and software in order to traverse their environment by their self. People and other obstacles that are not stationary can cause problems or collisions. Some highly advanced robots such as ASIMO (Advanced Step in Innovative MObility, is a humanoid robot designed and developed by Honda), and Meinü robot have particularly good robot navigation hardware and software. Most of these robots employ a GPS navigation device with waypoints, along with radar, sometimes combined with other sensory data such as LIDAR, video cameras, and inertial guidance systems for better navigation between waypoints. Another possibility is "Robotic mapping", the goal for an autonomous robot to be able to construct (or use) a map or floor plan and to localize itself in it.

Software component[edit]

Open-source design[edit]

The material needed for the creation and construction of a robot sometimes is available under an open-source license. This can include blueprints, schematics and the source code for the software component. With the increasing size of the Do-It-Yourself (DIY) community this design aspect of robotics played a bigger and bigger role over the last years. Robots with many different fields of application use the free and open concept with several advantages. Due to the omission of expensive, proprietary licenses the costs for the construction as well as development of a robot can often be heavily decreased. This also allows for a higher flexibility during the building process and modifiability of the machine itself. Developers can draw on help and support from a huge and active community even though more specialized demands might not always be satisfied that easily. The open-source design approach can also help beginners to immerse into the world of robotics more easily as production kits are available. This means that everyone can create robots despite his skill and experience level.

Today open-source robots are used for a variety of different things like communication aid, rapid prototyping, transportation and PCB production. In the scientific world they also serve as research and measurement helpers. [12]

Difference virtual and artificial intelligence[edit]

Virtual intelligence is aimed to make intelligent decisions based on the virtual environments built around it. Artificial intelligence is used to interact to much broader extent. The central problems of AI include such traits as reasoning, knowledge, learning, perception, ability to move and manipulate objects. It can be said, that aim of the AI-concept is to put a simulation of a real brain into a program, but since scientists still do not understand processes involving human brain and how to simulate in a program such traits as creativity, morality or faith, it is not possible to built an authentic AI as for now. Experts agree that creation of AI is possible, but they quite often disagree on when will it happen, with time frame starting in several years and reaching several thousand of years. What people can do is to built a virtual intelligence. The difference is that a virtual intelligence is predetermined, it can follow its programming, recognize patterns and make decisions following a code, but for AI concept to work it should make its own decisions.

Working routine[edit]

SLAM - Simultaneous localisation and mapping[edit]

[13] This method shows how robots can create maps, while they locate themselves inside the map. The ability to locate itself is pretty fundamental to robots that are able to travel in an area. By using sensors such as ultrasound the robot can locate close by objects and create a map of it's surrounding region.

It is necessary that certain robots have SLAM because in some places GPS is not perfectly able to locate the robots position. By having the ability to map its location on the go, the robot saves time and is also able to react to newly upcoming objects which would not be possible if the map was generated beforehand. A variety of scientific research groups are working on this ability.

The approach is basically the following. The first step is for the robot to build a coordinate system in which he defines the origin. From this position on the robot locates himself a little further, so he still has familiar surroundings but also a part that he needs to measure and add to his map. From the overlapping measurement of the new map and the familiar map, the new location of the robot is then known. The map can be expanded incremental with this technique until the map is complete.

Emotions[edit]

Artificial emotions

Artificial emotions are sequences of facial expressions and gestures. The programming of these emotions are difficult, because it requires many information about a human being. There are special software programs with which presets can be created. Film producers are using that kind of software programs for their movies and the presets can also be used for robots in real life. Emotion is a concept increasingly used in designing autonomous robotic agents, especially for allowing the satisfaction of basic conditions crucial to the robot survival, for responding emotionally to situations experienced in the world and to humans interacting with it. But psychological evidence also suggests that emotion plays an important role in managing social interactions in groups. This document also outlines research issues that need to be addressed to validate the usefulness of the concept of artificial emotion in social robotics. A foreign intelligence only is existentially threatening for us humans, if it has at least a minimum of emotions. Because if they consisted only of pure logic, their behavior would be predictable and ultimately manageable.

Interaction[edit]

Robot - Human[edit]

Today many tasks are completed with the combination of human intelligence and the skills of robots. Robots can complete tasks much faster and more precise than human, but have no real intelligence. Otherwise human are intelligent but are not able to complete tasks as fast or precise as robots. That’s the reason why human and robots can interact very well. In many areas the combination of human and robots are already in use. One of this areas is the medicine: The robot "DaVinci" is used to operate human at sensitive areas of the body because it’s more precise. Another area is the manufacturing: Robots do monotonous production steps very fast. Thats the reason why robots help companies to be more productive. That are only two examples of the advantages of a good interaction between man and robots. The aim in the future is to improve the interaction between robots and human. That allows human to work very well together with robots, because this makes life much easier and more comfortable in some situations.

Safety

The safety-guidelines for robots resulting from the respective area of application and the type of the robot. Industrial robots are saved by statutory safeguards, such as cages, grids, light barriers, light curtains or other barriers. With increasing autonomy complex robot systems need customized security precautions. Due to the diverse use of robots, it is difficult to establish universal security-rules for all kinds of robots. The science-fiction-author Isaac Asimov established three laws in his novels "Three (or four) Rules of Robotics". The Three Laws are: 1. A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm. 2. A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with the First Law. 3. A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law But robots are not calculable for unpredictable situations, so these rules can only be understood as ethical guidelines for a possible programming. The more autonomous a robot acts in the human environment, the bigger the possibility that humans, animals or objects will come to harm. The group of robots include autonomous weapon or reconnaissance systems like smart bombs, unmanned drones, surveillance robot or futuristic autonomous combat robots. If such dangerous machinery used for warfare, the question of ethical values in programming is possibly superfluous. It turns out that the demand for universal security laws for all purposes and types of robots is a difficult problem to be solved clearly. The consideration of ethical values in the use of robots is not an issue to which humanity will only face in the future. Even today people are deliberately injured or killed by acting autonomously machines directly or indirectly. Most accidents with robots occur during maintenance or programming of the robot, rather than in common operation.

Cyborgs

Cyborgs are hybrid creatures, which are compound of organist and mechanical material. Mostly defined as humans that have mechanical body parts. The word cyborg is a acronym and means cybernetic organism. Because of the fact, that cyborgs are technical reworked humans, they don’t fit under the definition robots.

Lifetime

Robots have different lifetime. According as the type of robot they are or what area they are applied changes the life. For example, mechanical robots which are widely used in industry, have a much short life span (10-12 years), when compared with the life of Siri. And this is only relevant, if you are checked regularly. But even if these robots are usable they wouldn’t be no longer function as good as it should be. Siri is based on a program and therefore has an "infinite" life. It would work as long as the mobile phone (iPhone) is functional.

Facial Expressions

An important part in human interaction is nonverbal communication, mainly through facial expressions. While robot - human interaction is mostly one-sided today, a great deal of research is put into creating humanoid robots that look and behave like humans.

Kismet

One of the first and best-known robots that was created to mimic and understand human emotions through facial expressions is "Kismet" (from Turkish "fate" or "luck"). It was created in the late 1990s at MIT. It consists of a head to which are attached eyes, lips, eyebrows, eyelids and ears. Moving these parts allows Kismet to create 14 different expressions. It can also detect and understand a range of human behaviours, like speech patterns. It has a motion senser and can detect the distance of objects in front of it, and react accordingly. [14]

Affetto

Affetto is a robot modeled after a one- or two year old child and was developed to study human intelligence and social interaction. It can create a few expressions and was developed to help make interaction between caregivers and the robot-child more natural.

Geminoid

The "Geminoids" are a series of human-looking robots modeled after and connected to existing persons. They are used to research the "presence" of people, what conveys authority and atmosphere. They aren’t completely autonomous and intelligent, but are connected to their models and controlled remotely. [15]

Robot - Robot[edit]

The running interaction between robots is the run of cases. If a defined case is pass, run this order. This cases are very complex, most of the time and often they have to match other parameters. Most time the interaction between two robots hast to be planned, because they cannot really think on their own and deceide what to do. So "unplanned" interactions do not happen that often, because they are mostly mistakes in programming. Intereaction between robots can be imagined as an case of Automata theory: If there is a state that can be reached by the happening action, the other robot can react. But if there is no reachable state, the robot is not able to interact.

Personality[edit]

In films and novels, it’s not rare that robots have a personality. Important a personality would be, for example, so that people can build trust and a bond to robots in order to trust them in work. An example of this would be robots that work in the elderly. In all other areas, a personality of a disadvantage because they could thereby be less productive or even the execution of work would be denied. Still, it’s not possible to give artificial beings emotions and personality-but the goal of science is clear: robots are able to communicate and recognize his ability to learn and have remembrance assets.

How robots learn[edit]

Robots can only learn from human beings, not by themselves. You can train (program) a robot to decide by a pattern of options what to do on specific situations. By themselves, they are not able to decide on creativity or depending on feelings. This makes robots much safer, because they would never start to cry and refuse to do for what they are programmed for. Robots can only decide by pattern and logical conclusions which a robot has got programmed from a human. A big advantage is, that, if a robot has to handle a situation that it doesn’t know because you’ve forget to program what it should be able to handle, it would just do nothing than do something creative you don’t want.


Ethics[edit]

Risks and Dangers[edit]

Security directives for robot arise from the respective area of application and the robot type. Robots are secured by legally prescribed safety measures like cages, grids, light barriers or other barriers. Nevertheless, with increasing autonomy present or future, more complicated robot systems according to the circumstances need conformist safety measures. Nevertheless, by the varied application of robots it is difficult to put up universal security rules for all robots. The more autonomous a robot operates in the sphere of the person, the greater is the probability that living beings or objects will come to damage. Also the image is argumentative that robots can offer to the person protection – not least on account of the unsharpness of the concept Protection. The fact that here no absolute values can be programmed, appears in parallel in the discussion about the tension relation between protection and paternalism. These problems are picked out as a central theme, for example, in the film I, Robot where on grounds of a calculated "probability of survival" a man is saved by a robot from a car overthrown in the water, while a child drowns in an also sinking car. A person would probably have acted instead of reason of an abstract probability of survival rather after ethical-moral principles and first would have saved the child. Most accidents with robots originate during the servicing or programming of the robot, not possibly in the regulated company. On the 21st of July, 1984 the first person was killed in Michigan by a robot. The robot moved work pieces of a die-casting machine. The 34 year-old factory worker had already concluded 15 years of working experience in the die casting and only three weeks before the accident a one-week robot training. He was pressed between the putatively sure back of the robot and a steel post to death when he climbed against every warning in the danger area of the robot to remove scattered production leftovers. The American Nationwide institutes for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) offer directives for robot construction, training and instructions of the employees.


Treatment of robots[edit]

As robots will have their own internal states such as motivation and emotion we shouldn’t abuse them. We will have to treat them then in the same way that we take care of our pets even if they are human like robots.

A study in Germany has confirmed that humanlike robots who act like humans are treated more seriously than non humanlike robots.

Another study regarding the treatment of robots, conducted by Kate Darling shows that humans are very likely to empathize with these machines or even build emotional bonds.[16] It is suggested that people feel empathy with artificial beings as long as looks like it is alive, with its own mind or some sort of emotional cues. There is a case of a robot specifically designed to clear minefields. During one of its live-fire test were it would walk through a minefield and getting it limbs blown off an army colonel stopped the trial because he felt that this test was to inhumane.[17] Another example would be the workshop Kate Darling organized. In this workshop participants would play with a Pleo toy dinosaur for around an hour. After this hour they were supposed to kill or rather destroy it. The attendees couldn’t do it and the emotional respond, despite the fact that everyone was aware that these little social robots weren’t alive or couldn’t feel pain, was overwhelming. [18][19]

It could be mean that humans can build relationships with robots and change the society instantly.

So people will build for sure a personal relationship to human like robots and treat them for example as a friend, butler or a sex toy and i think they will even marry them for sure because nowadays people already started to marry " object ".

Roboethics[edit]

The term describes the application of ethics to robots. Moreover, roboethics point out how humans should build, handle and use robots. The production of robots increased and their area of application became enormously big. Robots were not more tools as at the beginning but they became partner of humans. The first meeting about roboethics was in Sanremo (Italy) in the year 2004.

Machine ethics[edit]

Machine ethics is a field of artificial intelligence concerned with the moral behaviour of robots and other artificial intelligent beings. The underlying question of how robots can be made to behave well was already considered in early robotics science fiction, such as Asimov's (further discussed below). One precondition for this question to arise is the existence, or at least prospect, of autonomous and somewhat intelligent robots. Machine ethics emerged as a serious field of study because researchers suspect that machines are approaching this fiction at least partially, though sentience or higher intelligence is ruled unlikely[20]. Of particular concern are military robots that could decide to kill autonomously[21]. Handling ethical concerns in artificial intelligence software affects the approach to learning. One proposal is the use of decision trees, which would provide clear-cut and transparent rules for all circumstances, leading to predictable behaviour[22]. One downside of this approach is that it omits the diversity found in the decision making process of successful human groups[23].

Three laws of robotic from Isaac Asimov[edit]

Isaac Asimov wrote in 1942 the short story "Runaround" which contained the three laws of robotic which are:

  1. A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.
  2. A robot must obey the orders given to it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.
  3. A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.

These laws are not usable now because our robots are not that advanced today there are only safety instructions on how to program a robot. Our robots do not think on their own, therefore there is no need to let the robot decide.

But even when the time comes where robots think on their own the implementation of Asimov's laws will be nearly impossible. A robot that is advanced enough will most likely find a way to bypass these laws, regardless of the way they got implemented. If the laws are simply programmed the robot may find a way to just ignore them by preventing the code to execute. A hardware-based approach seems like the logical way to enforce the laws onto a robot, however, even if the robot can’t find a way to take out the hardware-based laws it may just create a copy of itself without implementing the laws.

Later Isaac Asimov added on more Law and to keep the hierarchical command structure he named it the "zeroth law" [24].

 0. A robot may not harm humanity, or, by inaction, allow humanity to come to harm.

However, the zeroth law gives the robot the possibility to bypass all following laws and harm a human when it decides it’s for the sake of humanity. Although this law could be considered useful to allow robots to stop humans from performing harmful actions it poses a major threat to humanity itself because a robot gets the possibility do decide when it’s alright to kill a human being. A short example: Robots may come to the decision that armies pose a threat to humanity and start to annihilate all armies. Although this may be a logical thought it will most likely result in a greater threat to humanity than the armies itself.

Ethical questions[edit]

There are many ethical questions which should be ask. Mankind should first answer the main questions before producing humanoid robots which really look like a human in crowds. Then we should hold elections about the laws of robotics. But we only have to do this if we are able to create humanoids with their own intelligence so that they work autonomously like many movies and books show us.

The laws in the future should handle some of the following questions:

  • Should there be humanoid (android) robots?
  • Should humanoid robots be handled as slaves or as friends?
  • Should human robotics have their own rights?
  • Where should we use human robots?
  • Should humanoids used in war?

Robots and humans in the future[edit]

Even though speculating about how a future society where humans and robots can live together may look like tends to be controversial, many experts like Hans Moravec or Ray Kurzweil predicted that a future in that way would never exist. The explanation is that it would not make much sense at all for the human race to create and simulate intelligent forms of life that could be superior to it in terms of physical and mental abilities.

So they presented an alternate possibility to a future where a joint society between humans and robots does exist. From a scientific perspective it would be more likely that humans would try to merge with machine parts to convert themselves into cyborgs, increasing their own capabilitys.

Security and Dangers for Human and Robot[edit]

Although robots offer very new and helpful opportunities for humans, it could also be possible, that one day robots will be able to harm humans and act against us. We imagine a world where robots can clean our house, bring us food and manage our household. But movies like I, Robot showed us, what could actually happen, when a machine takes control of its creator. Scientist said, that this could happen. It could be very dangerous having a robot in our house acting with sharp knives to prepare our food, when just a small software mistake decides, which meat the robot is going to cut. Even some german researchers warned of that risk. [8]

The Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics, which is part of DLR, the German aerospace center, in Wessling, Germany , studied on a robot, which uses different knives against human tissue. [9]

This robot works without a collision detector. The results are disastrous: YouTube. The robot plunges and cuts a lump of silicon, a pig’s leg and a volunteer’s arm.

The fact, that lots of movies face on a robot taking control over its creators, shows us that many humans fear this situation, which could become a real problem in our future. Another very popular machine is Skynet, which is a fictional artificial intelligence in the Terminator movies. The main goal of this machine is to erase the human race. [10]

Robotic in Science Fiction[edit]

Books[edit]

In 1921 the word robot is used for the first time in Karel Čapek’s book "Rossum’s Universal Robots". Afterwards the well known science fiction author Isaac Asimov who created the three laws of robotics utilized the word in his book "Robbie", written in 1939. "Robbie" his first robot story which is one of the collection of nine science fiction short story, named I, Robot. This collection comprised the following short stories: [25]

  • "Robbie"
  • "Runaround"
  • "Reason"
  • "Catch the Rabbit"
  • "Liar!"
  • "Little Lost Robot"
  • "Escape!"
  • "Evidence"
  • "The Evitable Conflict!"


- list of fictional robots and androids

Videogames[edit]

Halo 1-4[edit]

Halo Acts in the future with a deep friendship between a soldier named John and an AI called Cortana. John wants to help Cortana because it is almost expired. In the halo universe AI’s live 7 years without problems and Cortana is already 8 years old.

Crysis[edit]

Crysis[26] takes place in the year 2020. Nanosuits (Also known as Nano-Muscle Suits) are powerful and extremely versatile sets of tactical combat armor designed to counter the dormant Ceph threat and circumvent the technological margin between Humanity and the Ceph. Reverse- engineered from captured Ceph technology the suit’s CryFibril (Artificial muscle fibers) can be programmed for a variety of purposes (Such as hardening to absorb more damage, muscle augmentation, or invisibility), leading to drastically enhanced combat and physical performance, allowing the operator to execute super-human feats. This is permitted through the suit’s ability to adapt and absorb energy in myriad forms ranging from heat, solar, radiation, static, kinetic, and even carbon. These suits are the pinnacle, and the most technologically advanced piece of equipment within human hands as of the year 2020 (By 2023, it was surpassed by the Nanosuit 2.0) capable of rivalling even Ceph technology. Prophet’s Nanosuit has the ability to use Ceph Weapons, for example the Pinch Rifle used by Ceph grunts, and Ceph reavers.

Mass Effect[edit]

Mass Effect is a trilogy of "Science Fiction Third Person Shooters" with a number of role-playing elements. These incorporate mechanics such as leveling and equipping your character as well as enabling the player to make decisions that range from being minor and meaningless up to a scale of permanently affecting the game’s world and story. Decisions like that are made throughout the trilogy and carry over from game to game resulting in a to some degree personalized gaming experience. In some cases game changing decisions can be made unwittingly since even inaction or for example angering a certain character in some way can result into events happening later that wouldn’t have happened without the influence of the player.

Plot: In year 2148 humanity was about to reach the outer edges of the Sol system and build a space station beyond Pluto’s orbit. However, technology of - to humanity - unknown origin was found on Mars. This technology proved to be highly advanced but salvageable and humanity was soon able to use it to its advantage. It improved human technology by several hundred years and enabled the human race to partake in faster than light space travel. This still not fully understood technology was called "Mass Effect".

The trilogy itself begins in the year 2183 and is told from a human perspective. It is not set in an alternate timeline or dimension meaning that the events that took place in our world up to the release of the first game also happened in the Mass Effect world’s past.

As the player you take control of the human Commander Shepard whose first name, combat style, appearance and biography you can alter. Combat style and biography also affect the game in a minor way as Commander Shepard may possess certain knowledge or skills that can be help- or harmful depending on what you chose. A technologically apt Shepard for example would be able to witness dialogue or do things with computers that a simple soldier wouldn’t.

Synthetic vs. Organic Life: Mass Effect’s society is one of many extremes as there are plenty of different species, robots and intelligences that inhabit the galaxy - all of them living together in a by FTL-Space-Travel connected Milky Way.

As Commander Shepard you travel across the galaxy on the overarching quest of stopping a machine race of at first unknown origin - the Reapers - that tries to destroy all organic life. During this quest you encounter many of the aforementioned extremes and conflicts on your attempt of gathering forces for the upcoming war. Two of the galaxy’s races are the Quarian and Geth.

The Geth were created by the Quarian to be intelligent interconnected machine slaves. At some point in Quarian history however the Geth gained consciousness through a programming error and became self-aware developing a form of machine hive mind and started questioning their existence and their Quarian creators. As an attempt of preventing a machine rebellion the Quarian tried to destroy all Geth leading into the Geth defending themselves against their creators. The Quarian lost that war and were driven from their homeworld becoming nomads living in giant space stations and ships.

Seeing the results of an Artificial Intelligence becoming self-aware the Galactic Council enforced a law that prohibits fully evolved Artificial Intelligences from being created.

A fairly large part of Mass Effect’s decision-making revolves around the question of synthetic life (as well as non-humanoid intelligences) being worth as much as organic life as throughout the trilogy Commander Shepard is time and again forced to take a stance in that debate leading to ethical questions being asked and answered by the player. Throughout the game you recruit and fight against several AIs resulting in conflict not only with the enemy but your own crew until in the end your standpoint regarding these ethical questions will drastically change the very outcome of the trilogy.

Portal[edit]

In Portal[27], the player plays a woman named Chell, who tries to escape the testing facilities of Aperture Science. The whole facility is controled by the AI GLaDOS (Genetic Lifeform and Disk Operating System). GLaDOS uses the Player as a test subject for scientific experiments. She has a female voice and killed everyone in the facility with nerv gas. The experiments are Rooms where the player has to reach the exit. Therefore he has to solve logical challenges with the Portal-Gun. The Portal Gun can create two Portals which are connected to each other. If one enters through the first portal, one leaves the second and vice versa. The player keeps his momentum as he crosses, which is the key to many of the challenges. The player manages to destroy GLaDOS, but gets pulled in the facility again.

Movies[edit]

WALL-E[edit]

In a future mankind has left Earth because it had become covered with trash. WALL-E is the last garbage collecting robot on Earth after 700 years of cleaning. During this long time he has learned to think on his own. In a movie he found in the trash he saw that it is the purpose of all intelligent creatures to fall in love. In a dystopian future it is possible that we will leave the Earth as well and send robots to clean up.

Surrogates - your second I[edit]

One another interesting science fiction version of the future is shown in the film surrogates from Jonathan Mostow. In this possibility of the future every single person on the world has a remotely-controlled androids called "surrogates" allows everyone to live in idealized forms from the safety of their homes. This surrogates looks like himself his owner and acting for him. The surrogates are controlled by their owner with a special couch and sensors glasses. This allows the owner to live his life through the surrogate. Jonathan Mostow shows in his film a future society where nobody has the fear about diseases, accidents, criminality or other options of a violent death, but the people loosing their humanity.

So in our own future we become more and more protected and replaced by machines or robots, which makes our life more comfortable, but we also become dependent on machines, which makes us vulnerable and we can lose some parts of our abilities and humanity.

I,Robot[edit]

I, Robot[28] is a fascinating movie directed by Alex Proyas. It shows a possible future where robots are used as servants to the humans, able to help with almost everything.Those robots are programmed with 3 Laws to make them unable to harm humans:

First Law: A robot must never harm a human being or, through inaction, allow any human to come to harm.
Second Law: A robot must obey the orders given to them by human beings, except where such orders violate the First Law.
Third Law: A robot must protect its own existence unless this violates the First or Second Laws.

The creator of the Robots, Dr. Alfred Lenning dies and while everyone is calling it suicide, detective Del Spooner, a friend of the said creator and possessor of a robotic prosthetic arm (given to him by Dr Lenning because he lost his own in a car accident)starts to investigate the case. A robot named sonny appears to be implicated in the case though he would have to be able to violate the three laws to do so. All investigations lead to the one end where VIKI, the main computer system and kinetic intelligence behind all of the robots starts a revolution, using all robots against humanity. Detective Spooner, Sonny and Dr Calvin, who was aiding the investigations, manage to destroy Viki, deflecting the revolution.

The movie shows how things can go terribly wrong if we tend to rely on artificial intelligence too much and that everything has to have its limitations to make it liable. Though all robots have been limited with use of the three laws, they hadnt been perfect enough to make it liable.

Bicentennial Man[edit]

In this Film the protagonist is a household robot who acts kind a suspicious, this is recognized from its owner and on this way the robot gets the right to do what he want. On its journey he gets more and more human until he gets married and chooses to die like a real human. On its way he gets more and more experience and parts build in that make him more human and even getting children is part of his life.

Real Steel[edit]

Real Steel[29] is also a film about robots but they act differently in it, then in most of all films. It is set in the year 2020 where normal boxing has expired a while ago. Instead a new sport called robot boxing has come forth. The interesting thing is, that the robots have no "mind" on their own. The actual players now stand at the side of the ring and control the robots via a remote control with voice commands or buttons. So in this future robots are just used for entertainment and fun. It could be a possible pre-stage of the robots that are seen in "I, Robot" or "Surrogates". An age where robots are just toys and nothing more, right before humans teach them how to "think" on their own.

Blade Runner[edit]

Blade Runner[30] was released in 1982 and was directed by Ridley Scott. Blade Runner is based on the novel Do Androids Dream of Elektric Sheep? by Philip K. Dick, The screenplay is written by Hampton Fancher and David Peoples. Blade Runner is set in an dystopian future in which genetically engineered organic robots called replicants exist. This replicants are banned from earth and only have a four-year lifespan. Because of this short life-span a group of replicants come back to earth to gain a longer life-span.

The Matrix[edit]

The Matrix [31] is a movie by The Wachowskis, in which humanity is ensalved by robots. The robots were build by themselves and turned against them, what led into a war. After Humanity darkened the sky the robots used people as energy source, as our body "procudes more energy than a 120V battery". To prevent humanity from rioting a virtual world based on the 21st Centruy was created where all humans except a few live in. These few dial into this world to gather allies against the machines.

The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy[edit]

Marvin, or Marvin the Paranoid Android, suffers from boredom and depression by GPP (Genuine People Personalities), because he is too human and he has a "brain the size of a planet“. Marvin claims he is 50,000 times more intelligent than a human, (or 30 billion times more intelligent than a live mattress) though this is, if anything, a vast underestimation.

Star Wars[edit]

C-3PO: C-3PO is a robot character from the Star Wars universe and was played by Anthony Daniels. C-3PO is a protocol droid designed to serve human beings. He can also communicate fluently in over six million forms. The main functions of C-3PO are to assist etiquette, customs , and translation so different cultures meetings can run smoothly. C-3PO was assembled by the young Anakin Skywalker from individual parts and his colors are gold with silver.

Transformers[edit]

Transformers, released in 2007, is a trilogy film, based on the transformers toy line, about how the Autobots helped the mankind saving the world. Cybertron, the home world of the Autobots and Decepticons, has been destroyed due a war between the two fractions. After loosing their planet, they searched for a new one. The Decepticons try to conquer the earth and kill the mankind. On earth they can overtake machines and control them to fight. In all of the three parts, Autobots and men fight side by side against the Decepticons.

Bumblebee

Bumblebee appears as one of the main Autobot characters in the Transformers film series. Bumblebee is voiced by Mark Ryan in the films, but he mostly speaks with his radio, having had his voice processor damaged (though his actual voice squeaks and whines laboriously through much of the movie). He also speaks with quotes from television shows and movies, in a way similar to Wreck-Gar from the 1986 film and season three of the G1 cartoon series. Screenwriter Roberto Orci explained Bumblebee regained his voice through the regenerative laser Ratchet fires at his neck as they meet, and it eventually works its magic by the end of the film. He agreed this was not made clear. Frenzy is regenerated upon coming into contact with the All Spark, and so it is entirely plausible that Bumblebee's voice, along with his legs, is also healed by the All Spark, though no mention of this is made in the film. It was said that making Bumblebee mute was to show that his bond with Sam went beyond words. The original car who is used is a worn-out 1969 Camaro, producers settled on a 1977 model which is painted yellow with black stripes, primer and rust patches, riveted hood scoop, Cragar SS wheels up front, Eric Vaughn Real Wheels in the back, marine-grade vinyl seats, and even an eight-track player. The 1977 Camaro movie vehicle was sold on eBay with a winning bit of U.S. $40,100.01. If Bumblebee change his appearance he transform his right arm into a plasma cannon and has missile launchers in his shoulders.

2001:A Space Odyssey[edit]

Beginning with the development of apes using weapons like sticks instead of their bare hands to the landing on the moon and further space exhibitions, the viewer is taken on a journey through the evolution of mankind. Close to the end, there is an epic battle, between the artificial intelligence HAÖ and the protagonist Dave where Dave is trying to shut HAL down.

HAL: This mission is too important for me to allow you to jeopardize it.

Dave Bowman: I don't know what you're talking about, HAL.

HAL: I know that you and Frank were planning to disconnect me, and I'm afraid that's something I cannot allow to happen.

Dave Bowman: [feigning ignorance] Where the hell did you get that idea, HAL?

A.I. Artificial Intelligence[edit]

A.I. Artificial Intelligence is a 2001 American science fiction film written, directed and produced by Steven Spielberg. In the middle of the 22nd century, global warming has flooded coastlines. Because of dwindling fossil resources was the count of children restricted and introduced licences for births. The technology has become so advanced that the mankind is in a position to produce robots with fully conscious (called Mechas). A prototype of a new series, from the company cybertronics, is David, a robot in the shape of an eleven year old boy. This robot is constructed to feel and to love like humans. The Management of the company decided to give David to an employee named Henry Swinton. His own son is in a coma, with low chances of survival. With David hopes Henry to help his wife Monica to forget their own son. After a probationary period Monica decided to keep David. After some happy time with David, Monica’s and Henrys son Mathew awakes out of his coma and came home. At the first time the family tried to life with both sons, but after David get Mathew in danger of death the parents decided to suspend David in the forest. Alone in the forest David wishes that his mother will love him again and he could stay again with her. He remembers how she read him a story about a wooden boy named Pinocchio and how he gets to a real boy by magic from a blue fairy. So David decided to find the blue fairy and to ask her to make out of him a real boy.

Others[edit]

TV series[edit]

Star Trek[edit]

In Gene Roddenberry’s the science fiction series Star Trek are also several robotic characters: • Data: Data appears in Star Trek: The next generation and in several Star Trek films (Star Trek Generations, First Contact, Insurrection and Nemesis).

The figure of Data was played by Brent Spiner he’s the second commanding officer on the USS Enterprise and he was created by Dr. Noonien Soong. The life goal of his builder was to create an android with a positron brain. After dozens of failed attempts he created Data’s evil twin brother Lore because his emotion chip had dysfunction. So that Soong must deactivate him to be sure that Lore will not harm any human. After his deactivation Soong started to create Data who’s identical to Lore but not able to feel emotions. But before Data had been put into operation Soong must escape from an attack on his home-colony and leaves Data alone. After the attack the Starfleet found Data and Data thinks that it’s logic to emulate his savior and went to the Starfleet-Academy.

His positron brain is able to process more or less 60 trillion calculations per second and his memory capacity covered 0,1 Exabyte (= 100.000 Terabytes). In the aftermath of his graduation Data started his service on Enterprise in the course of seasons we can see that Data’s biggest wish is to be human and to feel emotions. For example he’s often trying to imitate the emotions of his colleagues when someone cracks a joke. Even when he can’t feel emotions Data is able to dream and he could grow superficially older. In the movie Star Trek Generations Data gets the by Lore stolen new developed emotion chip. When he field the emotion chip into his brain he understand immediately every joke and his brain overheats so that the chip is permanently fixed. In Star Trek Nemesis Data get promoted to the first commanding officer but he could never take up the post because he sacrifices himself to save Jean-Luc Picard and dies.

• Seven of Nine: Seven of nine is a crew member of the USS Voyager and is played by Jeri Ryan. She was saved by the Voyager and is half part human and half part Borg. Sevens' real name is Annika Hansen and she was kidnapped as child from the Borg. Her parents had developed a camouflage against the Borg. After an Ion Storm their ship and the camouflage had a disfunction and they crashed down onto the surface of a planet and Annika get assimilated by the Borg.

• Emergency Medical Hologram Mark I (Voyager) He is an Emergency Medical Hologram of a Doctor called Mark I and he is a fictional character of the series "Star Trek Voyager". This character is played by the actor Robert Picardo.

Almost Human[edit]

The main characters in the show are a human police officer, John Kennex, and his partner a lifelike combat-model android named Dorian. It started in November 2013. In 2048 crime rates have risen tremendously because of the evolution of science and technology. In order to counter this each human police officer is paired up with an android. The show starts off with the killing of Kennex former human partner. He was wounded in a gun fight and a police android would not help him because the chance of successfully saving the police officer were too low. Most humans consider the lifelike androids as tools and call them "synthetics". Dorian, who is designed to be as close to human as possible does not like that term because he considers himself to be more than a tool. Episodes cover a range of science topics like cloning or the use and creation of robots. How close to humans should our robots be? How close do we need them and want them to be?


The Bionic Woman[edit]

An American television series starring Lindsay Wagner, between 1976 and 1978, with three seasons. And a spin of called "The Six Million Dollar Man". "Jaime Sommers" - played by Wagner - a tennis pro who nearly dies by a skydiving accident. Sommers' life is saved by "Oscar Goldman" and "Dr. Rudy Wells" by "bionic implants, with the result that she has amplified hearing in her right ear, a greatly strengthened right arm, and stronger and enhanced legs wich enable her to run at speeds exceeding 60 miles per hour.

Doctor Who[edit]

In the BBC-produced science-fiction series about an alien time-traveler called "The Doctor", two robotic alien-species occur frequently.

The formerly human Cybermen are a race of cyborgs originating on a twin-planet of earth and developed by an increased use of cyber-implants in their bodies, surpressing all emotions and only depending on cold logic. They are set to convert or "upgrade" every living beeing into a Cyberman. Cyberman can be seen as an allegoric warning against uncontrolled and unemotional progress.

The second robotic species are the Daleks. Created to hate and fight the Daleks do have a biologic body, but live in a robotic, tanklike armor since birth making them something close to a cyborg. In contrast to the Cybermen, Daleks feel, though are made to hate and destroy everything non-Dalek and can be seen as a symbol for anger, hate and destruction

The Contests[edit]

DARPA Robotics Challenge (DRC)[edit]

Seventeen teams from around the world will be participating in the DARPA Robotics Challenge (DRC)[32] Trials. Competing in the 2014 Finals will lead to one team winning a $2 million prize.

The DRC is a competition of robot systems to develop robots capable of assisting humans in responding to natural and man-made disasters. It was designed to be extremely difficult. Participating teams are collaborating and innovating on a very short timeline to develop the hardware, software, sensors, and human-machine control interfaces. The DARPA Robotics Challenge aims to develop a robot that can work with humans in disaster-stricken places, combining the strengths of both humans and machines to maximise the efficiency and effectiveness of rescue campaigns.

The eight Task for 2013 DRC are:

  1. Drive utility vehicle
  2. Travel dismounted through various Terrains
  3. Remove debris blocking entryway
  4. Open doors, enter building
  5. Climb ship’s ladder/stairs
  6. Break through wall
  7. Locate and close valve
  8. Connect firehose

RoboCup[edit]

RoboCup is an international robotics competition which was founded in 1997. There are four major competitions: RoboCup Soccer, RoboCup Rescue, RoboCup Home and RoboCup Junior. Each of them is divided into a number of leagues and subleagues.

RoboCup Soccer

RoboCup Soccer is the main focus of RoboCup competitions. All robots in this competition are fully autonomous and compete with eachother by playing soccer. It all started with the dream of beating the reigning human world champions by the year of 2050 with a team of robots. The competition is divided into 6 different leagues

2D Simulation League

Teams participating in this league completely focus on artificial intelligence and team strategy as there is no robot hardware to maintain. Two teams of eleven simulated autonomous software programs play soccer in a 2-dimensional virtual soccer stadium on a server. The challenge of the Simulation League is to determine the best possible action to execute from all possible states.

3D Simulation League

This league is basically the same as the 2D Simulation League just that it increases the realism by adding an extra dimension and due to that there are more complex physics. A match is played by two teams of nine players and consists of two halves of five minutes each.

Standard Platform League

Teams participating in this league use standardized robot platforms which means that all teams compete with identical robots who only differ in software. The robots are fully autonomous meaning that they are not being controlled by humans. They can communicate with their teammates and receive the decissions of a referee via wireless connection. A match is played by two teams of five robots on a 9m x 6m field and consists of two 10 minute halves.

Small Size League

To participate in this league a robot must fit within an 180mm diameter circle and must be no higher than 15cm. A match is played by two teams of six robots. They use an orange ball on a green carpeted field which is 6.05m long and 4.05m wide. Off field computers are used as a communication tool for the robots. The challenge of this league is to face the problem of intelligent multi-robot cooperation.

Middle Size League

Robots playing in this league have a height of approximately 80cm. A match is played by two teams of five autonomous robots on a 18m x 12m indoor field. Inter-team cooperation between the robots can be established through wireless communication.

Humanoid League

In this league robots have a human-like body and human-like senses. It is divided into three subleagues defining the size of the robots. In the Kidsize-League a robot must have a height from 60cm to 80cm and a team consists of three robots. In the Teensize-League teams consists of two robots each 90cm-120cm tall. In the Adultsize-League a striker robot plays against a goalkeeper robot and then they exchange their roles. They must be atleast 130cm tall.

FIRST LEGO League

The FIRST Lego League (FFL) is a competition for pupils world wide in the age of 10 to 16 years (US and Canada 9 to 14). The aim of this competition is to create a robot, which can solve the tasks that it’s given. The robot is based on the LEGO Mindstrom and only LEGO units are allowed to use. The tasks have to be solved in 150 seconds inside the game field (240 cm x 115 cm). The robot has to be built and programmed within 7 to 10 weeks and should solve the known tasks and problems. These tasks have a different theme every year (2013 - Natures Fury). During the competition the robot can only be moved by the player inside the home base, when the robot has left the home base the players aren’t allowed to touch the robot and the robot has to handle all problems and has to move to the next problem on on itself. All teams get points when the robot solve the problems and points are taken when the problems aren’t solved or when the robot return to to home base after the time of 150 seconds.

International Autonomous Robot Racing Challenge (IARRC)[edit]

This is a contest only for students. It is a race between small scale robots without human control. The robots have to follow the traffic rules to come to their target. The goal of this race is to promote the research.

Robofest[edit]

In the beginning of 2000, Lawrence Technological University has robotics competition every year. The robotics competition is called Robofest, and it is for students who are in grade 5 to 12. The things they do are to design, build, and program robots. For some grades like juniors and seniors, their competition types include games, exhibitions, pentathlon, sumo, and fashion show.

Companies involved in development[edit]

Boston Dynamics[edit]

Successfully developing robots with the help of DARPA. High chance that these inventions will be used for military services.

Projects:

Harvard Biorobotics Laboratory[edit]

  • Focus on sensing and mechanical design in motor control.
  • Medical Surgery
  • Rehabilitation Robotics

Stanford Artificial Inteligence Laboratory (SAIL)[edit]

  • Knowledge Representation
  • Computer Vision
  • Machine Learning
  • Computational Linguistics
  • Computational Logic

References[edit]

  1. "How will nanobots change medicine?" Ted video about how nanobots will change medicine from Ido Bachelet from the bio-design lab at Bar Ilan University. Retrieved December 14, 2013
  2. "Nanobots" English Wikipedia article about Nanobots. Retrieved December 14, 2013
  3. "Types of Robots" Retrieved December 14, 2013
  4. "Humanoid Robot Atlas". December 16, 2013
  5. http://www.research.a-star.edu.sg/research/6498 , December 18th
  6. "TUM Leonardo da Vinci-Zetrum für Bionik". Retrieved December 12, 2013
  7. "Project "Wildcat": Vierbeiniger Roboter sprintet über Parkplatz - SPIEGEL ONLINE". Retrieved December 12, 2013
  8. https://www.humanbrainproject.eu/
  9. http://www.romela.org/main/HyDRAS:_Hyper-redundant_Discrete_Robotic_Articulated_Serpentine
  10. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nao_(robot)
  11. "Articulated robot". Retrieved December 17, 2013
  12. "Wikipedia: Open-source robotics". Retrieved December 16, 2013
  13. "=== SLAM - Simultaneous localisation and mapping ===" Retrieved December 16, 2013
  14. http://www.ai.mit.edu/projects/humanoid-robotics-group/kismet/kismet.html
  15. http://www.geminoid.jp
  16. re:publica 2013 - Kate Darling: Robot Ethics
  17. The Washington Post - Bots on The Ground
  18. Is it OK to torture or murder a robot?
  19. Harming and Protecting Robots
  20. "Scientists Worry Machines May Outsmart Man", NY Times, retrieved December 16, 2012
  21. "Call for debate on killer robots", BBC News, Retrieved December 16, 2013
  22. Bostrom, Nick; Yudkowsky, Eliezer (2011). "The Ethics of Artificial Intelligence". Retrieved December 16, 2013.
  23. Santos-Lang, Christopher. "Moral Ecology Approaches". Retrieved December 16, 2013
  24. "Laws of robotics". Retrieved December 15, 2013
  25. "I, Robot". Retrieved December 15, 2013
  26. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crysis_%28series%29#Main_series
  27. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal_%28video_game%29
  28. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/I,_Robot_(film)
  29. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Real_Steel
  30. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blade_Runner
  31. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Matrix
  32. http://www.darpa.mil/Our_Work/TTO/Programs/DARPA_Robotics_Challenge.aspx